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In the Introduction ^nd Notes contained in this 
volume will be fQ^nd the substance of some lectures 
on the Faust of Gothe, given at Newnham College, 
Cambridge. My aim in the Introduction has been 
to suggest what I believe to be the true meaning 
of the whole Faust Poem, and in the Notes to explain 
allusions, phrases, or constructions, which I have 
found to present difficulties to my own pupils. 

My book can lay no claim to being a comjrtete 
study of Faust ; but my hope is that it may lead 
readers on towards a complete study — including at 
the same time its spiritual meaning and external 

My best thanks are due to the friends who 
have helped me and been interested in my work — 
above all to Professor Dowden and the Editor of 
the Series. 


Newnham College, Cambridge, 
October 1885. 



In writing the lives of the greatest men whom the world 
has known, we are in some cases as much embarrassed 
by the wealth of material as in other cases by the 
poverty of material at our disposal. If we think of our 
own greatest poet, Shakspere, — Shakspere, whose name is 
rather sacred to us than famous, — it is the author of 
Hamlet and the Tempest we know and remember, not 
the man who was born in Stratford-on-Avon in April 
1564, and who died in Stratford in April 1616 ; indeed, 
so little is known of this William Shakspere, that there 
are people, even in our time, who believe that the great 
plays and noble poetry which bear his name were not 
written by him at all. 

Very different is it in the case of the greatest German 
poet. We know everything about him from the begin- 
ning to the end. We have volumes of autobiography, 
biography, letters, reminiscences, and correspondence. 
We know so much about him that we almost lose sight 
of the man himself, — we cannot see the wood for the 
trees. And hence, because there is so much to tell, the 
account that I shall now write of his life must seem, and 
must be, a very meagre and incomplete account, and 
must leave out many, I had almost said all facts and 
incidents that do not bear upon or lead up to the pro- 
duction of one single work — Faust, 


Johann Wolfgang von Gothe was bom in Frankfurt- 
am-Main. No town in Germany is more interesting, 
none more full of memories, than Frankfurt. Here is 
the hall in which emperors were crowned, the site of 
the castle which Charlemagne and his followers once 
occupied, the old Rathhaus where grave and reverend 
councillors held counsel for the welfare of their town. 
Here are the river, the bridge, the city walls, looking 
pretty much as they looked some one hundred and fifty 
years ago. Here, alongside of wide new streets and 
handsome modem buildings, are the old narrow pictur- 
esque Gassefiy and the quaint houses with their high 
steep roofs and gables rising tier above tier. And here, 
between noon and one o'clock, on the 28th of August 
1749, Johann Wolfgang von Gothe was born. 

Gothe used to say that, while his mother had given 
him her joyous temperament, her serenity of soul, and 
her poetic faculty, he owed his strong frame of body, his 
earnestness of purpose, and his sense of duty, to his 
father. His father, Johann Caspar Gothe, held the 
office of Imperial Councillor in Frankfurt. He was a 
man of wealth and position, of studious habits and 
reserved nature — upright, straightforward, and business- 
like, — a man more likely to be respected than loved. 
Gothe's mother, Catherine Elizabeth Textor, the eldest 
daughter of the chief magistrate of Frankfurt, was twenty- 
one years younger than her husband, and only eighteen 
years older than her son. * I and my Wolfgang,' she 
used to say, * have always held closely together ; that is 
because we were both young, and not so wide apart 
from one another as Wolfgang and his father.' All 
writers ag^ee in saying that Gothe's mother was most 
loveable and charming, — that she was joyous, calm, 
vivacious, sympathetic — all in one. * I love humankind,' 
she used to say; < and old and young feel it. I go with- 
out pretension through the world, and that pleases all the 
sons and daughters of men. I demoralise no one, try^ 


always to find out the good side, leaving the bad to 
Him who made men.' 

Next to his mother, Gothe, as a child, loved his little 
sister Cornelia ; he brought her all she wanted, wished 
no one else but himself to feed and nurse her, and was 
jealous when she was taken out of the cradle in which 
he watched over her. 

One more of his near relations, whose influence he 
felt in childhood, should be mentioned. His father's 
mother lived under the same roof with him, and occupied 
a large room, to which the children were wont to resort 
at play-hours. ' She possessed the art of amusing us,' 
writes Gothe, * with all sorts of trifles. One Christmas 
Eve she crowned all her benefits by treating us to a 
puppet show, and thus creating a new world in the old 
house. This unexpected spectacle powerfully attracted 
the younger spirits ; on me in particular it made a very 
strong impression, which echoed into a great long- 
enduring influence.' 

There must, I think, have been something new and 
strange about Gothe in his childhood. Wherever he 
came or went he produced and left the impression of an 
uncommon, unusual boy. In his games he was always 
leader, at his lessons he was always quicker than other 
children, and from the first all who knew him foresaw 
and foretold his future greatness. 

He was not only a marvellous child, but he enjoyed 
no common advantages from his birth. The people he 
lived with — his father, his father's mother, his mother, 
his little sister — were uncommon people. His mother 
used to invent fairy tales for him ; a French officer, 
Count Thorane, quartered in his parents' house during 
the French occupation of Frankfurt, used to teach him 
French ; his father sought out the best teachers in 
Frankfurt for him ; and when only eight years old he 
was able to write (not of course very correctly) in the 
German, French, Italian, Greek, and Latin languages. 


His beauty, his talents, his happy, loveable nature, pro- 
cured him an indulgent freedom rarely granted to 
children, and gave him from his earliest years that self- 
reliance and independence which were characteristic of 
him through life. May we not see in the circumstances 
of Gothe's childhood and youth the explanation of that 
somewhat unsympathetic tranquillity which has been 
made a reproach to him, and which is, indeed, one of 
the distinct characteristics of his genius ? It has been 
said that the author of Faust and Wilhelm Meister does 
not appear from his childhood to have felt any but intel- 
lectual emotions. It is a hard saying : I do not wholly 
admit its truth. Still, so much is undoubtedly true that, 
more perhaps than any other great man, Gothe lived by 
and through his intellect. The games of his childhood, 
the passions of his youth, were for him only a series of 
experiences destined to enrich his mind. To see, to 
reflect upon, and to know nature, men, the past, the 
present ; to assimilate all things to himself, or at least 
to put himself in harmony with this great whole, which 
we call the world ; and to seek in this harmony happi- 
ness, wisdom, the inspiration of the artist, and the 
dream of the poet — such were the aims of Gothe 
throughout his long life. 

The two events which made most impression upon 
him as a child were the earthquake in Lisbon (1755) 
and the Seven Years' War (17 56-1 763). The first, it 
is said, shook his faith in the mercy and justice of God. 
* Never perhaps ' (as he somewhere writes), * had the 
demon of terror diffused his shadow so quickly and so 
powerfully over the earth.' The second made him doubt 
the goodness and justice of men.^ 

When the French came and occupied Frankfurt in 
January 1759, they set up a French theatre in the town, 
for which his grandfether, the chief magistrate Textor, 

1 And yet, dazzled by the great qualities of Frederick, during the 
war the boy sided with him against Maria Theresa. 


gave Gothe a free admission ticket. Of this he daily 
availed himself, much to the discontent of his father, 
although with the consent and approval of his mother. 
At first he understood little or nothing of what he heard 
— he was only ten years old, — but by degrees he came 
to understand and enjoy both tragedy and comedy ; and 
then arose in him the wish to look behind the scenes, 
and to see how the representations which delighted him 
were got up. Fortune favoured him by throwing in his 
way, as he loitered about the theatre, awaiting the 
opening of the door, a lad of his own age belonging to 
the company. The two boys made friends together, 
and Gothe was taken behind the scenes, on to the stage, 
and into the green room. Thus early began his theatrical 

G6the had written some little poems before this time, 
but he now for the first time wrote theatrical pieces, 
half allegorical, half mythological. Mercury was his 
favourite character. * Mercury in particular,* he says, 
* was then so vividly in my mind that I should be ready 
to swear still that I had seen him bodily.' 

The earnestness with which Gothe threw himself into 
whatever he undertook, and the facility with which he 
mastered any subject he worked at, led specialists in 
various lines of thought or research each to regard him as 
a pupil or follower, and to plan out his future for him. 
One would have had him a man of science ; a second 
an artist ; a third a physician ; a fourth a theologian ; a 
fifth a diplomatist ; a sixth a lawyer. His father, how- 
ever, was bent on his adopting law as his profession, and 
thus qualifying himself to hold some high civil office 
in his native town. Accordingly, in 1765, at the age 
of sixteen, Gothe was sent to the University of Leipzig 
to study jurisprudence. 

Some eighteen months before leaving home for Leipzig 
Gothe had made the acquaintance of a girl, whose 
character he has described in the Margaret of Famt, 


She was a girl in a lowly walk of life, whom he had met 
by chance at a supper party in Frankfurt. He loved 
her, or fancied he loved her, deeply. From the little we 
know of Gretchen she seems to have been a grave, 
gentle, loveable girl. Gothe speaks in Dichtung und 
Wahrheit of her calm, true eyes and beautiful mouth. 
She was, however, several years older than he was. 
Circumstances separated them — in part the angry inter- 
ference of his father, in part the discovery that, though 
Gretchen cared for him, she looked on him as a child, 
and loved only as an elder sister loves. This parting 
was the first great grief of Gothe's life. 

In 1765, as I have said, Gothe went to college to 
study jurisprudence ; but he soon wearied of this study, 
as well as of the study of logic and rhetoric, and the 
opinions which he formed of the courses of study pursued 
at a German University in his day are pretty nearly those 
which he has put into the mouth of Mephistopheles in 
the fourth Scene of Faust ^ Part I. What time he did 
give to work was devoted to literature, but much of his 
day was given to society, and a second time he fell in 
love. The most important circumstance, however, 
which we have to note about this Leipzig time, is that 
he completely reformed his own taste and judgment in 
art, literature, and poetry. This change was in a 
measure the result of his intercourse with Mme. Boehme, 
the wife of a Leipzig professor, a refined and cultivated 
woman ; but it was due still more to the lessons of 
the painter Oeser. This master, the teacher of 
Winckelmann, caring more for what was significant 
than what was beautiful, a sworn foe to ornament as 
sucji, used to try not to make painters of his pupils, 
but to cultivate eye, intelligence, and taste, to a capacity 
for enjoying and understanding works of art. *What 
is there that I do not owe to you !' writes Gothe later 
on ; ' any feeling I have for the beautiful, any know- 
ledge, any judgment, all I have through you ! ' — (See 


The Life of Gothey by H. Duntzer, translated by T. W. 
Lyster, vol. i. book ii. ch. i. p. 86, ed. 18S3.) Gothe 
now conceived so great a contempt for his early work, 
that one day he burnt up everything — poetry, prose, 
plans, sketches, and projects, all together on the kitchen 
hearth, and threw his old landlady into no small fright 
and anxiety by the smoke which filled the house. 

In 1 767 Lessing published his Laocoon^ and this book 
had no inconsiderable influence on the development of 
Gothe's mind and taste. 'One must be young,' he 
exclaims, 'to realise what an impression it produced 
upon us, by transporting us from the region of narrow 
perception into the free fields of thought.' About this 
time, and while still at Leipzig, he wrote the earliest 
surviving of his dramatic works, Die Laune des Verliebten 
(The Lover^s Caprice)^ and Die Mitschuldigen (The 

In 1768, in the month of August, Gothe left Leipzig. 
He was in bad health at the time, and instead of going 
on at once to another university (as the custom in 
Germany is) to finish his college course and take his 
degree, he went home to Frankfurt. He was received 
in his home with great kindness, — even his father was 
in his gentlest mood, and did his very best to hide 
the disappointment which he felt at seeing that all his 
plans of study for his son had fallen to the ground. 
The boy had left his home three years before in bloom- 
ing health, his mind full of sun -bright dreams: he 
returned disappointed, disenchanted, wasted, pale, — his 
life half despaired of. DUntzer attributes his sickness of 
heart and head to a curious chain of circumstances : the 
unwholesome vapours breathed when etching on steel ; 
coffee drunk with milk after dinner ; heavy Merseburg 
beer ; a cold caught when bathing ; restless excitement ; 
irregular living. True it is, indeed, that in Leipzig 
Gothe made acquaintance with some of the baser facts of 
life, and that his own conduct was not free from blame. 


He used to spend much of his time during the next 
year in the society of Fraulein von Klettenberg, whose 
letters and conversation were the origin of the Confessions 
of a Beautiful Soul^ which he afterwards incorporated in 
Wilhelm Meister, He occupied himself, too, with books 
on mysticism — Van Helmont, Paracelsus, and others — 
chiefly because this was a subject that interested Fraulein 
von Klettenberg. Some of the results of these studies 
we see in the early Scenes of Faust. 

In April 1770 Gothe went to Strasburg to pursue his 
university studies. The town of Strasburg may well 
feel proud of the influence it exercised upon his genius. 
What happy and inspiring days were those he spent 
there ! The cathedral, the old town, the rich plain of 
Alsace, the Rhine, which traverses it from one horizon to 
the other, the Vosges Mountains, the Black Forest — all 
enchanted him. And he had friends here too — Herder, 
Lenz, Wagner, Jung Stilling, and Lerse (whose character 
he has described in Gotz von Berlichingen). They started 
among themselves a sort of literary and artistic club, 
chiefly, it would seem, for the purpose of studying English 
literature. Shakspere, Ossian, Fielding, Richardson, 
Sterne, Goldsmith, they read with enthusiasm. Herder 
was the leader in those happy meetings. Herder 
is, indeed, Gothe's master. The part which he played 
towards the young poet was at once stern and kind. 
Older than Gothe by five years. Herder carried on his 
education, and helped him to shake off the shackles 
of pedantry and conventionalism. Herder revealed to 
him the philosophy of history, and showed how the 
great works of poetry and of art are intimately united with 
the social destinies of men, and represent the life of 
nations. Long after, and when at the summit of his 
fame, Gothe still remembered with pleasure those happy 
days at Strasburg, and wrote in his Memoirs : * I did 
not pass a single hour with Herder which was not 
instructive and productive for me*' But Gothe stood in 


awe of Herder while he learned from him. * I most 
carefully concealed from him,* he writes, * my interest in 
certain subjects which had rooted themselves within me, 
and were by little and little moulding themselves into 
fornu These were Gotz von Berlichingan and Faust, 
. . . The significant Puppet Show fable of Faust 
resounded and vibrated many-toned within me. I, too, '/ 
had wandered about in all sorts of science, and had / 
early been led to see its vanity. I had, moreover, tried all \ 
m) sorts of ways in real life, and had always returned more 
unsatisfied and troubled. Now these things, as well as 
many others, I carried about with me, and delighted 
myself with them during my solitary hours, but without / 
writing anything down.' 

At Strasburg, again, we find Gothe in love, this time 
with the daughter of the Pfarrer at Sessenheim — Frede- 
rike. In his affection for women Gothe was constant — 
but * constant to a constant change.' He loved Frederike 
perhaps more earnestly than he had ever loved before ; 
but he left her, and in time forgot her, as he had for- 
gotten Gretchen in Frankfurt and Aennchen in Leipzig. 

Gothe completed his legal studies in Strasburg, and 
was admitted an advocate in August 1771. He then 
returned to Frankfurt, but in the spring of 1772 he left 
home again, and, at the urgent wish of his father, went 
for a time to the small dull town of Wetzlar. Here it 
was that Councillor Gothe himself had attended the 
sittings of the Reichskammergericht before he had begun 
to practise as an advocate, and hence he maintained 
that Wetzlar was the fittest place in the world to gain a 
more exact knowledge of law procedure. 

In the garden of the village inn of Garbenheim, about 
a mile and a half from Wetzlar, Gothe became acquainted 
with Johann Christian Kestner of Hannover. Kestner 
wrote a description of him, as he appeared to his friends 
at this time, from which I borrow a few extracts : 
*. . . He is a true genius, and a man of character, 



possesses an extraordinarily vivid imagination, and speaks 
mostly in images and similes. . . . He is passionate in all 
his emotions ; exercises, however, often great control over 
himself. His way of thinking is noble ; being very free 
from prejudices, he acts as is pleasing to him, without 
inquiring whether he pleases others, whether it is the 
fashion, whether convention allows it. . . . He loves 
children, and never wearies of their company. . . . 
Women he holds in high reverence. In principiis he is 
not yet established, — is as yet but striving after a 

Kestner was at the time engaged to be married to 
Charlotte Buff, a cheery, pleasant, true-hearted girl, who, 
when their mother, the pattern of a good housewife, died, 
became a second mother to her eleven brothers and 
sisters. Gothe met Lotte Buff in Wetzlar, and was at 
once attracted by her freshness and naturalness. When 
he watched her in the midst of the numerous flock of her 
brothers and sisters, ordering and disposing everything, 
housewifely, gentle, pure, and tranquil, this feeling of 
attraction deepened into love. May not the Scene, so 
familiar to us all, where Werther first sees Lotte, be, 
like so much else in the book, a transfer from 
reality ? 

Gothe's peace of mind suffered greatly at this time : 
the struggle was a hard one between love and renuncia- 
tion. Still, he was true to his friend, true to the girl he 
loved, true to his better self, and he tore himself away 
from Lotte. But his soul had been stirred to the 
depths by the simple * ingenue Giite ' of Lotte, in whom 
he could mirror his own personality, and who was 
never to be his. 

Kestner and Lotte were married on the 4th of April 
1773, 3.nd the first few weeks that followed Gothe spent 
in idling, dreaming, and regretting. He soon roused 
himself, however, for work and endeavour, and two 
months later he sent to the happy married people 


in Hannover the first completed copy of Gets von 

* Gotz von Berlichingen^ writes Mr. Hutton, * is the 
only great production of Gothe's in which a really noble, 
self-forgetfiil man stands out in the foreground to give us 
a moral standard by which to measure the meaner 
characters. It is the only great production in which 
awful shadows of remorse haunt the selfish and the guilty.' 

Gothe's next work was Werther (Leiden des jungen 
Werthers), Werther is a book that has been much 
praised and much blamed — unjustly blamed, I think. 
Carlyle says, in speaking of it : * That nameless unrest, 
the blind struggle of a heart in bondage, that high, sad, 
longing discontent, which was agitating every bosom — 
had driven Gothe to despair.' Werther is, indeed, only 
one outcome of the Sturm und Drang Period, — only the 
cry of that dim, deep-rooted pain from which all men of 
a certain age were then suffering. 

To these years — from 1770 to 1775 — belong the 
dramas Claruigo and Stella^ the Fragment on the Wan- 
dering Jew ^ the early Scenes of Faust, the verses on 
Prometheus y and some of his most beautiful songs. His 
lyrics and songs are perhaps the most interesting of his 
creations at this time ; it is a soul that sings, — a soul 
that has lived and suffered, but in which all pain is 
calmed and at peace. Innocence, The Calm of the Sea, 
The Sentiment of Autumn, The Evening Song of the 
Traveller, The King of Thule, — all are poems in which 
the simplicity of German legend is joined to the per- 
fection of art. 

It was in the spring of 1775 that Gothe met * Lili,' 
speaking of whom in after years he said to Eckermann 
that she was the first woman whom he had deeply and 
truly loved, and that all the affection which moved him 
in after years was light in comparison with what he had 
felt for her. 

Anna Elisabeth Schonemann (or Lili, as Gothe calls 


her) was the daughter of a rich banker in Frankfurt, and 
only sixteen years old. Neither her family nor his 
would have approved of their marriage. Her family 
would have regarded it as a mdsalliancey and his ^mily 
would have dreaded a connection with a fine lady and a 
spoilt beauty, such as Lili seems to have been. They 
were engaged for a time ; but Gothe left her, hesitated, 
reflected, — and after reflection gave her up. 

With the year 1775 the first period of Gothe's life — 
his youthful period — comes to a close. 

It was just at this time, in the autumn of 1775, that 
Karl August, the young Duke of Saxe- Weimar, invited 
G6the to visit him in Weimar, and thither he came in 
November 1775. A few months later he was made 
Privy Legation Councillor to the Duke, with a salary of 
1200 thalers (something like ;£i8o) a year, and at the 
same time he was given a garden house for his tem- 
porary residence. The post of Privy Legation Councillor 
was an office with no particular duties, and was obviously 
given to Gothe in order to keep him at Weimar near 
the person of the Duke. 

The friendship of Gothe and Frau von Stein dates 
from this time. She was seven years older than Gfithe, 
the wife of Freiherr Von Stein, the Master of the Horse 
to the Duke. She was a refined, graceful, highly-culti- 
vated woman, with a face that Gothe used to say haunted 
him after he had seen her likeness, and long before he 
had met her. His relation to her he has described as 
* the purest, fairest, truest, in which he ever stood to any 
woman, except his sister.' Frau von Stein's influence 
was, indeed, almost the only pure and good influence 
near him during the first years spent in Weimar; for 
here was the most imaginative of German youths, — the 
author of G'dtz^ of Werther, of the King of Thule, — 
thrown at the age of twenty- six into the midst of all 
the luxuries and frivolities, and temptations, of a petty 
German Court. 


The first months at Weimar were spent in a wild 
round of pleasure. Being the Duke's guest, Gothe found 
it hard to refuse to join in the boisterous doings to which 
he was invited, and in which the Duke was leader : in 
the autumn, journeys, rides, shooting -parties ; in the 
winter, balls, masquerades, skating by torchlight, and 
dancing at peasants' feasts. Evil reports flew about 
Germany, — the Court of Weimar had a bad name. 
The friends of Gothe mourned to see him abandon 
himself to noisy and riotous dissipations. — And yet it 
would be a serious error to forget that, after a short 
period of youthful recklessness and revelry, these years at 
Weimar were years of immense toil and of hard service. 
He devoted himself with industry and enthusiasm to the 
public business ; he made himself acquainted with every 
part of the Duke's territory ; he did his best to de- 
velop its resources ; he opened mines ; he helped to 
disseminate education ; he threw himself with vigour 
into the reconstruction of the tiny army. * This immense 
practical activity,' writes Professor Dowden, *in part 
alien to his nature, was balanced by his love for Frau 
von Stein.i Gothe returned to literature and art a full- 
g^own man, instead of the intemperate youth he had 
been, and the fruits of his years of toil are seen, united 
with a purer idealism, in all his later writings ' (in a 
letter written 28th September 1885). 

A combination of causes led up to G6the's Italian 
journey (September 1786-June 1788), the most moment- 

^ Charlotte von Stein died in the year 1827, at the age of 85., 
Gothe's and Charlotte's friendship was a lifelong, but not an un- 
broken friendship. Between the years 1788 and 1805 they were 
estranged from one another and seldom met ; but during the later 
years of her life they were friends once more. When dying, she 
left directions that her funeral procession should go by back streets, 
and not pass Gothe's hou^e, lest seeing it should add to his grief. 
The civil authorities, however, overruled her wish, and the pro- 
cession moved along the familar street. Gothe's grief was silent, 
but not the less real. 


ous period in the history of his intellectual life. His 
desire to complete certain great poetical works which 
he had already thought upon and begun, to disentangle 
his life from the complexities which had entwined them- 
selves around it, to give free course to his impulses 
towards art, above all, a longing to possess his soul in 
peace — contributed together to drive him from Weimar 
to the land which he had yearned for from childhood. 

The larger number of the great works which the 
following period offers to us were composed at Venice, 
at Florence, at Rome, at Naples, and at Palermo. At 
Florence, in the shades of the Cascine^ and at Sorrento, 
he wrote some of the happiest scenes of Torquato Tasso^ 
— at Rome he completed his Iphigenie?- A whole pro- 
cession of poetic figures filled his imagination. Faust, 
Egmont, Wilhelm Meister accompanied him amrd the 
enchantments of Naples and Sicily. It appears to have 
been a time of pure and perfect enjoyment. When, in 
1788, he left Italy to return to Weimar, it was with a 
feeling of regret so strong that he was positively un- 
happy for months afterwards. 

With Iphigenie auf Tauris opens the second period 
of Gothe's dramatic genius ; it reveals in a striking way 
the poet's second manner. In Italy the sight of the 
antique monuments and of the radiant sky which lights 
them up had awakened in him the sentiment of a new 
beauty. To the inspired restlessness of his early writings 

^ The first Act of Tasso had been written in 1780, and Gothe took 
Jwo Acts with him to Italy. Iphigenie, in its earlier prose form, 
was completed before Gothe went to Italy ; he began to dictate it 
on 14th February 1779, and it was acted in Weimar on 6th April 
1779. So in conception it belongs, as Tasso does, to Weimar and 
Frau von Stein ; Frau von Stein is everywhere in it So, too, in 
Tasso ; Antonio, the man of action, and Tasso, the poet, are the two 
sides of Gothe's life in Weimar, which he feels ought to help each 
other, though they often mar each other. All this shows the 
importance of the Weimar years, which, indeed, led on to the 
ardent longing for a purer idealism in Italy. 


there succeeded an enthusiasm for calm and for majesty 
of form. The passionate writer of Werther^ the impetu- 
ous author of Gotz von Berlichingen, did not fear to 
appear passionless and cold, provided that he realised or 
approached his new ideal of beauty. Did Gothe desire 
to give in Iphigenie a reproduction of ancient poetry ? 
No, certainly not. This was not his aim. Iphigenie is 
a modem work, above all, a German work. One may 
disapprove of this mingling of the religious philosophy of 
Germany with the memories of Athenian tragedy. But, 
accepting this, how can we fail to admire the marvellous 
beauty of the details, and to be deeply moved at witness- 
ing the struggle between truth and falsehood, which is 
made the prominent feature of the whole. 

Egmont followed close upon Iphigenie. As the stream 
meets the river, so the characteristics of Gothe's first and 
second manner ineet in this play. We have the popular 
Scenes full of life and movement, which recall Gotz von 
Berlichingen J and we have the grave lessons, the 
psychological studies, which foretell Faust and Wilhelm 
Metster, Torquato Tasso was published in 1790, the 
same year as the Faust Fragment. We can scarcely 
understand the true character of this work if we do not 
connect it with certain complications of the inner life of 
the writer. Gothe loved these confessions, which were 
for him a means of freeing himself from painful memories 
and cares of mind. Only this time the confession is dis- 
guised with so much art that we are reduced to conjecture. 
Artist and poet as he was, in a society of noblemen and 
courtiers, did he- suffer from the contrast.'* Had he 
suffered simply in thought, by reflection, and, so to speak, 
in an ideal manner ? Or had he, indeed, in reality 
known the painful feelings of his hero .? Is this play, 
then, a picture of his own life, of the struggle between 
the actual and the ideal, the ill assortment of a passionate 
poet with the jealous and artificial environment of a 
court ? 


The Faust Fragment appeared in 1790, the completed 
First Part of Fatist in 1 808 ; the Second Part of Fatist 
was not finished until 1832,1 the year that Gothe died, 
and not published until after his death. As I wish to 
speak of the Faust poem at more length, I shall defer 
all account of it until I have brought to a close this brief 
sketch of Gothe's life. 

Gothe had returned to Weimar in 1788, and in the 
same year he met and fell in love with Christiane Vulpius. 
Christiane was a girl of humble rank, the daughter of a 
good-for-nothing father, who had deserted his wife and 
children, and left them to live and support themselves as 
best they could. She is described for us as a * pretty 
girl, with a full round face, beautiful hair, small nose, 
pouting lips, and little dancing feet* Later on, in 1806, 
Gothe married Christiane. She was a woman of very 
little education, but she loved Gothe, arid she made him 
a good and devoted wife. 

The French Revolution burst upon Europe during the 
closing years of the eighteenth century. It made a deep 
impression upon Gothe's mind, and several of his slighter 
works were the outcome^ of his reflections upon it and 
upon the social condition of Europe at the time. The 
happiest of these, and to my mind one of the most 
delightful of Gothe's works, is his idyllic poem, Hermann 
und Dorothea. Somewhat earlier than this the Roman 
Elegies were written, and a little later Gothe's version of 
the old German poem Reinecke Fuchs, But the most 
important event of these ten years was the growth of 
Gothe's friendship with Schiller. Their friendship began 
in 1 794, and lasted for eleven years — the happiest years 
of Gothe's life. Gothe says of Schiller that * every week 
he became greater than before; each time that I saw 
him he seemed to have gone forward in judgment and 

^ He had hoped to have finished Part II. in August 1831 ; but 
he afterwards broke the seal and kept retouching his manuscript 
until February 1832. 


knowledge.' They both wrote for the Horen and the 
MusencUmanachy two periodicals edited by Schiller; and 
they wrote together the Xemen^ a series of epigrams 
aimed at the popular writers, the pedants, and the 
poetasters of the day. One strong wish, too, they shared 
in common — ^the elevation of the German Stage. * The 
theatre at this time' {i,e. at Weimar in 1801), writes 
Crabbe Robinson, 'was unique; its managers were 
Gothe and Schiller, who exhibited there the works which 
were to become standards and models of dramatic 
literature.' Perhaps they aimed too high, — ^they thought 
only of art. Still, he who aims at the sky shoots higher 
than he who means a tree, and undoubtedly their efforts 
had an ennobling influence on the stage. 

It has been urged, and on good grounds, that, 
although Gothe was stimulated and strengthened by 
Schiller, he remained still the same Gothe, but that 
Schiller's intellectual nature became gradually changed 
and ennobled under the influence of Gothe's friendship. 
They loved one another warmly and sincerely, they 
shared the same aspirations, they rejoiced in each other's 
triumphs. If it is sometimes hard to join sympathy for 
Gothe as a man to admiration for him as a poet and a 
thinker, Schiller's friendship seems to come forward to 
protest, and to shield him against any harsh judgment. 

The Venetian Epigrams^ several Ballads, and Wil- 
helm Meisters Lehrjahre (begun 1777, finished 1796), 
belong to this period — the second period of Gothe's 
career as a writer. * I have had occasion,' writes 
Gothe, * to reflect much upon myself, much upon others, 
much upon the world, and much upon history; from 
this reflection I have drawn many conclusions, — possess- 
ing, it may be, little novelty ; but it is good to tell them 
after my manner : all this will form a whole in Wilhelm 
Meister? This romance is, then, a picture of human life 
inspired by the society of the eighteenth century. It is 
a book often tedious, and sometimes trivial ; but it con- 


tains the beautiful episode of Mignon, and Gothe's 
reflections on the character of Hamlet ; it is, too, one of 
the most important witnesses to the growth of Gothe's 
mind and art. 

Of Gothe's other works the most worthy of record 
seem to me his novel the Wahlverwandschaften (1809), 
his autobiography Dichtung und Wahrheit (1811-1814), 
the Westostlicher Divan ( 1 8 1 4- 1 8 1 6), a series of poems 
in imitation of Arabian and Persian poetry, and Wil- 
helm Meisters Wanderjahre ( 1 8 2 1 ). Gothe was, besides, 
the author of several scientific works, which belong to an 
earlier time (e.g. the Metamorphose der Pflanzen, begun 
1788, finished 1790, and the Farbenlehre, begun 1797, 
finished 1806), and it is a fact no less wonderfiil than 
interesting that with scientific men he ranks among the 
most profound and original writers on natural science. 
He at no time, however, took the pains to acquire an 
exact knowledge of the mathematical or physical sciences, 
so that at times, it is said, he failed fully to understand 
his own deductions. 

There is but little else in Gothe's life which calls for 
notice here, — I will only mention his meeting with the 
great Napoleon at Erfurt in 1 808 ; his friendship with 
the passionate and enthusiastic child Bettina Brentano ; 
his acquaintance with Felix Mendelssohn, who, in the 
autumn mornings of 1830, used to play for him selec- 
tions from the great composers, and explain what each 
had done to further his art ; his untiring eagerness and 
perseverance in study and self-culture. Self-culture was, 
indeed, his paramount object through life ; viewed from 
one standpoint, no life has ever been more selfish ; 
viewed from another, few, if any, lives have benefited 
the world so much as his. Whether Gothe's work would 
have been as great and as uncommon, had his life been 
different and less self-centred, is a question to which I 
unhesitatingly answer — no ; but greatness may, perhaps, 
be bought at too dear a price. 


Gothe died in 1832 with that calm and serenity which 
his whole life had pursued as its ideal. It was in the 
early days of spring, on the 2 2d of March : — as the 
shutters of his window kept out the light, he asked 
that they might be opened, and his last words were, 
* More light.' 


From the earliest times there have been legends about 
wizards who, in exchange for certain stipulated benefits, 
sold themselves to the Devil, and were afterwards either 
saved from his power by Divine mercy or violently 
carried away by the Devil's messengers. One such 
legend is the legend of Theophilus, which apparently 
arose in the sixth century in Asia Minor. It is essen- 
tially Oriental in its character. Theophilus, in return for 
the promise of wisdom and wealth, does homage to the 
Evil Spirit in eastern fashion, — ^he delivers himself up to 
him body and soul ; he is, however, saved in the end by 
the intercession of the Virgin Mary. 

The unreasoning and imaginative spirit of the Middle 
Ages used to point to the most learned and thought- 
ful men of the time as if they had entered into a league 
with the powers of evil, — and in the sixteenth century 
all the scattered beliefs and suspicions as to learning, 
witchcraft, and diabolical agency took definite form in 
the Fatist legend.^ It was built upon the basis of the 
old legend of Theophilus, but with an admixture of 
various circumstances and characteristics borrowed from 
later sources. The Faust legend would, indeed, appear 
to have become a kind of common receptacle for all the 
wonderful and supernatural beliefs of the Middle Ages, 
— of the time that was passing away. 

^ See an interesting article headed Faustus, by Mr. Richard 
Gamett, in the Emyclopadia Britannicay ed. 1879. 


The chief difference between the modem and the old 
legends consists in the salvation of Theophilus, while 
Faustus actually becomes the prey of the Evil Spirit. 
In Gothe's treatment of the story he has returned to 
the old conception, and in the end Faust is saved. 

The Dr. Faustus of the legend has been frequently 
connected with the printer Fust — the companion of 
Gutenberg ; yet, though the first printer may have been 
looked on by many as possessed of magical powers, 
there is not any evidence, beyond the similarity of name, 
that there is a connection between the Dr. Faustus of 
the legend and the printer Fust. On the contrary, the 
Faust legend does not assume definite shape until 
more than a century after the invention of printing. 

There did, however, actually exist in the sixteenth 
century a Dr. Faustus, for whom acquaintance with magic 
arts is claimed. This was Johann Faust of Knittlingen, 
a countryman and acquaintance of Melanchthon, with 
whom he spent some time in Wittenberg in the year 
1530. Of him popular tradition tells that in the year 
1525 he rode on a wine-cask out of Auerbach's Keller in 
Leipzig, and a picture representing this occurrence and 
some explanatory verses are still to be seen there. 

The earliest published edition of the Faust story — 
upon which all later variations were based — ^appeared at 
Frankfurt-am-Main in the year 1587, with the title, 
History of Dr. Johann Faust, the far-renowned enchanter 
and black artist. In this history Faust, in his passion- 
ate and eager longing to understand all mysteries and 
all knowledge, makes a covenant with the powers of evil. 
He summons the Devil to appear to him in the depths 
of a wood near Wittenberg. The Devil appears in the 
form of a monk ; it is not, however, the Prince of Dark- 
ness himself, but one of his servants, Mephostophiles 
(such is the oldest form of the name). On the condition 
that Mephostophiles shall do for him whatsoever he 
desires during twenty-four years, Faust sells his soul to 


him, and signs the compact with his blood. And now 
Faust leads a life full of earthly enjoyment and sensual 
pleasure. Every delight that can gratify sight, hearing, 
taste, is offered to him, and yet, in spite of all seductions 
and allurements, the longing for higher things fills his 
soul, and he is often filled with remorse and longing to 
repent, — yet does not repent. At last, in the twenty-third 
year of their compact, Mephostophiles, fearful lest even 
then Faust may escape from his power, brings back to 
life Helen of Troy, and gives her to Faust as his wife. 
The beauty of Helen satisfies Faust's desires, and the 
year passes by. In the last month of the twenty-fourth 
year Faust gives himself up to lamentation and mourning 
and woe ; the last night he spends along with three 
friends in the village of Rimlich near Wittenberg, and 
warns them to live a different life from the life he has 
lived : then follows the end. In the night Mephos- 
tophiles comes, claims him, and carries away his soul. 
In the morning the mangled remains of Faustus are 
found strewn about the room. Such is the story of the 
Faust book. I cannot help thinking that the origin of 
the whole story was something like this : — Early in the 
sixteenth century there lived a learned scientific man 
named Faustus, a friend of Melanchthon, who, because of 
his learning and knowledge, was suspected of practising 
magic arts, and who unhappily lost his life through the 
explosion of some chemicals with which he was making 

Soon after its appearance in Germany the Faustbuch 
was translated into English, Low German, Danish, and 
French, and it was from the English translation that 
Marlowe took the plot and the incidents of his strange 
and wonderful play. Several editions or versions of the 
Fatistbuch were brought out in Germany between 1587 
and the time when Gothe first thought of writing his 
Faust {ue. about 1770), and there is a tradition that 
Gothe, when a child, saw a copy of one of these upon 


a little table before the house -door of a bookseller in 
Frankfurt, and bought it for a few kreutzers. There 
was, too, the Volkslied Dr, Faustus, written in rhymed 
verses of four lines ; and there was the German transla- 
tion of Marlowe's play, Dr, Faustus, This translation, 
or an adaptation of it, was often acted on the German 
stage during the seventeenth century. Out of this latter 
the Puppet Play of Dr, Faustus was constructed, which 
gradually became altered in various ways by changing 
times and circumstances. It is probable that Gothe saw 
this Puppet Play of Dr. Faustus in his childhood in 
Frankfurt, where wandering bands of players used to 
come to act, especially at fair times. 

Lessing and Miiller (called the Painter Miiller) each 
wrote a tragedy of Faust, and one of Lessing's friends, 
writing about the lost manuscript after his death, says 
that Lessing's Faust was written at a time when in every 
quarter of Germany a Faust was either being written or 
published. There must have been something in the 
intellectual atmosphere of the day, — sorfte general craving 
for knowledge, some dissatisfaction with the conditions 
of life, which made the legend attractive. Gothe, like 
so many others, turned his thoughts to it ; but he alone 
saw the typical universal element hidden in it, — ^he alone 
was able to engraft his own life and the ruling motives 
of all human life upon this wild growth of a former age. 


It was in Strasburg (1770) that the idea of the Faust 
poem first grew up in Gothe. A friend of Gothe — by 
name Jung Stilling — has described him for us at this 
time. * He was a youth ' (Jung Stilling says) * full of the 
joy of life, winning all hearts, and kind, with large clear 
eyes and a broad splendid brow — a beautiful soul in a 
fair body, — casting, like a god, an irresistible spell over 


all who knew him, and -ruling and controlling without a 
rival his circle of friends, although he never sought to 
rule or control them.' 

In Wetzlar, too (1772), Faust was often the subject 
of conversation between Gothe and his friends, and the 
poem which Gotter wrote to him upon receiving a copy 
of Gotz von Berlichingen ends with the words : 

,Sd?tcF tntr bafiir bein* Dr. ^anjl 
Sobalb bein Kopf tt|n aufgebraufl.' 

In the spring of 1775 Gothe had written nearly one-half 
of the First Part, or, to speak more exactly, he had 
written nearly all that. was published in 1790 as the 
Faust Fragment. At this time Gothe went to Weimar, 
when years passed without a Scene or a line being added 
to Fausty and the manuscript must have been yellow 
with age when he took it with him to Italy in 1786. In 
Rome two Scenes were added, and thus was completed 
the Faust Fragment, which really belongs to the time 
before Gothe went to Weimar — to the time before 1775. 
In his conversations with Eckermann Gothe says : 'Faust 
entstand mit meinem Werther, ich brachte ihn im Jahr 
1775 mit nach Weimar.' ^ Thus in 1790 only two- 
thirds of the First Part were finished, and for seven 
years more Gothe added nothing to this. In 1797, 
however, urged on by Schiller, Gothe began once more 
to work at Faust, and during the next eleven years he 
finished Part I. and wrote a considerable portion of Part 
II. It is worth noting in passing, that the second period 
oi Faust activity, though extending from 1797 to 1808, 
mainly lies between 1797 and 1801. In 1808 Part I., 
as we now have it, was published, but Part II. was 
delayed by many causes, — Gothe's Oriental and scientific 
studies, the loss of Schiller, the political convulsions 
which disturbed Germany after the battle of Jena. In 
1824, when he was already seventy-five years old, only 

1 Bd. 2, S. 62. 


Acts I. II. and III. had been written. The third Act of 
Part II., generally called Die Helena^ was published as 
a fragment in 1827, and the interest and admiration it 
excited encouraged Gothe in his old age to work out the 
whole of his grand plan, and to complete Part II. On 
28th August 1 83 1, on his eighty-second birthday, Gothe 
finished and sealed up the last pages of his manuscript, 
which was not published until after his death in the 
spring following. 

Thus Faust may be called the work of Gothe's whole 
life. The idea of it began to fill his thoughts and to 
inspire him at the age of twenty-one, and it remained 
with him until the end. The two Parts form one whole, 
and if Part II. would be incomprehensible without the 
First Part, Part I. would no less be a fragment without 
the Second. Beautiful as the episode of Margaret is, it 
is nothing more than an episode in Faust's life. We 
may sometimes regret that Gothe did not complete the 
Second Part while the plan was still fresh, while he was 
still young, and while all his faculties were in their first 
vigour. Yet, on the other hand, Faust would not then 
have been, what it now is, a record of Gothe's whole life, 
— the storehouse in which he garnered up all his wisdom 
and experience.! 

If we would rightly comprehend the Faust poem, its 
inner meaning and underlying train of thought, we should 
never allow ourselves to forget that it was begun in 
Gothe's extreme youth, and at a time when he, along 
with many others, was filled by a spirit of restlessness 
and of dissatisfaction with the conditions of life. The 
Faust tragedy is indeed the most complete expression of 
the Sturm und Drang Period. And if, at the same time, 
Faust is the greatest product not only of German 
literature but of the newer German culture, there is, 
surely, here conclusive evidence what an important place 

1 I give as an Appendix at the end of the volume a brief account 
of the Second Part of Faust. 


this much-abused period should hold in the history of 
modem intellectual life. 

In Fatist we have the old subject of the tragic struggle 
between our innate feeling of infinity and our conscious- 
ness of human finiteness, — only more deeply reflected 
on, and reflected on after a newer fashion. We would 
know all, and do all, and experience all, and we cannot ; 
the spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak. Werther's 
self-consuming sensitiveness, his Prometheus-like spirit 
of defiance, shows itself in Faust as a passionate protest 
against dead learning and dead records, as a strong 
desire for fulness and completeness of life that will not 
be stilled and will not be suppressed. Were it possible 
to describe in a sentence the spirit of the Faust poem, 
it would be in those few words, in which Gothe sums up 
the hopes and aspirations of his own life — 

,Uns pom fjatbett 3U zxiW?i\[mxi, 
yXxCb tm <5an3en, <5utcn, Sd^Snen 
Hefolut 3u leben.'i 

The legend oiDr, Faustus, a child of the Reformation, 
was, indeed, of exclusively theological bearing. True, 
in it Faust is already a learned man, with a mind pre- 
sumptuous and proud, who wishes to search out the 
causes of all things in heaven and earth. But the 
motive of his pride of knowledge is in the legend 
degraded and degrading. Faust closes a bargain with 
the Powers of Evil solely that he may through magic 
arts shine before the crowd, and the edifying end of his 
history is, that 'the sinner at last, in punishment of his 
audacity, is sent into the everlasting pains of Hell. Nor 
had the Puppet Play of the popular stage, which first of 
all worked upon Gothe's imagination, got beyond this 
conception. Even in Marlowe's Dr. FaustuSy great as 
this play undoubtedly is, Faust remains unforgiven, and 

^ Generalbeickte ; see the Gesellige Lieder, vol. i. p. 129, of 
Goeth^s Werke, ed. 1827. 



is sent into eternal suffering. The transfonning into 
tragedy of our desire of the knowledge of good and evil 
is the invention of Gothe's genius. But the legend 
afforded to Gothe not only the firm foundation of given 
situations and characters, it offered him besides the 
priceless advantage of that twilight background, half 
mystic, half real, on which alone the sway of passion and 
demoniac influence could have possibility of development 
and could command credibility. 

From the first we stand in the midst of the story. 
The Dedication^ The Stage Prelude^ The Prologue 
in Heaven^ which now open the poem, belong to the 
enlarged edition of 1 808, and are wanting to the Fatist 
Fragment of 1790, which begins with the first monologue. 
This passionate soliloquy, though at times lyrical in 
form, is throughout full of vivid dramatic progress. As 
in every great dramatic poem, the first Scene foreshadows 
the future development of the story. Undoubtedly this 
monologue is the earliest portion of the Faust poem. 

It is night, the lamp burns dimly ; Faust, in his 
narrow, high-arched, Gothic room, sits in an armchair at 
his desk. Long suppressed, and therefore all the more 
passionate, there struggles forth from his heart a cry of 
despair at the deceptiveness and imperfection of human 
knowledge. All branches of learning he has studied 
with untiring effort, and now he is as wise as before, and 
only feels that we can know nothing. In his unsatisfied 
desire for knowledge he grasps at the wonder-working of 
magic, in the hope that, through the power of some 
spirit, the secrets of nature may be revealed to him — 

XOo fajf ic^ bi(^, unenbltc^e Hatur ? 

€uc^ Briifite, tpo ? 3Jjr (CueKcn attes Cebens, 

2In \>tm\i ^immel nnb <Erbe IjSngt, 

Daljin bte tpelfe 3ruji flc^ brSngt — 

3t^r quellt, ifjr tranft, Vixic> fc^mac^t' t(^ ^o »er$ebetis ? '^ 

LI. 455-459. 

1 • You gush forth, you offer drink, and I languish unsatisfied.' 


And now Faust imagines that the living forces of nature 
are present with him ; but, unsatisfied, or satisfied only 
for an instant, he turns away — 

fVOzldf Sc^aufpiel 1 aber adf, tin 5(^atifptcl nitr I ' 

Filled with grief at his want of power to bear the world's 
sorrows and joys, Faust next calls to his aid the Spirit 
of the Earth ; but he is only hurled back more rudely 
into the consciousness of his own nothingness. The 
Spirit of Earth speaks — 

,Du gletd^fl bem (5ti% ben bn begretfft, 
rric^t mir I ' 

LI. 512, 513. 

Faust starts and shudders — 

,tttc^t bir ? 

IDem bcnn ? 

3d?, (Ebcnbtlb ber (5ottt|ett I 

IXnb nic^t einmal bir 1 ' 

LI. 514-517. 

With fine artistic feeling Gothe now introduces the 
conversation with Wagner, Faust's disciple. We have 
here the contrast between the unsatisfied desire for more 
living, more spiritual knowledge,^ and the dark, dead 
leamedness which is occupied with all kinds of external, 
tangible science, which attains results and is satisfied 
with them. 

It is easy to tell what were the influences which led 
to the conception and production of this Scene. On the 
one hand, in the magical conjuring of spirits through the 
power of human genius, we see the impatient wish to 
find fulness and completeness of knowledge ; on the 
other hand, in the crushing answer of the Spirit of the 
Earth we see the influence of the teaching of Kant as to 
the unknowableness of the nature of things, which had 

1 The knowledge which is so grandly described in one of our 
Collects : ' In knowledge of Whom standeth our eternal life. ' 


stamped itself on Gothe's mind during his intercourse 
with Herder in Strasburg. 

So far the explanation of the character of Faust, which 
Gothe himself gives us. With it the Fragment of 1790 
breaks off, only to resume the thread of the story again 
after the bargain between Faust and Mephistopheles has 
been already agreed to and sealed. The Scenes which 
now fill in these gaps in the Faust Fragment (see text, 
11. 606-1770) were inserted in their completeness for the 
first time in the edition of 1808, and were for the most 
part written in 1797-98. Although Gothe had meantime 
outgrown the opinions and passed beyond the intellectual 
standpoint which he held when he first conceived the 
poem, these Scenes preserve throughout the same original 
train of thought, while they yet elevate and widen the 
action. Their aim is, through an inevitable necessity of 
his nature, to lead Faust to his despairing compact with 

What now remains for the daring stormer of heaven 
after the crushing Donnerwort of the Spirit of the 
Earth ? 

,Den (Sottem c^Uxdf \^ ntc^t 1 gu ttef tft cs gcfiil|It ; 
Dent VOnxmt gletc^' tc^, ber \>tn Staub burd^iDiililt, 
Den, wxz er jtc^ tm Siaxibt nfil^renb lebt, 
Des IDanbrers Critt t>ernic^tet vin\> begrSbt.' 

LI. 652-655. 

The thought of suicide now urges itself upon him, — 
not indeed through the desire of cowardly self-annihila- 
tion, but through the desire with a brave heart to destroy 
the miserable material hindrances which separate him 
from the consciousness and knowledge of the truth — 

;3^ fiil^Ie mtc^ berett 
2Iuf neuer 'Ba\\xi \>txi 2letljer 3U burc^bringen 
§u neuen SpIjSren retner Cl^Sttgfeit. 
Dies \{o\\t ithtn, btes (53ttenDonne I 
Du, erjl noc^ IDurm, unb bte oerbtenejl \>vi ? 


3a, fetjre nur ber Ijolben (Erbenfonne 
(Entfc^Ioffen betnen Hiicf en 5U 1 
Dermeffe bic^ bte Pforten auf5nret^en, 
Dor benen jeber gem pornberfc^let^t ^ 

LI. 703.711. 

It is, I think, most impressive and suggestive that it 
is the passing sound of church bells and of the Easter 
hymn which hinders the taking of this last grave step. 
With what consoling power the Choir praise the Risen 
One, the Master, who is near to all who act and love. 
And how forcibly is awakened in the despairing man the 
gracious memory of Sabbath stillness and prayer, and of 
the merry games of the joyous spring festival — 

,Dte ^fyc&m qutUi, bte (Erbe liai mtc^ tPteberl' 

The Scenes which immediately follow — the walk out- 
side the town gate, and the grave monologue, in which 
Faust seeks to translate into his mother tongue the 
foundation text of the New Testament, * In the beginning 
was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the 
Word was God,' stand in the closest connection with the 
Scene that goes before. 

Those happy holiday-makers on the Easter Sunday 
afternoon — types of different ranks, sexes, and ages — 
play the same part in the poem that they play in real 
life. Here are the servant-girls and their sweethearts, 
the students and the citizens' daughters, the beggar, the 
soldier, the fortune-teller — all absorbed in and engrossed 
by the amusement or the interest of the passing hour. 
And it is only the grotesque side of this happy, limited 
life that we see in Wagner as he walks by Faust's side, 
longing to be back at his books and parchments, away 
from this fiddling and shouting and nine-pin playing. 

Very gladly would Faust be a man along with men ; 
but how can his high-aspiring feeling of infinity confine 
itself within this common life of earth ? It is significant 
that here for the first time Mephistopheles steps in, — 


Mephistopheles, like lago in his disbelief of goodness, 
and his cold sneers at everything elevated ; and yet not 
a plagiarism from lago, but a true demon and no man, 
in his passionless malice, in his disinterested love of 
evil for its own sake. The * archangel ruined ' of Milton 
retains fine traits of character, which interest us against 
our will; while in Mephistopheles no trace of good 
appears, and the base uses to which he puts his power- 
ful intellect destroy all its fascinating effects on the mind, 
Milton draws Lucifer in the hour of his fall, with the 
lingering rays of light not yet faded from his wings. 
Gothe depicts an inferior rebel, after ages of .debasement 
have destroyed all traces of his pristine state.^ 

In the Scene that follows we feel how gladly Faust 
would turn back again to the pious, childlike simplicity 
of unquestioning faith ; but how can he, after that all 
kinds of doubt have already wrestled in his soul ? 

. . , „3tn ^nfan^ wax has IDort." 
fjter ftocf t(^ fc^on I . . . 
3c^ fann has VOoxt fo ^od^ unmoglic^ fc^S^en ; 
. ♦ . ;,3m 2(nfang wax ber Sinn.'' 
3fl es ber Sinn, ber aUts tPtrft unb fc^afft ? 
. . . ,,3^ 2(nfang tpar bie Kraft." ' 

LI. 1224-1233. 

But what is power without realisation and fulfilment.? 
This is not humility and childlike submission : it is 
the proud consciousness of inalienable freedom of Will. 
For Faust to go back is impossible. 

1 'Though Mephistopheles is evil relatively,' writes Professor 
Dowden, ' yet in Gothe's optimism he is only evil as a part of a 
great whole, which is good, and so he is overruled by God for 
Faust's good, stimulating him as a spirit of unrest and negation, 
to go from one ideal to another in search of the Highest, while he 
is trying to draw Faust down — ^but in vain. ' — In a letter written 
28th September 1885. In this I wholly agree, believing as I do, 
terrible as the truth is, that the existence of evil in the world works, 
on the whole, for our good. 


Faust goes forth out of the martyrdom of his study into 
the wide world, out of lonely self-contemplation (or, as 
Mephistopheles expresses it, * vom Kribskrabs der Ima- 
gination *) into busy, active life. * All theory, dear friend, 
is gray,' Mephistopheles moralises ; * the golden tree of 
life alone is green. ... A wretch who speculates is like 
an animal on a barren moor — led hither and thither by 
an evil spirit, while all around lie fair, fresh fields.' It 
is the crossing over from speculation to experience. 
Freed from all restraints, Faust will try what life is. 
The struggle with life is all the harder, in proportion as 
it is undertaken with more determined resolve to arrive 
at truth. 

It was a difficult but almost indispensable task for 
Gothe to make clear to us the revolution that had taken 
place in Faust's manner of thought and purpose in life. 
In a letter to Schiller in March 1800, he speaks of this 
as a gap that had yet to be filled in the Faust poem. 
As a matter of fact there is no sufficient explanation 
given, and possibly Gothe found that such an explanation 
lay beyond the limits of poetic representation. But if 
so; all the more was it needful for the poet to show us 
that the total change in Faust's conduct was the inevit- 
able result of a total change of mind. Hence that 
famed monologue of curses in which Faust laughs to 
scorn not only all phantoms and illusions, not only all that 
has to do with jugglery or magic, but also all the most 
essential and real of life's blessings — fame, home, fidelity 
to wife and child, love, hope, faith, patience — followed 
by the heart-breaking confession of complete disillusion — 

,3c^ l[<xht tntc^ 3a 1c{0&i gebiat|t, 
3n betnen Hang gel^or tc^ nur : 
X)cr groge (Seift Ijat mtc^ perfc^mSt^t, 
Por tntr tJerfc^Itef t fic^ bte Hatur. 
Des DtnUxis ^a\>zn tft 3erriffen, 
IRtr efelt lange t>or attem IDiffen,' 


,£ag in ben Ciefen ber 5tnnlic^!ett 

Uns gliil^enbe £etbenfd?aften pillen.' 
• • • • 

,5tur3en iDtr uns in has Haufc^en ber §eit, 

3ns HoHen ber Begebentjeit 1 

Da mag btnn 5c^mer3 unb (Senug, 

(Selingen unb Perbrng, 

init einanber loec^feln, toie es fann ; 

rtur raftlos bett^atigt ^d^ ber IHann.' 

LI. 1 744- 1 7 59. 

One feels as Faust utters these words that he goes too 
far, and that impulse hurries him on. Faust does not 
give up idealism, but remains the same restless idealist 
that he was before ; he only carries over his idealism 
into new circles of activity. 

It is at this stage that Faust makes his agreement 
with Mephistopheles. Gothe has borrowed this incident 
from the Faust legend, but has fundamentally enlarged 
it. The two souls which dwell in Faust — the sensual 
realistic soul, which clings to earth ; and the idealist 
soul, striving upward out of commonplace reality, display 
themselves in co-operation and yet in contrast, now that 
Faust steps forth from the seclusion of speculation into 
a life of action. Faust binds himself to Mephistopheles, 
that is, lets loose passion, not in order to live in shallow 
enjoyment of life, and to lose his real self, but as the 
earnest thinker, who, after he has outgrown the unprofit- 
able wisdom of the schools, wishes to be filled and 
permeated with fresh feeling and experience. For Faust 
sensuality and passion are not ends, but only means, of 
gaining knowledge: Faust can only fall into Mephis- 
topheles' power if he has revolted from himself — 

;lDerb' tc^ bemfjtgt je mtc^ auf ein ^Jaulbett legen, 
So fei es gletc^ um mtc^ getljan I 
Kannfl bw mid^ fc^metc^elnb je beliigen, 


Dag tc^ mir felbji gefatten mag, 
Kannji bu mic^ mtt (Senug betriigen : 
Dos fet fiir mid^ ber Iet3te Cag 1' 

LI. 1 692- 1 697. 

Here we return again to the Faust Fragment of 1790 ; 
it begins immediately after the bargain has been struck 
with the words — 

?Xv^ loas bzx QfXMivx IlTenfc^I^ett 3ttgctt|etlt ift 
IPin id/ in metnem inncrn Selbft gentegcn, 
HTtt tnetncm (Seijl \>(xs Qoc^ft' unb ^ief jie grctfcn, 
3ljr IDol^I unb IPetj auf meinen 53ufen tjSufen 
Unb fo metn eigen Selbft 3U il|rem Selbft eripettern 
Unb iPte fte felbft am ^v^b au4 \^ serfc^ettern.' 

LI. 1770-1775- 
The tragedy of knowledge becomes a tragedy of life. 

Now especially is it clear that Faust is the twin brother 
of Werther, although certainly more manly and more 
capable of action. In Faust, too, lives the secret desire 
to which Werther so finely gives expression : * Ah, how 
often have I longed to fly with the wings of the stork 
that flew over me — to the shores of the boundless ocean, to 
drink the welling joys of life from the foaming cup of the 
Infinite, and to feel only for one moment in the limited 
powers of my breast a drop of the happiness of that 
Being who creates all things through and for Himself.' 

Only collective humanity lives a complete life ; and 
it is at once the surpassing greatness and the tragic 
guilt of Faust, that he resolves to be what German 
thinkers call * der Universal Mensch,' that is, to feel and 
know all that humanity can feel' or know. 

The poet has been careful from the outset to show 
distinctly the tragic guilt of his hero. Faust asks with 
indignation : * What am I then, if it is not possible to 
win the crown of humanity, towards which all my feel- 
ings and senses aspire ?' Mephistopheles answers : 
' Thou art in the end what thou art. Place on thy head 


a wig of a thousand ringlets, set thy feet on stilts a yard 
high, thou remainest still what thou art. Believe me, 
completeness belongs only to a God.' And the incom- 
parable Scene with the Student, in which Mephistopheles 
ruthlessly exposes the weaknesses and failings of science — 
it, too, ultimately teaches moderation and self-restraint — 

,X)ir tpirb geipig etnmal bet beincr (Sottaljnltd^fett bange.' 

It is the purpose of the Faust poem to represent the 
whole varied world of active life. Because Faust in his 
unlimited idealism strives to be * der Universal Mensch,' 
he can find no full satisfaction in any one single occupa- 
tion in life ; again and again disappointed, he must pass 
through every phase of life. Thus the poem inevitably 
falls into a long series of separate pictures, or rather of 
separate tragedies. 

Faust's new life begins with the Scene in Auerbach's 
cellar. It is one of the earliest Scenes that Gothe 
wrote. Full of boldness and humour though it be, 
considered as a part of the whole composition, it is a 
retarding, disturbing element. It had a meaning as 
long as the picture of the Easter holiday-makers was 
wanting — that is, it had a meaning and importance in 
the Faust Fragment of 1790, but not in the Faust of 
1808. Now it only says the same over again that the 
former Scene had said more gracefully and poetically — 
namely, how thoughtlessly the crowd lives on, occupied 
with small interests and trivial pleasures. 

The series of tragedies demanded by the idea of the 
poem opens with the Gretchen episode. — The satis- 
faction which thought had not supplied to Faust is to 
be secured to him by sensual pleasure — 
,I)es Denfens ^o^tn tft scrrijfen, 
UTtr ef elt lange por allem IDiffen. 
£ag tn \izxi (Eicfen ber Stnnltc^fett 
Uns gliiljenbe £eibenfc^aften fttllen.' 

LI. 1748-1751. 


But now arose the difficulty that the hero of the suc- 
ceeding Scenes must be one capable of enjoying life, 
while the same hero in the early Scenes had been a 
lonely thinker, harrowed by grief, and grown old before 
his time. Hence the insertion of the mad Scene in the 
Witches' Kitchen, when the drinking of the Witches' 
brew takes away thirty years from Faust's frame and 
age. What was fantastical could only be obviated by 
what was fantastical.^ 

Gothe wrote this Scene in 1788, in the gardens of the 
Villa Borghese outside Rome, at a time when his mind 
was thoroughly possessed by the beauty and ineffable 
grace of ancient art. Perhaps, therefore, the very con- 
trast between his strong aesthetic feeling and the character 
of the subject which occupied him led him to give to 
the latter the coarsest and ugliest expression. 

It is well known that the Gretchen tragedy is one of 
the oldest component parts of the Faust poem ; the 
Fragment of 1790, however, only carries the action on 
to the Scene in the Cathedral (/>. Scene xix. of this 
edition). The murder of Valentine, the Walpurgis Night, 
the Dungeon Scene, belong to the edition of 1 808. 

Careless and bold Faust begins this new chapter of 
his life ; but soon he finds again his better self. It is 
full of poetry and of truth to nature, how he is inwardly 
touched, and shrinks from his crime, when he looks in 
upon the quiet happiness in which the g^rl lives and 
moves — 

,Umgtbt int(^ \(\zx ein gauberbuf t ? ' 

Margaret is one of the most pathetic creations in 
literature. Ignorant, uneducated, she uses none but the 
simplest words, and sometimes speaks ungrammatically ; 

^ The Scene in the Witches' Kitchen has no connection with the 
Faust legend. The motive of its introduction is of course the 
making Faust young again ; but Gothe, with a wilfulness not seldom 
manifested in his life, seems also to have intended to ridicule here 
the whole theory of witchcraft and its use in literature. 


artlessly vain, yielding to persuasion, and finally led to 
deceit, infamy, crime, and madness, she is at one© real 
in her words and ways, and ideal in her embodiment of 
simple womanhood. It is said that nothing in all 
literature moved George Eliot more than the pathetic 
situation and the whole character of Gretchen. It 
touched her more than anything in Shakspere.^ German 
critics try to make Margaret typical of many things ; but 
she will always remain, what Gothe intended her to be, 
simply a woman, and nothing more. 

Unembarrassed, the girl has shortly and briefly 
repelled the stranger who ventured to offer her his arm 
and his escort as she came down the Cathedral steps ; 
but inwardly her thoughts are busied about him, and we 
hear the unconscious echo of awakening love in her 
dreamy song about the King of Thule's faithfulness (see 
text, p. 123, Scene viii., 11. 2759-2782). 

Then follows the walk in the garden, the self-revela- 
tion and discovery of two hearts overflowing with love, — 
a Scene full of the simple and pure happiness of love, 
and all the more beautiful because of the contrast 
offered by the conversation between Mephistopheles and 

We watch the rise and growth of Faust's passion in 
the solemn soliloquies in the Forest and in the Cave. 
How he shudders at the thought of undermining the 
peace of the girl he loves, and how he longs to be free 
from his dissolute comrade ; and how the unrestrainable 
desire rises up again and again within him ! We watch 
the rise and growth of passion not less in Gretchen, 
whose suppressed emotion finds utterance in that most 
lovely of love songs : * Mein Ruh ist hin ' (see text, p. 
15s, Scene xiv., 11. 3374-3413)- 

Next follows the strange and grand Scene in which 
Gretchen, in the midst of her innocent loving chatter, 

1 See Life of George Eliot, ed. by her husband, J. W. Cross, vol. 
iii. p. 421. 


questions Faust about his religion, and he speaks out his 
confession of faith in words that stamp themselves never 
to be forgotten in the memory of every reader capable 
of comprehending and measuring their force and mean- 
ing. And there is a boldness and significance peculiar 
to the highest genius in the fact that it is at this time, 
immediately after the close intercourse of soul with soul, 
that the fall into moral guilt takes place. 

The Gretchen tragedy becomes a social tragedy. 

The inevitable reaction follows. Terrible and unpity- 
ing, the injured spirit of the home and of the family takes 
vengeance. Nowhere else has Gothe placed himself so 
close by Shakspere's side as in the Scenes that follow. 
What a terrible progression is there in their rapid suc- 
cession ! The talk at the well, and the gnawing pain 
of conscience in Gretchen's heart ; her prayer to the 
Virgin — 

,2tc^ netge, 

Dtt Sc^mer3enretc^c, 

Detn ^intlift gnSbtg mctner Hottj 1' 

LI. 3587-3589. 

The foreboding, full of anguish, of what the world's 
judgment will be — 

,3l|r 2lntlt^ tpcnben 
Der!ISrte port btr ah. 
Die ^clnbe btr 3U retc^en, 
Sd^auert's bm Hetnen I 

LI. 3828-3832. 

Then her share in the deaths of mother and brother ; 
last of all the drowning of her child in her frantic despair, 
and the final Scene in the Dungeon. Who blames the 
poor girl for not following Faust when he comes to save 
her from the sentence of death, which is not her due ? 
Is it not an act of virtue that she will not follow him, 
choosing rather to suffer, and be saved through suffering ? 


Here we stand at the conclusion of the First Part of 
the Faust poem, — I shall add a few words as to the 
additions found in the version of 1808. The poetic 
prefaces, namely. The Dedication^ The Stage Prelude^ 
The Prologue in Heaven^ come from the very heart of 
poetry — above all, The Prologue in Heaven, It is 
wonderful how the poet was able to reason with such 
conscious clearness upon the foundation thought of his 
youthful poem, and to put this reasoning upon the 
deepest questions of human existence into such sharply- 
defined form. — The judgment to be passed upon the 
wandering of Faust and Mephistopheles on the Brocken 
on the Walpurgis Night rests on a different basis. The 
motive of the Scene is indeed clear, — in coarse and 
degrading dissipation Faust's conscience had to be 
blunted and dulled. But why was this fantastic farce 
prolonged to so great a length, and overburdened with 
satiric allusions to the fleeting subjects of the day ? And 
why is the Interlude of Oberon's and Titania's Golden 
Wedding introduced here, a poem which had been 
originally intended for a very different purpose ?^ The 
waywardness and inartistic wantonness of this portion of 
the poem have been justly blamed ; and these uncon- 
nected interludes are all the more disturbing since they 
come at the very close of the Gretchen tragedy, just 
when our sympathies are strained to the utmost, as we 
await the fatal end. 

What is most exceptional and most powerful in the 
Faust tragedy is, that it does not merely grapple with 
this or that riddle of human life, but lays hold upon the 
very heart of human tragedy, namely, the irreconcilable 
contradiction in our nature, which strives to reach upward 
to heaven, and which yet is bound fast within earthly 
limits. And the depth and width of this foundation 
thought attain unequalled completeness of expression 

^ It was originally intended to be a continuation of the Xenien 
Kampf in Schiller's Musenalmanach ; see above, p. xxiii. 


through the power and might of the poet's fancy and 
force of language. 

In proportion as the purport of the Faust poem was 
more significant and all-embracing, the more natiu'al was 
it that Gothe should feel himself, so to speak, spellbound 
within its circle, and should return again and again to 
add to and enlarge it. Already, at the time when the 
present form of the First Part appeared, there were in 
existence many beginnings and jottings down of the 
continuation and enlargement he had planned, while the 
incidents of the series of separate tragedies demanded 
by the subject of the poem were conceived and realised 
at intervals throughout his whole life. 

There was need, as Gothe himself once expressed it, 
to raise the hero out of his sphere of sorrow and misery, 
and to guide him into higher regions and worthier 
relationships. But it is certain that Gothe, while he 
was still in the full freshness of his poetic power, saw in 
the clearest way that the immensity of the subject of the 
Faust tragedy, in the sense of a symbolical, common 
tragedy of humanity, must remain for ever opposed to 
the firm setting of a perfect self-contained work of art. 

When Gothe, in June 1797, announced to Schiller his 
intention of again taking up the Faust poem, Schiller 
wrote to him : * I grow giddy when I think of the wind- 
ing up ; what makes me anxious is, that from its nature 
your Faust appears to supply an infinity of material — 
how will it be when the whole has to be worked out ? 
For a mass of subject-matter which swells up so high 
and juts out so wide I find no circle large enough to 
keep it within bounds.' Gothe replied : * Your remarks 
as to Faust delighted me ; they accord excellently with 
my purposes and plans, — only that I expect to make my 
work at this barbarous composition less difficult, and 
rather to quiet exorbitant demands than to fulfil them. 
The whole will always remain a fragment.' 

The full completion of the Faust poem is impossible, 


because never can the moment arrive in which man's 
longing for perfection and infinity shall mingle and 
blend with his sense of actual limitation and finality. 
In his old age Gothe became untrue to this belief. The 
Second Part of Faust offers itself not only as a continua- 
tion, but as a completion and conclusion. But this pro- 
posed conclusion is not a crowning of the high-soaring 
structure, it is only an insufficient, temporary roofing in. 

Yet if the Faust poem cannot be considered perfect 
as a work of art, it is none the less in my judgment the 
greatest work in modem literature ; and this not merely 
firom an aesthetic, but also from a moral standpoint. It 
is not only a great poem, it is likewise a God-sent 

Looking at the two Parts of Faust as embodying the 
results of Gothe's whole wisdom of life, the lesson taught 
seems to me the duty of incorporating our ideal desires 
with practical activity, and so of limiting them, at least 
provisionally. Faust, at the end of Part II., draining a 
marsh and reclaiming from the wild sea a piece of land 
for happy human beings, is Faust, the idealist, who 
leaves his study in Part I., now educated for putting this 
life to highest uses. Yet, though limited, his ideal 
cravings are not finally enclosed and shut up from end- 
less progression, and so he ascends heavenward through 
ever higher and purer efforts to the highest Love. 


3l|r nciit eadt tofeier, \divoantenbe ©ejiolten, 
Sie frul^ jtdi emji iem truben Slid gesdgt. 
Perjudi idi tool cudi btesmal fcji 3U Ijolten? 
5uE|I idj tnem ^ers nod? jenem lDaI|n genetgt? 
3I?t brdngt cud? 3U 1 Ztan gut, fo mogt tl?r molten, s 
Wxe it|r aus ©unjl rnxb Zlebd um mid? jleigt; 
ZlTein Sufen ful?lt fid? jugcnblid? erfd?iittert 
l?om S<JiiI>^i^Il<»id?, 5er euren §ug ummittert. 

3t?r bringt mtt cud? 6ic SUber froB?er Siage, 

Un5 mcmd?e liebe 5d?atten jieigen cmf ; lo 

<5leid? enter olten, I?att)x>erflungnen Sage, 

Komntt erjie Cieb' unb 5^eun5fd?aft mit I?erauf ; 

2)er 5d?mer3 n?ir5 neu, es n>ie5er^oIt We Klage 

Des Cebens IabYrintl?ifd? irren Cauf, 

Unb nennt bie <5uten, Me, um fd?6ne Stanben is 

t?om (Bliitf getdufd?t, vox mtr i?intDeg gefd?u>un5en. 

Sie I?6ren nid?t 5ie folgenben (Sefdnge, 

2>ie Seelen, 5enen id? 5ie er^en fang ; 

^erftoben ijl- bas freun5Iid?e (Bebrdnge, 

Perflungen, ad? 1 bet erfte XDieberf lang. 20 

E B 


2Ttein Ceib ertont bev nnbdannten TXicnge, 
y\t Seif oil felbjt mad]t meinem ^er3cn bang ; 
XXnb was ftdj fonfl an nteinem CieS erfreuet, 
IDenn es nod| lebt, irrt in &er IDelt serftreuct. 

Hnb mid| ergrcift cm Idngjl entoSIintes 5d|nen 25 

ZCadi jenem ftillen emften (Seijierreidj ; 

€5 fditoebct nun in unbeftimmten Sonen 

TXlcxn lispelnb £ie{), 6er iteolsliarfe gleidj ; 

€in Sdiaaet fagt mid^, CI|rdne folgt bm Q^rdncn, 

2)05 ftrenge ^erj es fu^t jtd| miI6 nnb roeidj ; 30 

IDos id? bcfifee feBj' id? roie im ZDeiten, 

Unb toas perfd?i»an6 voxxb mir ju ZDirflidjfeiten, 

Porfptel auf bent tEIjeater^ 

Director* (£i{eaterbi(^ter* £aflt$e perfon. 


3Iir J)0iben, t>ie tl|r mtr fo oft 

3n Xtotlj unb (Crubfal beigcjian&cn, 

Sagt, tpos it|r tpol in ^eutfct^en Conben as 

Don unfrer Untemel^mung Ijofft? 

3di iDunfdjte fel|r 5cr ZHcngc 3U bel^agen, 

Befonbers toeil fie (ebt unb leben (dgt. 

Die pfojlen fm&, &ie Sretter aufgefdilagen, 

Un5 jebermamt enx>artet ftdj ein 5^ji. 40 

5ie ft^en fd{on mit I{oI{en Thxgenbvanmn 

(Selaffen 6a unb mdci)ten gem erflounen. 

3cl^ u>eig n>ie man t>en (5eiji bes Polfs t)erfol|nt, 

t>odt fo t>er(egen bin xdt nie gemefen ; 

gtoar jtn& pe on &a5 Sejie nidjt geto5I|nt, 4s 

^Oein jte I)aben fd^recf lidt t>iel gelefen. 

tt>ie madden vovc% &a§ aKes frifd^ mxb neu 

Unt) mit Be&eutung audi gcf dllig fei ? 

7>enn freilidj mag idj gem &ie ZlTenge fet^en, 

IDemt pdi 5er Strom wait unfrer Su6e brdngt, 50 

Unb mit geroaltig roiebertiolten Weitm 

Sxdi bwcdi We enge <5nabenpforte jtodngt. 


Sei I^eHem Cage, fdjon t>or Vwten, 

TXixt Stolen jtdi bis an 5ie Kajje ftcf^t, 

lln6 xx>xe in ^ungersnotl) um Srot an Sdcf ertl^uren, ss 

Um ctn SiCet ftd? fajl 5ie ^dlfe bndit 

t>ks Wnnbet voxttt auf fo i>erfd?ie5ne Ceute 

Ser Sidjter mir ; mexn S^nnb, o, ftiii es Ijeute I 


Q) fpridi mir nid^t ©on jener bunten ZHcnge, 

Set &eren Tlnblxd nns bet (Seiji entflielit 60 

VexiiMe mir bos ix>ogent)e <5e5rdnge, 

©OS roiber XDiHen uns sum Strubel sieljt 

Xtein, fut|re mid? 3ur jKflen J^immelsenge, 

IDo nur bem Sid^ter reine 5reu5e bliil|t; 

IDo £ieb' un& 5i^^uni)fd?aft unfres fjersens Segen 65 

2Ttit (58tterl|anb erfdjaff en un6 erpflegen, 

yd^ I was in tiefer Srujl uns ba entfjnrungen, 
Was fid^ bie Cippe fd^iidjtem t)orgeIaIIt, 
Zni^ratfien jefet unt) jefet oieHeidit gelungen, 
Perfdjlingt bes wViben ^tugenblicfs (Sewalt 70 

(Dft roenn es erjl 5urd? 3al^re ^urd^gebrungen, 
<£rfd|eint es in ©oQenbeter dSeflali 
IDos gidnst, ijl fur &en 2lugenbKrf geboren ; 
Vas €dite bleibt &er Zladiweit unoerloren. 

CufKge perfon* 

Wcmx xdt «ur nidits von Xtadiwelt I^oren fottte I 75 
(5efefet bag idj t>on 2tad|U)elt reben rpollte, 
XPer madjte benn bev Xllitoelt Spa^ ? 
Den ix>in jte bodt nnb foK it^n I|aben. 


Die (Segenn)art von etnem btaoen Knaben 

3jl, bddiV xdi, imtner aud^ fd^on toos. so 

iDer jtdi beliaglxdi Tntt3utI^eUcn xx>ex% 

3)en roirb bes Voltes tonne nxdit etbxttcxn ; 

€r tDunfd^t fid^ cinm gro§en Kreis, 

Um ii^n getoiffer ju erfd^uttem. 

3)rum fcib nur btav mxb setgt cudj tnufierljaf t ; bs 

ta%t pl^antajte, tntt oDen il^ren Cl^Sren, 

Pemunft, Pcr^anb, €m}?fm5ung, Ceibenfd^aft, 

Dodj, ntcrft eudj rool, nid^t ol^nc 2tarrB|ctt I|6ren I 


Sefonbers aber la%t genug gefdjelin 1 

ZHan fommt 3U fdjau'n, man toil! am liebjlen fe^n. 90 

IDir5 ©ieles vox ben Tbxgen abgefponnen, 

So ba^ bxe ZHenge fiaunenb gaffen farm, 

Da I^abt iE^r in bet Sreite gleidj geiDomten, 

3I|r fei& ein oielgeliebter ZHarat. 

Die ZHaffe Kmtt it^r nur feurdi TXla^e ivoxngen ; 95 

(£xn jebet fudit fid^ enMidj felbji was aus. 

H>er Pieles bringt, tvxtb TXlandiem etoos bringen ; 

Unb iebev geiit 5uftie&en aus &em ^aus. 

(5ebt il|r ein Stiitf , fo gebt es glexdi in Stiicf en I 

Soldi ein Hagout, es mu§ eud^ gliiden; 100 

texdit if} es Dorgelegt; fo (eidjt ols ausgebad^i 

Was I^ilft's, toenn il^r ein (Sanies bargebradjt 1 

Das publicum u>ir5 es eud^ bodj serpfliitfen. 


3Iir ful|let nidit, tx>ie fdjledit ein fold^es ^an5n>erf fei I 
^ie ipenig bos bem edttten KunjHer sieme I 105 

Der faubem ^erren pfufdjerei 
3j}, merf id|, fd^on bei eixdi ZHa^me, 




€m foldjer Vovwwcf ISgt tnidi ungchrdnft; 

©n ZHann, bcr red^t 3U it>irf en bentt, 

7Xbx% cmf 505 bej)e IDer^eug t^alten. 

Be5enft, il|r Ijobct wctdjes ^ols 3U fpolten, 

Unb frf^t nur I|in, fiir toen it^r fdjreibt I 

IDenn biefen Cangetoeile treibt, 

Kommt jcner fatt pom iibertifdjten ZHoIife, 

Uni), mas bos Merfdifimmfle bleibt, "s 

(Bar mandjer fommt 00m Cefen ber 3oumaIe. 

ZlTan cUt serjkeut ju uns, wie ju t)en Znosfenfeficn, 

Unt) Zteugier mir beflugelt jeben Sdjritt; 

Die Samen geben pdj un5 il^ren pu^ sum Sejien, 

Unb fpielen oljne (Sage mit 120 

Was trdumet it|r auf eurer 2)idjterI^oI|e ? 

IDas madit em DoIIes J^aus eudj froI| ? 

Sefeljt bie (56nner in &er 2tdt{e I 

fjalb ftnb fie fait, Ijalb jm6 pe roBj. 

®er, nadi ^^11^ Sdjcmfpiel, I^offt ein Kartenfpiel, 125 

J)er eine toilbe Ztadjt an einer Dime Bufen. 

Was plagt iE|r armen tEIjoren t>iel, 

Su foldjem §»ecf, 5ie I|oIt>en JlTufen? 

3di fag* eudi, gebt nur mel|r unt) immer, immer mel|r, 

So fSnnt il|r eudj Pom Siele nie oerirren* 130 

Sudjt nur &ie ZHenfd^en 5U Dertoirren, 

Sie ju befriebigen iji fd?tx>er. 

Was f ant eud) an ? (£n^cfung pber Sdjmersen ? 


(5el|' l|in unt) fud?* 5ir einen anbem Knedjt I 

Ser Diditer follte tt>ol bas Ijod^jie Kedjt, 135 


2)05 Zncnfdienrecfit, bos iljm Zlatwc DergSnnt, 

Um 5cmehx>ilkn freocntlid) oerfd^ct^en 1 

XDoburdj bewegi ex aUe fjcrsen ? 

Wobwcdt bcjtegt cr je&es (Element? 

3ji ^5 &er ©nflang nidjt, &er aus bent Sufen bringt, 140 

Mnb in fern ^ers bie ZDdt surucfe fdjiingt? 

XDcnn bie Ztatur fees 5<tben5 ew*ge Cdnge, 

<51eidigultig brel^enb, auf bxe Spxnbel yx>xngt, 

Werm atter IDefen unljannon'fd^e JTtenge 

Pcrbriefelidj burd^ emonber Hingt; 145 

ZDer tl^eilt bie flicfeenb immer gleidje Heil|c 

Selebenb ab, bag pe jtcf? rliytfltnifdj regt? 

ZDer ruft bos Cinsclne jur allgemeinen IPeil^e, 

IDo es m Ijerrltdjen 2tccorben fdjidgt ? 

Wet lafet ben Shurm 3U Ceibenfdjaften toiitlien ? 150 

Dos 2lbenbrott| im emjlen Sinne glut|n ? 

IDer fdjuttet olle fd^onen JriU^Iingsblfltlien 

Tbxf ber <5eUebten pf abe iixn ? 

IDer flid^t bie unbebeutenb grunen 33(dtter 

Sum &ivexxttatx^ Perbienjien jeber 2trt? iss 

IDer fidtert ben ®l\wp/ t>^teinet (55tter ? 

3>e5 Zllenfdjen Kraft, im X)iditer offenbari 

CujHge perfon. 

So braudit jte bemt bie fd^Snen Krdfte, 

Unb treibt bie bidit'rifd^en (Befdjdfte, 

IDie man ein Ciebesabenteuer treibt. 160 

Suf&Qig rxaiit man ftd^, man fut}(t, man bleibt 

Unb nad^ unb nad? toirb man perfloditen ; 

£s rodd^ft bos &Wid, bann toirb es angefod^ten, 

TXlon ifl ent3ucf t, nun fommt ber Sd^mers i|eran, 

Unb e^* man ^dfs perjtet|t, ift's eben ein Soman. 165 


Ca%t mxs audi fo cm Sdjaufpirf geben 1 

(Breift tmr Ijinetn ins ootte Zncnfdjenlebcn ! 

©n jeber lebf s, ntd|t ©iefen iji's befannt, 

Unt) too il|r'5 padt, ba tji's intcrejfant. 

3n bunten Silbcm tpenig Klorfjeit, 170 

Wei 3*^l!iint unb cm S^vtdten XDot^rljcit, 

So iptri) bet bcj^c tCranf gcbrout, 

Dcr oKc XDclt crquicft un6 ouf crbout. 

Donn fammcit pdj 6cr 3ugcnl) fd^onjlc 8IutI|C 

I?or cmrcm Spiel nnb laufd^t 6cr ©ffcnborung, 175 

7>ann fougct jcbcs 5drt(idic (9cmittI)C 

Tbxs cucrm IDcrf ftdj mclond^orfdjc Zlaiivmxg, 

7>arm voitb bcib bics, bcib ienes aufgcrcgt, 

£in jebcr jtcljt, toos cr im fjcrjcn trdgt. 

2todj fin& jtc glcidj bcrcit 3U u>cincn un& 3U ladjcn, xSo 

Sic cljrcn nodj ben Sd^ipung, crfrcucit jtdi am Sdjcin : 

Wet f crtig ijl, 5cm ifl nicf^ts rcdjt ju madden ; 

€in IDcrbcnbcr toirb immcr bantbac fcin. 


So gib mir caxAt ^i« Scitcn «>ic5cr, 

2)a id| nodj felbji im Wexben war, 185 

2)a jtdj cin QucQ gcbrdngtcr Cic^cr 

Umintcrbrodjcn ncu gcbar, 

2)a 2tcbcl mir bxe Welt pcrljMtcn, 

Die Knospc IDunbcr nodj Dcrfpradj, 

J)a idj bie tcax\enb Slumcn bradj, 190 

3)ic aHc 2;i|aicr rcidjlidj fiiHtcn. 

3di B^attc nid^ts un5 bodi gcnug I 

©en 3)rang nad? XDal^rljcit un6 6ic £ujl am Crug, 

(Sib ungebdnbigt jcnc Cricbc, 

Vas ticfc fd^mcrscmooQc (Slud, 19s 


Des J^affes Kraft, bxe Vfladit bet tkbe, 
(5ib meme 3ugen6 rnfar 5urilcf I 

Cufiige pcrfon. 

7>ev 3^^^f 9^^^ 5reun&, beborfjl bu aDenfoIb, 

IPcnn t>idj in 5dilad)tcn 5^tn6c brdngen, 

XPenn mtt (Setpolt an bemen ^cis soo 

Sidj oHerliebjlc ZXldbdien iidngcn, 

IDenn fern bes fdjnetten Coufes Krans 

l?om fdjtDcr erretdjten gi^fe tomfet, 

XDenn nadi bem I^eft'gen ttHrbcltons 

Die Ztddjte fdjmcmfcn& man oertrinfet. 90s 

7>o(ii ins be!annte Saitenfpiel 

Znit Zdvdii mib 2tnmutE{ etn5ugrcifen, 

Ztadj einem felbjigejiecf ten giel 

ZHit iiolbem 3rren Ijinsufdiweifen, 

7>as, alte ^erm, iji eure ppidjt, aw 

Un5 roir oerel^ren eud) borum nid^t minber. 

1>as 2Uter madjt nid?t ftnbifdj, roie man fpridjt, 

£d ftnbet uns nur nodt ols n>ai|re Kin5er. 

. Director. 

Ser IDorte jtnb genug getoed^felt, 

£aj$t mxdt (xvidt enblxdt Cl^aten fet^n I ais 

3nbeg itix Complimente bredifelt, 

Kamt etxpas Ztii^(id|es gefd^e^n. 

Was I^ilft es piel von Stimmung reben ? 

J)em 3<wii^^niben erfdjeint pe nie. 

(5ebt il|r eud? einmal jiir poeten, 230 

So commanbirt bie poefie. 

€udi ift befamtt, was wvt beburfen, 

£Dir tDoUen ftar! (5etrdn!e fd^Uirfen; 

lo FAUST. 

Zlnn btavd mir uncerjuglidi bran 1 

Was I^cute mitt gefditeB^t, tjl movqen nidjt gett^an ; 225 

Unb f einen Cag foQ man t>crpaf[en, 

Das Znoglid^e foE 5er (gntfd?Iu§ 

Seljerst fogleidi beim Sd^opfe f affcn ; 

<Er u)tH es bann ntd^t fal^rcn laffen 

Unl) toirfet todtcr, n>^il cr mug. 230 

3I|r xvx%t, auf unfcm beutfdjen Siilinen 

probirt cin jcber mas er mag ; 

J)rum fd^onct mir an Wcfem Cag 

profpccte nid^t unb nicJ^t ZHafd^inen I 

(Bebraud^t bos grog' unb flcine J^immelslidit, 23s 

Die Sterne bflrf et il^r perfd^wenben ; 

2ln XDaffer, 5^uer, S^^^ruvdnben, 

2tn Qjier unb Pogein fetjit es nid^t. 

So fd^reitet in 6em engen Srettert^ans 

2)en gansen Kreis ber Sd^opfung aus, 240 

Uxxb toanbelt mit bet>ddjt*ger Sdinette 

£>om ^immel bwcdi 5ie IDelt 5ur fjdtte. 

Prolog im ^immcL 

Der ^err. Die Ijimmlift^en fjeerf(^aaren. TXad^litt 


Die brei (Erjengel treten vox. 

5)ie Sonne tont nad^ alter IDeife 

3n 8rut>erfpl|dren IDettgefang, 

Unb il^re porgefdiriebne Heife 245 

VoUmbet jte mit Donnergang. 

3Iir TlnhM gibt 5en (gngeln Stdrfe, 

Wenn f einer jte ergrunben mag ; 

Die unbegreiflid? I|oI|en IDerfe 

Sinb I|errlicf| wie am erjien Cag. 250 


Unt> fdnteK unb unBegretfiid? fdjneUe 

Ihreljt jtdi uml|er &er €r5e pradjt ; 

£5 roedtfelt parabtefestieQe 

Znit tiefer fdjauerooQer Zladtt; 

(£5 fdjdumt bos ZHeer in breiten 5tiiff^n 255 

am tiefen (5run5 ber 5rff^n cmf, 

Unb S^ls nnb ZHeer iptri) fortgeriffen 

3n erotg fdineKem Spljdrenlauf ♦ 

12 FAUST. 

Unb Stiirme braufen um bie Weite, 

Pom TXieev auf's Conb, Dom Can6 oafs Zltcer, 260 

Un^ bilben wutiimb cine Kettc 

3)er ticfjien IDirfung rin^ umE|er. 

Va flatnmt cin blifecnbes Derl^ccrcn 

©em pfabe t>or bes J)onnerfd?Iag5 ; 

®odi 6eine Soten, ^err, ©erel^ren 265 

V<xs fanfte XDanbeIn Seines Cags. 

Svi Sret. 

Der ^nblirf gibt ben €ngeln Starfe, 

©a fetner bxdi ergrunben mag, 

Unb aHe beine I^ot^en ZDerfe 

Sinb I^errlidi toie am erjien Cag. 270 


Da 6u, fferr, bxdt einmc^ toieber nat)ft 

Unl) fragji vok aUes fidj bei mis befinbe, 

Unb 5u mid^ fonjl geroSIinficf^ geme faE|P, 

So fielijl 5u mtdj audi unter &em (5ejtn5e. 

Derjeili', idi fann nid)t Bjol^e IDorte madien, 275 

Unb u>emt mtdj aud? 5er ganse Kreis vettidfyit; 

ZHein patijos brdd^te bidt gexo\% jum Cad^en, 

^dtt'ft 5u 5ir nid^t bas Cad^enabgeipoljnt 

Von Sonn' unb XDelten roeig id) nidjts 5U fagen, 

3di fel^e nur tpie ^d? 5ie Znenfd^en plagen. 280 

Ser Heine (Sott 5er IDelt bleibt jldts oon gleid^em 

Unt) iji [0 n>un5erKd|, ab n?ie am erjien Cag, 
(£in ix>enig beffer toiirb' er leben, 


jJ^dtt'fl bvi it|m nid^t &en Sdjein 5e5 gimmeblidits 

1 gegeben ; 

|<£r nermt's ^^ gcmunft ^^ un6 braud^fs oHein, aSs 

Iztur tljierifdier ols jebes Ojier 3tt fcin. 

'(£r fdieint mir, ntit Pwlaub t>on cuer (5na5en, 

IPie eine 5er langBemigen ^ila^en I 

®te hnmer fiiegt un5 fSegcnb fpringt, 

Un6 gleid? im (Bros il|r oltes £ie6d|en jtngt. 290 

Unb lag* er nttr nod) hnmer in bem (Srafe 1 

3n jeben Quorf begrdbt ex feinc itafe, 

J)er ^err. 

i^ajl 5u mir roeiter ntdjts ju fagen ? 
Kommjl 6u nur immer ansuf lagen ? 
3jl cmf 6cr (Er5e eu)ig bir nidits rcd^t ? 29s 


Xtein, ^crrl id? ftn6* es 6ort u)ie immer, iiev^idi 

Die tlTenfdien bauem midj in il|ren 3ammertagen ; 
3d) ntag fogar 6ie 2trmen fclbji nidjt plagcn. 

Der J^err, 
Kennji 6u 5en 5cmji? 


Ser fjerr. 

tndnen Kned)tl 


5firrx)al|r I cr Ment cud) auf befon^re IDetfe. 300 

Xtxdit \vb\\d\ iji 5c5 Cboren Cranf nod) Speifc. 

14 FAUST. 

2il^ tretbt bk (5dl|rung in bie 5^nte, 

<gr iji fid| femer Coffijeit Ijalb bcmugt; 

Pom JEjimmel forbert cr bie fd^onjlen Sterne, 

Unb x>on 5er <2r6e jebe I^od^jle £uji, 305 

Vinb alle 2tdl|* un6 aHe 5ente 

BefrieWgt nidit bie tiefbewegte Sruji. 

©er JEjerr. 

XDenn er ntir jefet cmdj nut ©erroorren Went, 
So wetb* xdt \tin balb in t)ie Klorl^eit fiiliren. 
lPei§ bodj 5er (Bdrtner, toenn bos ^&am<iim grunt, 310 
J)a§ Slxitl^* unb 5nxdit We funft'gen 3^^^^^ sieren. 


tDos vo^ttet il|r ? J)en follt iljr nodi t)erlieren, 
XPenn iljr mir bie €rlaubnig gebt, 
3t|n meine Strajje fad^t 3U fiU^ren I 

Der ^err. 

So long er auf 6er (Er5e lebt, 31s 

So lange fei 6ir'5 nidit ©erboten. 
} (£s irrt ber tlTenf dj fo long er jhrebt 1 


Va banf xdi eudj"; benn mit 5en tEobten 

Slab* idj midi niemols gem befangen. /^ ' 

2tm nteijlen lieb* idj mir bie pollen frifdjen XPongen, 320 

5iir einen Ceid^nam bin idj nid^t ju Stems ; 

Mr gel|t es tt>ie ber Kofee mit ber TXlcaxs, 

®er ^err, 
Hun gut, es fei bir ftberlaffen I 


/Stet|' biefen (5eip ©on femem ^Jr^ldl ab, (, 
lln5 fiiljr' il^, fannjl 5u it|n erfaffen, 325 

2luf 5emem lOege tntt t|erab, 
Un6 flet|' befdidmt, toenn l)u bcfemten muBt: 
©n outer ZlTenfcti in feinem ^unf ein Grange 
3P pdj 6e5 red|ten XPcges u>oI ben>u§t. 

Sdjon gut 1 nur 5auert es nid^t longe, 330 

Znir iji fur meine IDette gear nid^t bonge. 

XDcnn idj ju mctnem 5n>ecf gelonge, 

£rlaubt il|r ntir tErmmpi) cms poller Srujl, 

Sioxb foil er freffen, un5 mit £ujl, 

IDie meine XHuIime, 5ie beriitimte Sd^Iange, 33s 

J)er fjerr. 

2)u barfji audi &a nur frei erfd^einen ; 

3di I^abe feeines ©leid^en nie get^agt. 

Don alien ©eijlem, We ©emeinen, 

3P ntir ber Sd^al! am toenigjien 3ur Caji. 

2)e5 UTenfdjen ©jdtigf eit f omt oUsuIeic^t erfdjiajf en 340 

(gr liebt fid? balb bie unbebingte Hul| ; 

Drum geb' idj gem il|m 6en (5efeIIen 5U, 

Der reijt un6 «>irft unb mug als tEeuf el fd^aff en. 

J)od) il|r, bie edjten (55tterfoI|ne, 

(Erfreut eud^ 5er lebenbig reid^en Sdjone 1 34s 

T>os XPerbenie, bas eu>ig ujirft un5 lebt, 

Umfaff eud? mit 5er Ciebe I^olben Sdjranfen, 

Un6 w<xs in fdju>anfen6er €rfdjeinung fd^webt, 

Sefeftiget mit ^oxxzxvi^^xs, (5e6anfen. 

Der ^tmmel fc^Itefit, bte €r3en9el oertljetlen fic^?. 

i6 FAUST. 

Von §At 5U S^t \eii' idi ben 2tlten gem 350 

Vinb ifiic mid) mit \litn 5U bred^en. 

£5 ijl gar I^fibfd) von emem grogert fjerm, 

So menfd^Iid) mit bent (Eeufel felbfl 5U fpred^cn. 




3n einem l|od/gem3ISten, engen, gotljtfc^en gttnmer ^aujl 
unru^tg auf fetnem Seffel am pult. 

^abe nun, ad?, pI|iIofopI|ie, 

3urijierei un6 ZlTeWcin, 355 \j 

Un5 Uxbev caxdi Cf}eo(ogie 

Durdjaus jhifeirt, mit Ijetgem Scmul|n I 

3)a ^eii* xdi nun, id? armer Ct|or, 

Un5 bin fo Hug, cds ww 5uoor ; 

fjei^e tlTagiJier, I^cigc Sector gar, 360 

Unb 5iel?e fdjon an 6ie 3cl|en 3cil|^ 

fjerauf, E?crab un5 qucr un5 frumm, 

tlTeine Sdjuler an bet Xla^e I|erum 

Xln5 fel?c, 6a§ n>ir nid^ts miffcn fdnncn I 

Vas wxU mir fd?icr bas ^erj pcrbrenncn. 36s 

§u>ar bin id? gcfd?eiter als alle bie Caffen, 




Doctoren, ZHagipcr, Sdivexbev mxb pf aff en ; 

Xdxdt plagen feme Scrupel nodi 3tt)eifel, 

$urd|te mxdt meber vox fjoHe nodj Ceufel. 

J)afur ijl mir aud? alle 5reu5' entriffen, 370 

Silbe mir nid^t ein, mas Hedjts 5U miffen, 

Sitoe mir nid^t ein idj f onnte mas lel^ren, 

Die ZlTenfdjen 3U beffem nnb 5U befel^ren ! — 

^ndi iidb' id? toeber (5ut nod? (5eI5, 

Kodi €I?r' un6 ^errlid^feit 6er XPelt; 37s 

£5 mSd^te f ein ^un5 fo Idnger leben ! — 

Drum I:?ab' id| midj 5er TXlagxe ergeben, 

®b mir 5nrd| (Seizes Kraft un5 Vfbxrxb 

Zlxdit mandj' (5el|eimni§ rDur6e hxrxb 1 

Da§ id? nid?t mel^r, mit fauerm 5djix)ei§, 380 

5u fagen braud?e, was id? nidjt ix)ei§ ; 

Da§ id? erfenne, toos 6ie Welt 

3m 3nnerjlen 5ufammenl?dlt, 

Sd?au* alle IDirfensfraft un6 Somen, 

Unb tl?u' nid?t mel|r in IDorten Iramen. 38s 

(D \difi bn, t^oHer Zllon^enfdiein, 
Sum lefeten TXlai auf meine pein, 
Den id? fo mand?e ZHittemad?! 
5ln feiefem pult I?erangetDad?t 1 
Dann fiber Sud?em un6 papier, 390 

Criibferger S^^enrxb, erfd?ienft bu mir 1 — 
^d?, fount' id? 5od? auf Serge5l?6I?n 
3n 6einem lieben £id?te gel?n, 
Urn Serge5l?oI?Ie mit (5eijlem fd?u?eben, 
2luf IDiefen in 5einem Ddmmer u>eben, 39s 

Don aHem IDiffensqualm entlaben, 
3n feeinem tEB?au gefunb mid? baberx 1 

SCENE I. 19 

Well* 1 jlecf ' xdi in bem Kcrfcr nodi ? 

VevflndiUs, bumpfes ZlTaucriodj I 

Wo fclbjl ^05 Keb^ ^immclslidjt 4<» 

^xvb bvxdt gemolte Sd^eibcn brid^t 1 

Scfdirdnft mit Wefem Sudjertjouf , 

©en IDurmc nagen; Staub bebedt. 

Den bis an's Ijol^c (8cxt>oIb* t{inauf 

€in angeroudjt papier um jlecf t ; 40s 

TXlxi (5Idfem, ^}xdi\en rings umfleQt; 

Znit 3"Pnini^nten voUgepftopftf 

Urodter J^ausratl^ breingejlopft — 

©OS iji 6eine Welti bos Ijei^t: eine Welti 

Unb fragji 5u nod|, t»arum 6ein ^erj 410 

Sxdi bang in ^einem Bufen Semmt; 

XDarum ein unerfldrter Sdjmet^ 

J)ir alle Cebensregung ^emmt? 

Stcdt bev Ieben6igen 2tatur, 

7>a (5ott 6ie 21Tenfd|en fdjuf t^inein, 4x5 

Umgibt in Saudj un6 Zdobev nur 

3)idj tn^iergeripp' un& CoWenbein. 

5IieI^' I Tbxf 1 ^inaus in's toeite tanb I 

Uxib bies geljeintni^oolle Sudj, 

Von Zto^abanms eigner JEjanb, 420 

2^ bvc es nid^t (5eleit genug ? 

(Erfennejl 5ann 6er Sterrte £auf, 

lln5 n>enn Ztatur bxdtt untermeift, 

Sann gel|t 5ie Seelenfraft bvc auf, 

It>ie fpridjt ein (5eij! sum anbem <Sex% 43s 

Umfonjl, ba% trocfnes Sinnen I|ier 

Bie l^eil'gen ^eidjen bit erfldri 


y:iv \dtwcbt, il|r (Beijicr, ncben mir ; 
^ntroortet mir, toenn tl^r mtdj Ijort I 

<Er ((^(dgt bos Buc^ auf unb erblicft bos ^etc^ett bes 

^a 1 xoddi^ Wonne fliegt in 5icfcm Blicf 430 

2luf cinmal mir 6urdj allc meine Sinnen I 

3d? fuljle jungcs, E^eil'ges Cebcnsglud 

ZlcviQWienb mir feurd? Xtcro* un6 Tlbevn rinnen. 

XPor C5 cin (5ott, 6er 6iefe S^id^en fd^rieb, 

Vie mir bos inn'rc tEobcn jHUcn, 43s 

Dos arme £jer3 mit fyenbe fuHen, 

Un5 mit geI|eimni§©oIIem Crieb 

3)ie Krdfte 6er Zlatxx rings um mid? I|cr cntliullen ? 

Sin xdi cin (5ott ? ZHir ix)ir6 fo lid^t 1 

3di fd^ou* in Wefen rein^n 5^9^" 440 

Sie widenbe Zlabxt vox mcincr Seek licgcn. 

3^fet erfi erf enn' idj, was bet tOex\e fpridjt: 

„2)ie (BcijiertDcIt ijl nid?t oerfdjloffen ; 

Dcin Sinn ijl ju, 5ein ^crs iji toM I 

2luf I babe, Sdjulcr, unt)er6rojfen 445 

3>ie irb'fdje Sruji im tlTorgenrotli 1" 

€r befc^aut bas geic^en. 

XD'xe aXles jtdj 5um (Sanson roebt, 

&ns in 6em cmfeem toirft un6 lebt 1 

XPie J^immelsfrdfte ouf mib nxebev jldgen 

Unb pdj &ie golfenen €imer rcidjen I 450 

Znit fegen6uften&cn Sd^tcingen 

X>om J^immrf 6urd| bxe <£xbe 6ringen, 

^armonifdi all bas 2111 burdjHingen I 

Weldi Sdiaufpiel I aber adi, exn Sdjaufpiel nur I 
XOo faff idj bxdt, unenblid^e Ztatur? 45s 

SCENE I. 21 

(£ud| Srfifte, too ? 3Ijr QueHen oHes Cebe^xs, 

Tin 6enen fjimmel unb €r6e I^dngt, 

Dol^m 5ie welfe Sruj! pd? brdngt — 

3Ijr qnetiif iljr trdnft, un6 fdimad^t* xdi fo oergebens? 

€r fc^Idgi nntpiKtg has Bnc^ nm unb erbltcft bas getc^en 
bes (Erbgetjies* 

Ww ccnbevs toirft bies g^ictj^n auf mid^ ein I 460 

Su, (5eift 6cr €r6e, bift mtr ndB^er; 

Sdion ffll^r idj meme Krdfte lidiiev, 

Sdton glulj' idt xx>\e von neuem IDchi. 

3cti ful^le tlTutl^, mid^ in bxe Welt 5U toagen, 

J)er €r&e IDel^*, 5cr €r6e (5Iud 5U tragcn, 46s 

Znit Stflrmen midi I^erumjufdjlagen 

Unb in 5e5 Sdjiffbrudjs Knirfdjen nid]t 3U sagen. — 

€5 ipolft jtd^ fiber mir — 

X)er ZHonb pcrbirgt fein £id|t — 

Die Campe fd|u)in&et I 470 

€5 bampftl — €5 jucfen rotlje Straljlen 

TXlvc um 505 ^aupt 1 — €5 roelit 

©n 5d|cmer t>om (Setodlb' Ijerab 

Un5 f a§t midj an I 

3dj fiilirs, 6u fd^roebji um mid?, erflet|ter (5eiji I 47s 

(gntliuEe 5idi I 

^a, wie's in meinem fjersen reigt I 

5u neuen (5effil|Ien 

2HI meine Sinne pd? erix)iil|Ien I 

3dj futtle gans mein ^er3 Wr I|ingegeben I 480 

J)u mu§t I 6u mugt 1 unS !ojief es mein Ceben I 

€r fa^t bas Buc^ unb fprtc^t bas getc^en bes (Setfles 
get^etmnt^oll aus. €s 5ucft etne r$tf{It(^e jiamme, 
ber (5etjl erf(^eint in ber ^lamme. 


■ ■ ■ - . * . 

XOev ruft mir ? 

5ciujl abgetpenbet. 

5djre<fRd?c5 (5eficlit I 

Tin meiner 5pt|dre lang gcfogen, 
Unb nun — 

XPet| 1 idj ertrag' bid? nidjt I 48s 

Du ffelijl evatfynenb mid? 3U fd^auen, 

ZUeine Stintme 3U Ij5ren, ntein 2lntlife ju fel|n ; 

inidj ncigt 6cm mSd^tig Scelenflelin, 

®a bin id? I — Wddt crbdrmlidj <5va\xen 

Sa%t Ucbcrmenfd^en bidi I Wo ift bev Secle Huf ? 490 

XPo ift 6ie Srujl, 6ie eine IDcIt in fidj crfd^uf 

Unb trug unb Ijegte, 6ie mit 5reu6cbeben 

(grfd^tpott fid? uns ben (Beiflem gfeid? 3u t^eben ? 

XPo bijl 6u, 5ciujl, bes Stimme mir erflang, 

Vet fid? an mid? mit alien Krdften 6rang ? 49s 

Sijl bu es, ber, »on meinem £?aud? unir>ittert, 

3n alien Cebenstiefen sittert, 

€in furd|tfam toeg geMmmter IDurm ? 


Son id? bxVf 5IammenbiI6ung, r©eid?en ? 

3d? bin's, bin 5aujl, bin Seines (5Ieid?en ! soo 

SCENE I. 23 

3rt £ehensfbxtlien, im d|atcnfhirm 

XOalV idi auf rxnb ab, 

Webe iixn un6 Ijcr I 

(5ebiirt unt) <Svab, 

€m eroiges tlTeer, sos 

(£in wed^felnt) lt>eben, 

(Ein glut^enb teben. 

So fdjaff' idi am faufcnfeen IDebjiuI^I bet ^ext 

Vinb mvte bet (Sottliext kbexxbxges Ukxb, 


J)cr bn bxe toexte Welt UTnfd?it>eifP, 510 

(5cfdjdfttger <5eiji ix>ie natj fuljl* idj midj bit ! 

X)u gfeidjji 5em (5ciji, 6en feu begreifjl, 

Xtidit mir I Pcrfd/u)inbet. 

5aujl 3ufammenftur3enb. 

XPem benn ? sis 

3dj, (Zbenbxlb bet (5ottI|ett ! 
Unb rxxdit cinmal bit I 

(Es Hopft. 

Co6 1 id? term's; bos ift ntetn famulus* 

(£s wxtb ntetn fd^onjies (5Ificf su nid|tc 1 

2)a§ 6tefc 5uKe 6er (5eficfite sao 

J)er ttodne Sdilexdiet ftoren tnufe ! 

IPagner im Sc^Iafrocfe unb ber XXad^tmn^t, tine £ampe 
in ber ^arib, ^auft oenbet ftc^ untt>tKt0, 



V^eiiitf \dt I)dr' cud? beclamiren I 

2it^ Icift gevox^ cin gried^ifd? tErauerfpiel? 

3n 6tefer Kunft mod^t' xdt was profitiren ; 

3)cnn ^eut 3U Slage roirft bos vkL 525 

3dl Ijab' es ofters rut^men t|oren, 

(£in Kotnobiant fonnt' einen pfarrer Iel|ren. 


3a, tt>cnn 6er pfarrer cin Kom66iant ij! ; 
XPie 1)05 6enn tx>oI ju ^eitcn f ommen mag. 


Tldi 1 toenn man fo in fein ZHufcum gebamxt ijl 530 
Unb fiel|t bk Welt faum einen Sexettag, 
Kaum 6urd^ ein i^ntglas nur von «>eiten, 
IDie foil man fie bmdt Ueberre6ung leiten ? 

/ VOcrm iter's nid^t fuljlt, il^r voevbeVs nid^t erjagen, 

IDenn es nid^t aus 6er Seele bringt, S3s 

I Virxb mit urfrdftigem Seljagen 
' ®ie J^er3en aHer J^orer stoingt. 

Sifet it|r nur immer, leimt 5ufammen, 

Sraut ein Hagout »on an6rer Sdjmans 

Unb blast bk fummerlid^en 5Icimmen 540 

Tins eurem ^Ifd^enlidufdien 'raus I 

BetDunb'rung t)on Kinbem unb 2lffen, 

VOerni eud| bamad^ ber (Baumen jlel|t ; 

Vodt wevbct xfy: nie £jer3 ju ^ei^en fd^affen, 

XPenn es eud^ nid^t pon ^erjen gel^t. 54s 

SCENE I. 25 


2inem 6er Vovttag madjt bcs Hefeners SIM; 
3d| fiilir es rool, nod? bin id? toeit sudxcf I 


Sud? er ben re5Hd?en (5eir)inn I 

5ei er f ein fdjellenlauter Cl^or 1 

€5 trdgt Perflcmb unt) red^ter Sinn 550 

TXlxt wenxg Kunji jtd? felber t>or. 

Unb ix)enn*5 eud? €mft ifi roos 5U fagen, 

3jl'5 notl^ig XPorten nad^sujagen ? 

3<3t, eure Hefeen We fo blinfen5 jtnb, 

3n 6cnen it^r bet 21TenfdjI|cit 5d?ni^el frdufelt, 555 

Sinb unerquidlidi, voxe bev Zlebelvomb, 

Dcr iiexb^lxdt bwcdi bie buxxen SWtter fdufdt 1 


3ld| (5ott I J)ie Kunji ijt lang 

Un6 furs ijl unfer Ceben. 

Znir rDir6 bei meinem fritifd^en Scfhreben 560 

J)od? oft um Kopf nnb Sufcn bang. 

Wxe fdiiper jtnfe nidjt t)ic 2JIitteI 3tt enoerben, 

J)urd| 6ie man ju ten QJueUen jleigt I 

Urxb cB|* man nur berx Ijalbcn H?eg erreid^t, 

ZHug tool ein armer Ceufel fterben. 56s 


^as pergament, ijl bos bet Ijeirge Bronnen, 
XDoraus ein tErunf ben ©urjl auf eipig jHUt ? 
€rquidung Ijajl 5u nid^t gemonnen, 
IDenn jte ^ir nid|t aus eigner Seele quiHt. 



Vev^exiit 1 es iji em gro§ €rgefeen 570 

Sidi in ben (Beijl 5er geitcn ju oerfefecn, 
Su fd^aucn rote »or uns exn we\\ev Zdann gebadit 
Unb voxe toir's barm swiefet fo I^errlidi roeit gcbtadit I 

(D ja, bis an bk Sterne weit I 

Htein 5reun6, bie S^Wen 5er Oergcmgenfieit 575 

Sxnb uns em Sudj mit jteben Siegeln. 

Was it|r ben (5etft ber ^^ten I|ei§t, 

©05 iji im (Stxinb bev J^erren eigner (Beiji, 

3n 5em bxe S^ten jtdi befpiegeln, 

®a ijl*5 6enn n>xit|rlid^ oft ein 3ammer 1 580 

ZTlan Iduft eudj bet 5em erjlen Slid bavoxx. 

(Ein Kel)rid^tfa§ un6 eine Humpelf ammer 

Urxb E^od^jiens eine ;,^au|>t- rxrxb Staatsaction", 

Zllit treffiidjen pragmatifd^en TXlajAmm, 

VOk fie &en puppen n?oI im ZTlunbe jiemen I 58s 


2tnein 6ie XOelt, fees UTenfd^en fjers xxrxb (5eij^ 1 
HTSd^f ieglid^er 6odi lOos baoorx erfennen. 

3a, twos man fo erf ennen Bjeigt 1 
tOev batf bas Uxnb beim red^ten Xtamen nennen ? 
2)ie wenigen 6ie was baoorx erfannt, 590 

3)ie tl^dridit g'nug xtiv volUs fyt^ nidjt loolirten, 
©em pSbel il|r <5efiiI|I, iB|r Sd^auen offenbarten, 
£iat man oon je gefreusigt un^ perbrannt 

SCENE I. 27 

3cl? bitt' cud?, S^eixnb, es ijl tief in bet Zladt(t, 

TXlxt muffen's ^iesmol untcrbredjen. 595 


3d? I|dtte gem nur tmmer fortgeroad^t, 

Urn fo geleB^rt tnit eixdi mid? ju bcfpred?cn. 

Sod? ntorgcn, ols am erjlen ©jlertage, 

€rlaubt tnir ein* un6 anbre Stage. 

2Tiit (£tf er B?ab* id? mid? ber Stubkn befliffen ; 600 

Stoat rx)ei§ id? wel, bod? m5d?t' id? alles wiffen I 

5aufl alletn. 

IDie nur 5em Kopf nid?t aHe ^offmmg fd?toin5et, 

7>et immerfort an fd?alem S^uge flebt, 

Znit gier*ger ^an6 nad? Sdiai^en grdbt 

Unt) frol? ijl, roemt er Hegenrourmer finbet I 60s 

j J)arf eine foId?e Znenfd?enjHmme l?ier, 1 

I IDo (BeifterfuEe mid? umgab, ertSnen? ^( *^' ^ 

I Dod? ad? I fixr biesmal l)anf id? 6ir, 
S)em drmlid?jlen t>on alien €rbenf5i|nen. r 

2)u riffeji mid? pon ber Perju^eiflung 16s, 610 - ' ^ 

Die mir bie Sinne fd?on serjioren rooHte. 
2ld? I 6ie (Erfd?einung n>ar fo riefengrog, \ 

J)a§ id? mid? red?t als ^mexg empfmben foHte.j 

3d?, €benbiI6 ber (5ottl?eit bos pd? fd?on 

(5an5 nat? gebiinft bem Spiegel eu>'ger IDaI?rI?eit, 615 

5ein felbji genog in ^immelsglans unb KIart?eit 

Unb abgejhreift ben €rbenfoB?n ; 

3d?, mel?r ols CI?erub, beffen freie Kraft 



Sdton t)urdj bxe Tlbexn &er ZXatwc ju ffiegen 
Unb fdjaffcn^ (5otterIeben ju geniefecn 620 

Sidj atjnungsooll perma§, ipie mug id^'s bugen ! 
€in Donnenoort I|at midj Ijintoeggerafft. 

2l:idjt barf idj Mr 3U gleidjcn mid? ©ermcffen ! 

£iaV xdt J)ie Kraft, t)idi an^^efyi, bcfeffcn, 

So t|att' idj bxdt ju Ijalten feme Kraft. 625 

3n jenem fefgen Slugenblide, 

3d? fiilllte midj fo Hein, fo gro§ ; 

2)u ftiegejl graufam mid? 5uriirfe 

3n'5 ungewiffe ZHeufd^enloos. 

IDer leliret mid? ? mas foil id? meiben ? 630 

Soil id? geI?ord?en jenem ©rang ? 

2td? 1 unfre (CB?aten felbfl, fo gut als unfre Ceiben, 

Sie I?emmen unfers Cebens (Sang. 

Vem fjerrlid?jien mas aud? &er (5eijl empfangen, 

J)rdngt immer fremb nnb frem&er Stoff fid? an ; 63s 

XOerm mxv sum (Buten liefer IDelt gelangen, 

Sann I?ei§t bas Segre tErug mxb lX)at?n. 

Die uns bas Ceben gaben, I?errlid?e (8effiI?Ie, 

(Erjiarren in 6em irt)ifd?en (5etDiiI?Ie. 

IDemt pl?antajte pd? fonjl mit fut?nem 5Iug 640 

Virxb I?offnung5t>oIl 5um €tt>igen eru>eitert, 

So ift ein Reiner Saum il|r nun genug, 

XDenn (SIM auf (SIM im 3eitenjiru&el fd?eitert. 

Vw Sorge nijlet gleid? im tiefen ^er$en, 
Sort iPtrfet fie gel?eime 5d?mer3en, d4s 

Unrul?ig wiegt fie fid? mxb jioret Cufl mxb Hul? ; 
Sie bedt fid? ftdts mit neuen ZITasf en 3U, 

SCENE I. 29 

Sxe mag als ^aus \xnb J^of, als VOerb un5 Kin& 

^Is 5euer, IPaffcr, ©old? un5 <5ift ; 

Su bebjl t>or allcm was nidjt trifft, 650 

Unb tt>as 5u nte pcrlierji bos mu^t bn jidts bctt>cinen. 

D^n (Sottetn gfeidj* id? nidjt I S^ ticf ijl cs gefiUjIt ; 
Sent IDurtne gleid? id?, bet ben Staab 6urd|tDuI?It, 
Sen, wk er pd? im Staub^ ndl?rcnt) lebt, 
J)e5 IPanbrcrs tEritt ©cmidjtet un5 begrdbt 655 

3jl es nid?t Staub, was &icfe I?oI|e tt)an5 
2lu5 I?un&crt 5dd?eni mir vevenget, 
3)cr Cr65d, 6cr mit taufen5fad?cm Canb 
3n Wefcr 2T{ottenn>cIt mid? ferdnget? 
fjicr foil id? fin&en, was mir fct?lt? 660 

Soli id? piclleid?t in taufcni) Sud?cm fefcn, 
Sag uberaQ bxe 2Ttenfd?en jtd? gcqudit, 
2)ag l?ie rnib ba cin gIucHid?er geix>efen ? 
IPos grinfeji 6u mir, I?ol|Icr 5d?dt)el, I?cr, 
2tl5 ba% bem ^im, toie meincs, cinjl ©crtoirret, 665 
Den Iid?ten Cag gefud?t, un& in 6er ®dmm*rung fd?n>er, 
Znit Cup nad? lDat?rl?eit, idmmerlid? geirrct 1 
3I?r 3"fhiimente freilid? fpottet mcin, 
Znit Ha6 un6 Kdmmcn, ibals* un6 Sugel. 
3d? ftan6 am 2;i?or, il?r foUtct 5d?IuffeI fein ; 670 

Stx>ax cuer Sart ift fraus, bod? t?ebt ii^r nid?t &ie Hiegcl. 
(5et?eimnigt>on am Iid?ten Cag, 
Cdgt fid? Hatur bes Sd?Ieier5 nid?t bcrauben, 
VLxib was jte 6cincm (Seiji nid?t offenbaren mag, 
Vas jtDingji bn il?r nid?t ab mit ^ebeln un6 mit 
5d?rauben. 67s 


©u alt (Sevatlie bos id| nidit gebroud^t, 

3)u pcBjft nur I|icr roeil bidj mein Pater braudjte. 

Su alte HoUe, t)u ipirfi angeraudjt, 

So lang an t)iefem pult bxe tmbe Campc fd?maud)te. 

Weit fecffer I^dtt' id? 5od? mem IPeniges t>erpra§t, eso 

2U5 mit bem IDenigen belajlet I|ter 3U fditoifecn I 

Was bn ererbt Don beinen V&tetn ita% 

(ErtDtrb es, um es 5U befi^cn I 

Was man ntdjt nufet ijl erne fd?n>cre £ajl ; 

Xtm was bev 2lugenbttcf erfd^afft bos tann er niifeen. 685 

Dod^ toarum I^eftet ftd? mein SHcf auf jene SteUe ? 
3P i^nes 5I^fcijd^en &ort ben ^ugen ein ZHagnet ? 
Waxum wxxb mir auf einmal lieblid} Ijelle, 
Tils roenn im ndd^fgen Waib nns ZTlonbenglans 

3di griige bxdt, bix einstge pt^iole, 690 ' 

2)te idj mit ^n&adit nun I^erunterI|oIe I 

3n bit perel|r' idj ZlTenfdjenujife un5 Kunjl. 

Vn 3nbegriff 5er I^otoen Sd^Iummerfdfte, 

Vn 2tu55ug aHer tobtlid? feinen Krdfte, 

(Enoeife beinem ZHeijier 6eme <5unft 1 695 I 

3dj \^k^ bxdif es voxxb bet Sdimer5 gelinbert ; 

3d? faffe bxdt, bas Streben mvcb geminbert, j 

Des (Beijies 5IutIijh:om ebbet nad? un5 nadt. ' 

3n'5 B|0lje ZHeer u?er5* id? Biinausgetotefen, 

2)ie Spiegelftutl) ergldnst 3U meinen 5&^en, 700 

5u neuen Ufem locft ein neuer Cag, 

(£in 5«i^n»agen fd^toebt auf leid^ten Sd^roingen 

2tn mid? I^eran I 3dj fiiljle midj bereit ! 

SCENE I. 31 

Tbxf neuer Sol^n ben Tleiiiev 3U t)urd)&ringen 

5u neuen Spljdren reiner C^tigfcit. 705 

Dies iiplie £eben, diefe <56ttcnx>onne 1 

2)u, erjl nodj Wwcm, nnb Me ©erbiencjl 6u? 

3ci, fel|re nur 5cr l|oI6en €rt)enfonne 

(Entfdiloffen bexnen ZlMen ju 1 

Pcrmeffe Mdj t)ie pfortcn aufturet§en, 710 

Por t)enen je&cr gexn ooriibcrfdilcidit 1 

Ejier ijl es §ctt t)urdj CI|aten 3U beu>eifen 

J)a§ ZlTannestDurbe nidjt &er (5ottcrI^oi)e tpeid^t. 

Por jener feunfrfn J^ol^fe nidit 5U beben, 

3n bet jtdj pl^antajte 5U eigner Qual ocrbammt, 71s 

^ad^ jcncm Vuxdigang I^insujirebcn, 

Urn 6effen engen TXbxnb bie gan^e ^oQe flammt ; 

gu Wefcm Sdjritt pd? l|eiter 5U cntfd|KeJ5en, 

Un& todr' cs mit (5efal|r ins Ztid^ts battxn 3U fliegen I — 

Ztmi fomm Iierab, feYJloIInc, rctne Sdjole, 720 

£)cn>or cms 5einem olten jutterole, 

2tn 6ic idj piele 3al|re nid^t gel)adjt I 

2)u gidnstejl bet &er Pdter 5reui)enfefle, 

(ErE^eitertejl bie emfien (Sdjle, 

IDenn enter bxdi &em an&em sugebrad^t. 725 

2)er otelen SUber Knjilidj reid^e ptadit, 

Ses tEinnfers pfttd^t, jie reimweis 3U erfldren, 

Thxf einen 3^9 ^i^ fj6B|Iung an55iileeren, 

(Erinnert tnidj an mond^e ^yxQenbnadit 

3dj tx>erl)e jefet btdj fetnem Zladtbav retdjen, 730 

3dj roerfee metnen It)ife an betner Kunfl ntdjt setgen : 

^ier iji etn Saft, bev eilig trunf en madit 

zhtt brauner 5titJ| erfiiDt er feeine J^8l|Ie. 

3en tdi bereitet, ben xdt xooiile, 


3)cr lefete tErunf fei nun mit ganscr Seele 735 

Uls feftlidi t|ot|er (gru§ &cm ZlTorgen sugebrad^t 1 
€r fefet bte Sc^ale an btn Vftnnb* 
(Slocfenflang nnb (tl^orgefang* 

<£t)or &cr (£ngcl. 

CI|rifl ifl erjltcm5en I 

5reube bent SterMid^en, 

Ven bk v^tbetblxdien, 

SdiUxdienben, exblxdien 740 

ZHdngcl umu>an&en. 

Wddi tiefes Summen, wddi ein BicHer Con 

gtet|t mit (5ett)alt bos (Slas von mcinem ZlTunfte ? 

VevKxibxQet il^r dumpfcn (Blocfen fd^on 

Ses ® jierf eftes cr jte 5^terftun5c ? 74s 

yit C^dre, ftngt ii^r fd^on berx trSftlidicn <5cfang, 

Der einji urn (Brabesnad^t oon (EngelsKppen Hang, 

(5erpi^I|eit einem ncuen Sun6e ? 

Cljor ber tOcibcr. 

TXlxt Spesereien 

£}atten roir tt|n gepflcgt, 750 

ibir feinc tErcucn 

fatten xfyx Ijingelcgt ; 

Od^er nnb Sinbcn 

Heinlidi umtpanben roir ; 

Tldi I un& roir finben 75s 

(£t|rip nidjt mcl|r t|icr. 

<EI|or ber €ngel. 
Cftriji ijl erjianbcn 1 
Sclig t)er Ciebenbe, 

SCENE I. 33 

Vev 5ie bettubenbe, 

fjeilfam nnb Hbenbe 760 

priifung bejion^en ! 


Was fud^t tt^r, ntdcfjtig unt) gclinb, 
y:it fjimmelstone mid? am Stcmbc I 
KKngt bovt nmtiex, voo rocidie Znenfd^en fin&. 
J)ie Sotfd^oft I|or* id? tool, allein ntir fcl^lt feer 
(5(au6e. 765 

Dos tOnnbet ijl fees (Slcmbens KeBjles Kmb. 
3u jenen Spl^dren toag* xdi nidjt 3U jhreben, 
XDoI|er bte Ijotoe 2tadirid^t tont 
ltn5 bodif on Mefen Klang t>on ^ngenb auf gctDoI^nt, 
Huft er caxdi jefet juriiJ mid^ in bos Ceben. 770 

Sonjl jlur3te pdj 5er ^immelsficbc Kug 
2tuf mid^ I|crab in emjler Sobbatl^jlille ; 
T>a Hong fo oIinungspoH bes (Blodfcntones 5ulfe — 
Unb cin (5ebct roar briinjligcr (5enuf . 
(£in unbegreiflidi Ijol&es Seljncn 77s 

Cricb ntidi 5urdi XOolb nnb W\e\en lixn 5ugel|n 
Unb unter tcmfenb liex^m d^rdnen 
5uI|It' idj ntir dne ibelt entfteljn, 
3)ie5 Cxeb vettimb^te bet ^ngenb muntre Spxele, 
Vet Snil^Iingsf eicr frcies (5Iiirf ; 780 

€rinnrung I)dlt mid? nun ntit finWid^em (SefH^k, 
Pom lefetcn, emjlcn Sd^ritt judicf . 
tonet fort, iljr fu§cn f}immel5lie5cr I 
Die tCI|rdne quiHt, 6ie €rbe E|at mid^ tt)ic5er I 

CI|or bet 3unger. 

Siat bet Segrabenc 78s 

5d)on itd) nad^ oben, 


Cebenb (£rl|abene 

^crrlidi erl|obcn ; 

3jl ex in aDer&elufl 

Sdjaffen&cr 5i^eu6c nol^ ; 790 

adil an &cr €r&c Srufl 

Smb mv 5um €cit)e t)a. 

Cieg er 5ie Semen 

5dimadjten& uns I^ier 5urud ; 

2tdi 1 rotr beioeinen, 79s 

Zneijier, t)ein ©Kief I 

<£t|or ber (£ngeL 

(CI|rip iji erjlanben 

2tu5 t)er Perroefung Sdjoofe I 

Heifeet x>on Sanben 

5reut)ig eud? los 1 soo 

Cliattg il|n preifenben, 

Ciebe beroeifenben, 

Bruberlid? jpetfenben, 

prebigenb reijenben, 

XDonne oerljei^enben, 80s 

<gud^ iji ber ZHeiper nal|, 

<eudi ip er 5a 1 


) /: u^ rJi! i^ i^a -< 

/SCENE^I. 35 

Per bent Cljor. 

It)arum 6enn 6ort I^inaus? 

tt)ir gd|n I|mau5 aufs 3dgcrl|cms. 

Die (Erflen. 
IDtr aber voo\kn nad^ ber Znul^fe tpanbem. sro 

€in fjanbtocrfsburfd?, 
3d? ratBi cud? nadi &cm IDaffcrl^of su gel^n. 

2)er Zt)eg bal^m ijl gat nid^t fd^on, 

©ie Sroeiten. 
IDos tf|uji bertn bu ? 

(gin Dritter. 

3d] gel|c mtt ben anbem. 

3i:adj Sutgborf fommt I^erauf I (BetDtg &ort finbet % 
3)te fd^onpen Znd&d^en un5 bos bejie Sicr sis 

Un& ^dnbel pon &er erjien Sorte. 

3)u uberlujiiger ©efell, 
3ucf t bidj 5um brittenmal t>as 5cn ? 
3dj mag nid^t I|in, mtr graut es x>ox 5em 0rte. 


ZTein, nein, id| gelje nadj &er 5ta6t juriicf . 820 

tt)ir fmben it|n gc«>ig bet jencn pappein jiel|en. — 


2)05 iji fur midi fern gropes (Bliirf ; 

€r tt>ir6 an 6emcr Seite geljen, 

Znit 6ir nur tonst er ouf 6cm plan. 

VOas gel|n midi &cme 5reut)en on I sas 


^eut ifi er jtdier nidit aHein ; 

J)er Krausifopf, fagf er, ipur6e bei il|m fein. 


Slife, iDte &ie n>acf em ©imen fdjreiten 1 

J^err Srufeer f omm I tPtr miiffen jte begleiten. 

(Em jlarfes Sier, ein bei3en&er Cobacf 830 

yXvi^ eine XlTag^ im Pufe, 605 ijl nun mein ©efd^macf . 


J)a jteli' mir nur bie fdiSnen Knaben I 

€5 ijl n>al|rljaftig eine Sd^mad? ; 

(BefeDfdiaft fSnnten jte 6ie ollerbejie I|aben 

Unb lauf en 6iefen ZlTdg&en nadi 1 83s 

5tt>^iter Sd^aier sum erpen. 

Xtidjt fo gefdjwinb I J)ort Ijinten f ommen 3n>ei 1 

Sie ftnb gar niebltdi cmgesogen : 

•5 tji meine XTad^barm bobei ; 

3dj bin 6em Itlddd^en fel^r gewogen. 


S\e geljen it|ren jHIIen Scfjritt 840 

Unb neiimen uns bodi cojidt am £n&e mit. 

^err Sruber, item 1 idj bin nidjt gem gentrt. 
(5efd^tDin5 5a§ toir bos XDUbpret nidit oerliercn* 
J)te fjanb, Me Samstags ii^ren Befen ffil|rt, 
IDtr& Sonntags 6idi am bejlen coreffiren. 84s 


Hem, er gef dUt mtr nidjt, 6er neue 33urgemeijier I 

2tun, t)a cr*5 tfl, u)ir& er nur tdglid^ breijier. 

Unt) fflr 5ie Stabt, xoas tfyjd &enn er ? 

XDtrt) C5 nid^t alle Cage fd^Kmmer ? 

(Beljordien foU man metjr als immer 850 

Un& saljlen mel^r als je oorljer, 

Settler flngt. 
3I|r guten Ejerm^ U|r fd^onen 5t^auen, 
So ipolgejn^t un5 bacf enrotlj, 
Selieb' es eudj mid? an5ufdiauen, 
Unb feljt un& mil&ert meme ZXotii I sss 

Cafet Ijier midj nid^t pergebens leiem 
X(m bet iji frolj, bet geben mag. 
'€m Cag ben atte tnenfd^en feiem, 
€r fei fur midj ein €mtetag. 

2tn&rer Siirger. 

Ztxdits Seffers n>eig idi mtr an 5onn» mib 5eiertagen, 860 

205 ein <5efpr5dj ©on Krieg un& Kriegsgefd^rei, 

IDenn Ijinten roeit in bex Ciirfei 

J)ie X?oIf er auf einan&er fdjlagen, 

Zltan fiel|t am 5cnjier, trinft fein (Bldsdjen aixs 


Xlxxb jtel|t ben 5Iu§ iixnab 5ie bunten Sd^iffe gleiten ; 865 
'Darrn fel^rt man Tlbenbs frolj nad^ J^ous 
Unt) fegnet 5rie&' un& Snc&ensseiten, 

J)rittcr Siirger. 

^err Ztad^bar, ja 1 fo lag idj's audi S^fdiel^n : 

Sie mogcn jtd? t)te K6pfe fpalten, 

ZHag aUcs burd? emanbot gclin, 870 

Sod^ nur 3U ^aufe bleib's bieim 2Uten I 

2tlte 5tt ben 53ur9erm5bc^en. 

<£t I rote gepufet I bos fdjone junge Slut 1 

Wev foU fid? nid^t in eud? ocrgciffcn? — 

2tur nid^t fo jtols I es ijt fd?on gut 1 

Unb was it|r ipunfdjt, bos wiX^f idj ipoI ju fdjaffcn. 875 


2CgatIie, fort I idj nel|me ntidj in 2ldit 
Znit foldjcn fy}cen djf entlid^ 3U geEjen* 
Sie He| midj stoar in Sanft Tbibveas* Ziadit 
Den fiinft'gen Ciebftcn leiblid^ fel|en. 

7>xe Tlnbte. 

TXlxt seigte fie xfyi xm KrvjlaH, 880 

SoI5atent|aft mit meiiteven Peru>^gnen ; 
3d? \eif mid? um, id? fud?' it?n uberaH, 
SIDeiri mir will ex nid?t begegnen. 


Surgen ntit f?ot|en 

ZHauern unb ^innen, 88$ 

TXl&bdien mit ftolsen, 

£liiitnenben Simxen 


ZnSdit' xdi gewirmm I 

^errlidi &cr Col^n I 890 

Unb bxe Crompcte 

Cajfcn n>ir ipcrben,' 

IPie 3u 5cr S^^nbe, 

So sum Perbcrben. 

Dos ij! cin Stiinnen 1 89s 

3)05 ij! ein Cefeen 1 

TXldbiim nnb Surgen 

ZTlujfen fid? geben. 

Kulin iji 5as OTuE^cn, 

^errlidj 5er Col^n I 900 

IXnb bxe Solbatm 

Stetl^n &at)on. 

Saujjt nnb IPagner. 

5aufi A ' 

Pom €tf^ b^ftcit ftn6 Strom un5 Sddje ^ *^ V 

Vwcdt 6c5 5nil?Kng5 Ijolben, bdebenben SHcf ; 

3m Q^ale griinet fjoffnungsgliicf ; 90s 

J)er alte IDinter, in fcincr Sd^tDdcfje, 

5og jtdj in roul^e Serge surflrf. 

Pon bortB^er fennel er, f[iet|en5, nur 

©I|nmdd?tige Sd^ouer fdmigen €ife5 

3n Streifen iiber Me griinenbe 5Iur. 910 

2tber 5ie Sonne bxxlbet f ein IDeiges ; 

Ueberatt regt jtdi Bilbung unb Streben, 

rifles ipiH pe mit 5<xrben beleben ; 

Vodt <xti Slumen fel|lf s im Seoier, 

5ie nimmt gepufete Znenfd^en bafiir. 915 

,> f ! 


Hefyce bid\ um, von Mefen ^6t|cn 

Zladi bex Stabt surucfsufcl^cn 1 

Tins bem tidbiUrXf fmftem CI|or 

©ringt ein buntes (5cit>immel t^eroor. 

3cber fonnt fidj I:|eute fo gevn ; 920 

Sfe f ciem 5ie 2tuf crjlcliung &e5 J^crm : 

©enn fie fin& felber cmf erjlonben ; 

Tbxs nieiriger ^dufcr feumpfen (Bemddicm, 

2lu5 J^ant)rx)crf5» unl> (Betpcrbesbanbeu; 

Tbxs 6em Drucf oon (Biebdn mxb 'D&dievn, 92s 

2tiis l)er 5tta%m quctfd?en5er finge, 

2lu5 6er Kirdjen cl:|nx)ur&tgcr Ztad{t 

Stn& fie aHe arts Cid^t gcbradit. 

Siefj nur, fiel| 1 tpie bel^enfe jtdj We ZHenge 

Surd? We (Bdrten un& 5^Ii)er serfdjidgt, 930 

Wxe bev 5Iu§, in Sreif un& Cdnge, 

So tnandien lufKgen ^ad^en bemegt ; 

Unb bis jum Sinfen uberla&en, 

€ntfernt fid? 5iefer lefete Koljn. 

Selbji pon bes Serges femen pfafeen 93s 

Slinfen uns farbige Klei&er an, 

3di t^ore fd^on t)e5 Sorfs (Betumntel. 

fjier ip bes X>oIfes tx>at|rer J^imnjel, 

gufrieben jaudiset (5ro§ mxb Klein : 

ffier bin xdt ZHenfdj, I|ier batf xdfs fein ! 940 


Znit eudj, J^err J)octor, ju fpasieren, 

3P etirenoott un& ift (Beroinn ; 

5)od? n>iir5' id? nid|t aHein midi I^er perlieren, 

IPeil xdi ein 5dnt) ©on aHem Holjen bin. 

3)05 5i^&eln, Sd^reien, Kegel fdjieben 945 



yjk mir cm gar t>erl}agter Klang ; 

Sie toben, toie ©om bofen (Seijl getricben 

Un6 ncnnen's 5tcu&e, nennen's (Befang. 

Bauern uniet bet £tnbe. 

(Ean5 nnb (Sefan^. 

J)er SdjSf er pufete jtdj jum (Cons 

TXlii bunter 3^cf ^/ ^<wtS un5 Krans ; 950 

Sdtmad wax er ongesogen. 

Sdjon um &fe Cinfee u)ar es poD, 

Unt) alles tonste fd^on tpte toll, 

3uctjl^c I 3ud?I|c 1 

3ucf|I|eifal fjcifal ^el 955 

So gmg &cr 5i^&cIbogen. 

€r feriirftc liajHg jtdi Iiercm, 

Da jHeg er an exn TXi&bdien an 

TXlxt fcinem €IIenbogcn. 

5)te frifd^e ©tmc f el^rt jtdj um 960 

lln5 fagte: „2tun, 5a5 fmb* id? &umm I" 

3«d?t|e I 3ttd?tie I 

3udiljeifa 1 ^eifa 1 Qe I 

ffSexb mdit fo ungcsogen !" 

Dodj ^urtig in iem Kreife ging*5, 96s 

Sie tansten rcdjts, pe tan3ten linfs 

Un& aHe Hodc flogen. 

Sie tt>m:&en tofti, fie tour&en tx)ann, 

Itn^ rul|ten att^en5 2lrm in ^rm, 

3ud)I|e 1 3^djl|e I 970 

3udil|eif<» 1 ^^if^ J ?^ ^ 
Un6 ^uft' an fillenbogen. 


ffUnb tfyx* mir bodt nid^t fo pertraut I 

VOie mand^er Ijat nxdit feme Sraut 

Belogen unb betrogen 1" 975 

€r fdimeid^elte jte bodi hex Se\t\ 

Unb von bev £m5e fdjoll es n?eit; 

3ucljlje 1 3i*dj^^ ^ 

3ud?t^eifa I ^eifa I ^e I 

(Befdirei unb 5i^b^Ibogen. 980 

2llter Bauer. 

^err Sector, bos ijl fdjon port eudj 

©a§ iljr uns Ijeute nidjt perfdjittdl^t; 

Unb unter biefes Polfsgebrdng* 

2tl5 ein fo J^odjgeIaI|rter geljt 

So nelimet audi ben fd^onften Krug, 985 

J)en rpir tnit frifd^em tCrunf gefiillt. 

3di bring' it|n 3U nnb tDunfd^e laut, 

t>a% er nid^t nur ben 3)ur ji eud? ftillt : . 

3)ie gcxW ber Cropfen bie er l|egt 

Set euem Cagen sugelegt. 990 


3d| nelime ben Crquirfungstranf, 
(Enpiebr' eud^ alien JEjeil unb Danf . 

Das Pol! fammelt jlc^ im Krets umljcr, 

filter Souer. 

5firu>al|r, es iji fel^r n>oI gett|an, 

Sag x^v am frol^en Cag erfdjemt; 

Eiabt xfyc es pormals bodj mit uns 99s 

Tin b6fen Cagen gut gemeint. 

(Bar mand^er ftef^t lebenbig I^ier 

T>en euer Pater nod{ sule^t 


7Us er bet 5eud)e §xel gefe^t. xooo 

2tudi bamols il^r, ein jungcr ZHanit, 

3I|t: gtngt in jebes Krcmfcnljaus ; 

<6ar mandie Ceidic trug man fort, 

libit cibet fomt gefunb Ijcrous, 

ScPonbet mondje l|artc proben ; loos 

7>em ^elfer Ijalf der ^elfer l)roben. 

(5cfunbl|eit bem hevoaiitten ZHann, 
7>a% er nod^ lange I|elf en f ann ! 


Per jenem broben ^eB^t gebiicf t, 
®er t|elfen Iel|rt unb ^filfe fd^tcft. iwo 

(Er get^t tntt U>agnern metter. 


VOeldt em (Sefiil^I mugt bu, o grower ZHann, 

Sei ber l^erel^rung biefer 2TCenge Ijoben 1 

© gWidlxdt, T^^^ ^on feinen (5aben 

Soldi etnen Portl^eil siet^en f ann I 

J)er Doter jeigt bid? feinem Knaben, xoxs 

€in jeber fragt nnb brdngt unb exit, 

Die 5i^bel jtorf t, ber Onser ipeilt. 

Du gelijl, in Heil^en jleljen pe, 

J)ie ZHiifeen fliegen in bie £i6if ; 

Unb ipenig fel^It, fo beugten jtd| bie Knie, 1020 

2U5 Km* bos Denerabile. 

Zlm tDenig Sd^ritte nodj I|inauf 3U jenem Stein ! 
^ier njotten roir t>on unfrer IPanb'rung rajien. 


Sim \a% xdi oft gebanfertPoQ aUexn 

Unb qudlte mid| mit Seten un6 mit 5ajlcn. 1025 

2tn ^offraxng vexdi, ^ (Blcmben fefl, 

TXlxt tEl^rdncn, Seuften, ^dnfecringen 

Sadjf xdi bos (£nbc jencr pejl 

X>om J^erm bcs ^tmmels 5U etycoxxxgen, 

J)er ZHenge ScifoII tont mtr nun u>ie Siofyx. 1030 

© f Snntejl bu in meinem 3nnem lefen, 

Wx0 menig Doter unb So^n 

Soldi cines Snlimes xoettii gerocfcn I 

Zndn Pater roar cm bunfler <Etixexxmatm, 

Der uber bie Ztatur unb il|re I^eirgen Kreifc, 1035 

3n Hcblid^feit, jebod? auf fcine IDeife, 

Znit grillenliafter ZHuIic fann, 

J)er, in (Befellfdjaft t)on 2tbcpten, 

5idi in bie \dixx>axie Kiidi^ fd^Iog 

Unb, nadj unenblid^en Hcccpten, 1040 

3)a5 XUibrige jufammengog. 

J)a rparb ein rotifer ten, exrx ful|ner 5rcicr, 

3m laucn ^ab ber £ilie t)ermdt|It 

Unb bcibe bann, mit offnem 51<xmmcnfmer, 

2tu5 einem Srautgemad^ ins anbere gequdlt. 1045 

(Erfd^ien barauf mit bunten 5ctrbcn 

J)ic junge Konigin im ©las : 

^ier roar bie 2tr3cnei, bie patienten flarben, 

Unb niemanb fragte: Wet genas? 

So Ijaben voic mit I|oIIifd?en Cattoergen, 1050 

3n biefen Cljdiem, biefen Sergen, 

Xt>eit fdjlimmer als bie pejl getobt 

3di I^abe felbji berx <5ift an Caufenbe gegeben ; 

5ie toelften I:|in; xdi mn% erieben, 

Sag man bie fredjen Utorber lobt. 1055 



XOie f omtt xiiv eud^ batyxm betruben ? 

tEl^ut nxdit em braper Znann genug, 

2)ie Kunji, We man xfyn ubertrug, 

(5et»ifyenB|aft unl) pfinftlid? au55uuben ? 

XDemt 5u, als 3ixnglmg, beinen Pater el^rjl, 1060 

So tt>irfi l)u gem ©on tt|m empfangen, 

IDemt bu, als ZHann, We tDiffenfdjaft »ermel|rjl, 

So f ann feein SoI|n 3U I^oljerm S^el gelongen. 

® gifirffidj, roer nodj I|offen forni, 

Tbxs Wefem ZlXeer l)e5 jjnrtljums ouf^utoudjen I xo6s 

H?as man nid^t n>ei§, bos eben broudite man, 

Unb was man i»et§, f amt man nidit braudjen. 

J)odj la% uns feiefer Stunbe fd^ones (6ut 

Snrdi foldjen Crubjtnn nidjt t>erfiimmem I 

Setradite, toie in 2lbenbfonnegIutIj 1070 

3)ie griinumgebnen ^iitten fdiimmem 1 

Sie rucft mxb toeidjt, bet Cag iji uberlebt : 

3)ort eilt jte I|in mib f or&ert neues Ceben I 

(D, ba% fern SKi^rf tnidj ©om So&en I|ebt, 

3I|r nadi nnb immer nad^ 5U jlreben I 1075 

3di fdl|* tm en?'gen 2tben5jiral|l 

2)ie fKIIe ZDelt 3U meinen S^%en, 

(Entsflnbet aHe ^oI|'n, berul^igt jebes Cl^al, 

J)en Silberbadi in gol&ne Strome flliegen. 

2^idit I^emmte 5ann ben gottergleid^en £auf 1080 

J)er n>iI6e Serg mit alien feinen Sd^fud^ten. 

Sdjon tJ|ut bos ZlTeer fidj mit ertodrmten Sudeten 

Vet ben erjiaunten SJugen auf . 

J)odi fd^eint 6ie (BSttin enblxdt n>eg5ufinf en ; 


2inem 6er neue Cricb exwadit, loss 

^dl eile fort il|r ero'ges Cidjt 3U trinfen, 

X>or tnir ben Cag unl) I^mter mir bk ZXadit, 

J)en ^immel iiber mir un6 unter mir We xbeDcn. 

©n fdjoner Crcmm, inbeffen fie entoeidit 

^d^ I ju bes (Seijies 5Iugeln ix>irt) fo leid^t 1090 

Kein forperlid^er 5IugeI fid? gefeHen, 
I ©odj ijl es lebem eingeBoren, 
\ 3)ag fein (BefuBjI Ijinauf unb ooriodrts l)ringt, 

XDeim uber uns im blouen Haum t>er[oren, 

3Ijr fdimetteml) £ie6 bk Cerdje ftngt, 1095 

XPemt fiber fd^roffen 5id?tenIj6I|en 

©er 2tMer ousgebreitet fd^webt, 

Unb fiber 5Icidien, fiber Scm 

J)er Kranidj nadj &er ^eimatlj jhrebt. 


3di liaiie felbji oft griCenliafte Stunben, hoo 

3)od) foldjen ttrieb I|ab* idj nod) nie empfunben. 

ZHon jteBit fid| leidjt an XDalb unb S^lbem fatt, 

2)e5 Dogels 5ittid? n>erb' idj nie beneiben, 

tt)ie anbers tragen uns bie (Seijlesfreuben 

Pon Sud) 3U Sudj, ©on 23Iatt 3U Blatt 1 nos 

J)a n>erben XOintemdd^te I)oIb unb fd^on, 

©n felig Ceben n>drmet alle (5Iieber, 

Unb adi I entrottjl bu gar ein u>firbig pergamen, 

So jleigt ber ganse fjimmel 3U bir nieber. 


3)u bijl bir nur bes einen Criebs ben>u§t ; mo 

(D leme nie ben anbem f ennen I — 

3tt)ei Seelen moE^nen, adt I in meiner SrujI, 


■ Die erne toiD fidj von bet cmbetn trennen. 
3>ic cine I^dlt in feerber Ciebeslujl 

» Sicfj an &ie XDelt, mit Hammemben (Drganen ; tus 

jDfe anbre Ijebt getoaltfam jtdj t>om Suji 

/ Sn bm (5epI5en Ijoljer 2tt|nen. 
^ ® gibt es (5eijler in 5er £uft, 
2)ie 3ix)ifcl)en <£xb* unb fjimmel I^errfd^enb weben, 
So jieiget nieber ous bent golbnen J)uft 1120 

Unb ful|rt mdi tx>eg, ju neuem, buntem Ceben ! 
3a, rodre nur ein S<^vibevmantel mein, 
Unb trilg' er mid? in frembe Cdnber, 
Znir font' er urn bie f Sfilidjjien (5eix>dnber, 
Ztxdit feil um einen Konigsmantel fein. xms 


Serufe nidjt bie tool befannte Sd^aar, 

3)ie jhromenb fid? im Dunjlfreis iiberbreitet, 

3)em IHenfdjen taufenbf ditige (Befol^r, 

Pon alien (£nben I|er bereitet. 

X?on Ztorben bringt ber fdjarfe ©ei^ersaljn 1130 

2tuf bid? I^erbei mit pf eil gefpifeten Sungen ; 

Don ZlTorgen 3iel|n, oertrodnenb jte l^eran 

Unb ndl^ren pd? ©on beinen Cungen ; 

IDenn fte ber ZHittag ous ber W^p fdiidt, 

J)ie Sbxtit ouf (5IutI| um beinen 5d?eitel Iidufen, 1135 

So bringt ber IDeji ben Sd|tparm, ber erft erquidt 

Um bid? unb S^lb unb 2tue 3U erfdufen. 

Sie ^5ren gem, sum Sdiaben frol? gemanbt, 

<5eI|ord?en gem, u>eil pe uns gem betriigen, 

Sie jieDen toie pom ^immel ftd? gefanbt 1140 

Unb fopein englifd?, toenn fie Iiigen» 

Dod? gel|n u>ir 1 ergraut ifl fd?on bie tt)elt, 


II ' I ■ 

3)ie £uft gefulilt, bet Ztebet f dOt 1 

2tm Tlbenb fd^dfet man crji bos ^ous. — 

IDos pcl^fl bu fo unl) blirfji crfiaunt I^nous ? ims 

iDos team Wdj in 5er ©dmm'rung fp crgreif en ? 

Sicliji 5u ben fditoarjen ^unl) biirdi Saat unb Stoppel 


3d? fall tB|n lange fdjon ; nid?t «>id?tig fd|ten er mir. 

Setradit' tl|n red?t 1 fiir was I|d[tp bu bos fD\m ? 


5fir einen pubel, ber auf feme IDeife 1150 

Sxdi auf ber Spur bes fjerren plagt 

Semerfjl brx, ix>ie im t»eiten 5d?nerfenfreife 

<Er um uns l|er nnb tmmer ndt^er jagt? 

Unb irr* id? nid?t, fo siel^t ein 5^uerjlrubel 

^f feinen pfabm I^interbrein. zxss 


3d? fel?e nid?t5 ats einen fd?«>ar3en pubel ; 
£5 mag bei eud? tool 2lugentdufd?ung fein. 


TXlxt fd?eint es bag er magifd? leife 5d?Kngen 
gu funft'gem Sanb um unf re 5^§e 3iel?i 

3d? feE?' iE?n ungemig unb furd?tfam uns umfpringen, 1160 
lOeil er, jlatt feines fjerm, srnei Unbefannte ftel?t. 


J)cr Krcis wivb cng, fd^on tji er nol) I 


3)u peliji, etn fjunl), unfe fctn (Sefpenjl ijl ba ! 

(gr fnurrt nnb 5U)eif elt, legt pdi auf 6cn Soud^, 

€r toebelt. 2QIes Qunbcbroud^. 1x65 

(Bcfellc bxdt 5U uns 1 Komm* I^icr I 


(£5 iji em jmbdndrrifdi Cl^ter, 

©u jleljejl jHn, er wortet auf ; 

J)u fpridjji ii|n an, er jhrebt an bir t^inauf ; 

Derfiere loas, er roirb cs bringen, 1170 

Zladt bcmem Stod ms IDaffer fprtngen. 

2)u I^aji n)oI red^t, id? finbe nid?t bie Spur 
Don einem (Seiji unb alles ift 5)re|fur. 


©cm ^unbe, tt>enn er gut gesogen, 

XPirb felbj! etn n>eifer ZHann geu)ogen. 1175 

3<i, beine (5unft perbtent er gans unb gar, 

(Er, ber Stubenten trefflid^er Scolar. 

Ste geljcn in bas Stabttljor. 




5ciuji mit bem pubel Ijereintretenb. 

Vevla^m Ijob* xdt 5rf& unl) Tbxm, 

7>k eine ticfe Z^ad^t bebedt, 

TXlxt alirmngsvoUem, iieiVgem (Brouen nso 

3n uits We begrc Seek wedt 

(2ntfdilafen [xnb nun xvxlbe tEriebe 

Znit jebem ungejHimen tEt{un ; 

€5 reget jtdi bie ZHcnfclienKebe, 

3)ie Ciebe (Sottes regt ^xdt nun. uss 

Set ruB|ig, pu6el 1 rcnne nidjt I|tn unb toieber I 

2tn ber Sd^mellc, toos fd^nopcrft 5u Ijier ? 

£ege bid) I|intcr ben ©fen nieber 1 

ZHein beftes Kiffen geb' idj bir. 

Ww bn braugen ouf bem bergigen IDege ngo 

J)urdi Hennen unb Springen ergefet uns Ijajl, 

So nimm nun cmd? oon mtr bie pftege, 

TJiis ein miUfommner, jHtter (8ajl. 

2tdi wenn in unfrer engen SeUe 

J)te Cantpe freunblidi tofeber brennt, 1195 

Sann voxxb's in unferm Sufen IjeUe, 

3m ^ersen, bos jtdj felber femtt. 

Vetrmrxft fdngt u)ieber an 3U fpredjen 

Unb JEjoffnung roieber an 5U blutixx ; 

Ulan feljnt pdj nadj bes Cebens Sddjen, xaoo 

2td| I nadi bes Cebens Quelle I|in. 

Knurre nid^t, pubel I Sn ben Ijeiligen Conen, 
J)ie iefet meine ganse Seel' umfaffen, 



Wm ber tljimfdjc £avd nxdit paffen. 
> XDrx fmb gemofyxt, bag bic Znenfct^en vexlfil(ncn, xaos 
Was jtc nidjt ©crjidin, 
2)ag ftc por bem (Suten unb 5ct)5nen, 
T>as il|nen oft bcfdjtperlidj ifl, murren: 
IDitt C5 bcr ^unb, toie jte, bcfrairren ? 

I Tibet adt I fd^on ffit^r id? bet bem Befien ZDiDen zsio 

Sefricbigung ntcf}t met{r cms bem ^ufett quiQen. 

2tber marum mug ber Strom fo balb Derftegen 

Unb roir toteber im Surjie Hegen ? 

7>avon l|ab* id^ fo met £rfal|rung I 

3)odj biefer ZlTangel Idgt pdj erfefeen ; 1215 

tt>tr lemen bos Ueberirbifdje fdjd^en, 

H>tr fel^nen uns nadt ©ffenbarung, 

2)ie nirgenbs roiirb'ger unb fdiSner brennt 

TUs m bem neuen Cejiament. 

TXlidi brdngts ben (Srunbte^t au^fd^Iagen, zsao 

2nit reblidjem (5efuI|I einmal 

2)05 Ijeilige Original 

3n mem geliebtes Seutfdj 3U fibertragen. 
<Er fc^ISgt cin Polum auf nnb fc^/irft fl<^ an. 
j (5efdirieben jlel^t: „3m 2lnfang roar bos IDort." 

fjier jiod' xdi \dion I Wet l|ilft mir roeiter fort ? 1225 

3dj fann bos Wott fo I^odj unmSglidj fdjdfeen ; 

3di mug es anbers ^erfefeen, 

IDenn idj pom (5etjie red^t erleudjtet bin, 

(Befd^rieben ftel|t : „ 3tn 2tnfang u>ar ber Sinn." 

Sebenfe tool bie erjle ^eile; x»y> 

2)ag beine 5^ber fidj nid?t iibereile 1 

3P ^5 ber Sinn, ber dSies xovctt unb fdjafft ? 

€5 foDte jlel|n : „ ^m 2tnfang war bie Kraft," 


I Vodt, caxdi inbem idj bie\es mc5erfdjreibe, 
Sdton tpamt mxdi was, ba% idj babei mdtt bfeibe. 1235 
mix kxlft bet (5ctfl 1 Thxf einmal fci|' id? Hatf? 

"1 Unb fdireibc getroji: „ 3^ 2tnfang wax tie ^at" 

Soil idi ntit bir bos Sitnmcr tl|eifen, 

pubel, fo Ia§ bos fjeulen, 

So lag bos BeQen 1 1240 

Sold) einen ftorenben (Befellen 

2Tlag id? nid?t in ber Ztdl|c feibcn. 

€incr x)on uns beiben 

2Tbig bie ^eHe meiben. 

Ungem I?eb' idj bos (5ajh:cd|t auf ; 1245 

J)ie 0|ur' ijl ojfcn, I?aft freien Cauf . 

2tber tpos mug id? feljen I . 

Kamt bos natfirlid? gefd?el?en ? 

3ji es 5d?atten? iffs XDirHid?feit? 

Wxe roirb mcin pubel lartg nnb breit I 1250 

€r t|ebt jtd? ntit (Sewalt 1 

2)05 ijl nid?t eincs fjunbes (Bejlalt ! 

tDrfd? ein (Bcfpenjl brad?t* id? ins Eiavis 1 

5d?on fiel|t cr u>ie ein Ztilpferb aus, 

Znit feurigen 2tugen, fd?re^id|em (8ebi§. 1255 

© 1 bu bifl ntir getDijj I 

5iir fold?e I|albe fjoQcnbrut 

3ji Salomonis 5d?IuffeI gut. 

(5eificr auf bem <5ange. 

Srinnen gef angen ijl eincr ! 

^leibet I|augen, folg' ii?m fciner ! 1260 

IDic im (gifen ber 5ud?5, 

gagt ein alter fjSDenludjs. 


aber gcbct Tldtt I 

Sd^tDcbet lixn, \(iiwcbet roieber, 

2luf un5 nie^er, xa65 

Unb er I^at jtd} los gemad^t ! 

Konnt il|r iljm niifeen, 

ta%t it^n nid^t jt^en I 

Venn er tl|at uns alien 

Sd^on oiel su (Befallen. 1270 


€rjl 3U begegnen 5em d|iere, 
Sraudj' idi 5en Sprudj 5er IJiere : 

Salamander foQ glfll|en, 

Hn&ene jtdj n)in&en, 

Sytpiie perfd^ioinben, 1275 

Koboll) fid? miilien 1 

H?er jte ntdit fennte, 

2)ie (Elemente, 

3t|re Kraft 

iXnb €tgenfdiaft, 1280 

IDdre fein ZHeijier 

Ueber &ie (5eijler. 

Perfd^romb' in 5Iantmen, 

Salamanber I 

Haufd^enb flie^e sufammen, 1285 

Unbene 1 

Ceud^f m ZHeteorenfdione, 

Sylpfie I 

Srmg' Iiauslidie fjiilfe, 

Incubus ! Incubus ! 1290 

tCritt I^erpor unb mad^e ben Sdilug I 


Kctnes 5er Vxeve 

Stecft m bent tHikve : 

£s (iegt gans rut^ig un5 grfatjl tntcf? an. 

3dl I^ob' il^m nod? nid|t voeii getl^an 1 2295 

Du foUfl mxdi Ijorcn 

Stdrfer befd^roSren. 

Sifl feu, (BefeQe, 

€m 51udjtlmg bet fjSDe? 

So fiet| bies Scidjen, 1300 

Sent jte pdj benQerif 

Vie fd)u>ar5en Sdtaoren I 

5d|on fdiroiHt cs cmf mit borjHgen ^aaxen. 

Vertoorfenes We\en ! 

Kamtji feu il^n lefen, 1305 

7>en me entfprofnen, 


J)urd? aUe ^imntel gego^nen, 

5teoentKdi feurdi jiodjnen ? 

Jointer fecn (Dfen gebarmt, 1310 

SdimVii es wie eva €Iep^ant; 

Den gansen Soum fullt es an, 

£5 n>ttt 3um ZTebel jerfliegen. 

Stetge nid^t 5ur ©ecf e Ijinan I 

Cege feidj 3U fees Hleiflers S&ien. 131s 

2)u ftelifl, fea§ id? nidit oergebens ferot^e, 

3di t>erfenge feidi ntit Ijettiger Col^e I 

finparte nid^t 

Vas fereimal glut|enfee £idjt ! 

StwcLtte x\xd\t 1330 

©ie jidrfjle von meinen Kflnjien 1 



irttt, tnbem ber Hebel fdttt, gefletbet mte etn fd)renber 
S<^oIafHcu5, !{tnier bent (Dfen l^erpor. 

ID05U 6er £drm ? was jicl^t 6em £jenm ju Dfenjien ? 

3)05 alfo war fees pnbels Kern I 

©n f alirenl)cr Scolaji ? ©er Cafus ntad^t mid^ lad^en. 


3clj fahitire ben geleljrten ^erm 1 1395 

31^ fyxbt mtct{ xDciMid} fdiioi^en madden. 

tt>ie nennfi l)u bidt ? 


Die 5tage fd^eint mtr Hein 
5ur emen, bet bos Wott fo fel^r oerad^tet, 
®er, voext entfemt ©on aHem Sd^etn, 
2lur in &er XDefen (Eiefe traditet. 1330 

Sei eudj, iljr ^errn, f ann man bos lDe[en 

<Seu>5t|nIidj aus bem Ztamen lefen, 

Wo es jtdj attju &eutlidj weif t, 

B3enn man eud^ ^Kegengott, Derfeerber, Ciigner Ijei^t. 

Zlun gvii, wet bift bn berm ? 


€in CB|eiI t>on jener Kraft, 1335 
Die pats bas Sofe win, mxb ftdts {)a5 (5ute fd?afft. 

IPas ijl mit Wefem Hdtlifeboort gemeint? 


56 • FAUST. PART I. 

3cfj bin icr (5cijl, ber fidts oemeint I 

Unb bos mtt Hed^t: berat aHl^s, roos entjiel|t 

3jl toertfj, bag es jn (5runbe gel^t; 1340 

J)rum beffer todr's, bag nidits entpflnbe. 

So iji benn aUcs, toas il^r Siinbe, 

SerjiSrung, furs ^^ ^^f^ ncnnt, 

Ztlein eigentlidies €fement 

2)tt nennjl bidj emcn Ojcil unb jicl^ji bodi ganj t>or 
mir ? 1343 


Sefd^dbn^ IDoIjtliett fpredi' idj bit. 

IDenn pd? bcr ZTlenfd?, bie Heine Ztarrentoelt 

(SetDSI^nlicli fur ein (5an3e5 Ijdit. 

3d| bin ein ttl?eil bes S^Ijeils, ber anfangs dies u>ar, 

€in tEi^eil ber Sinjiemig, bie jtdi bos Cidjt gebar, 1350 

Das ftolse Cidjt, bas nun ber UTutter XX(xi\i 

Den alten Hang, ben Haunt it^r jhreitig mad|t. 

Unb bodi gelingf 5 il^ nidjt, '^a es, fo piel es jlrebt, 

X?erl|aftet an ben Korpem Hebt. 

Don Korpem jhromfs, bie Korper mad^t es fd^Sn, 2355 

€in Korper Ijemmt's auf feinem (5ange. 

So, I|off' idj, bauert es nidjt lange 

Unb mit ben K5rpem wirb's 3U (grunbe gel|n. 


Hiin f enn' idj beine wurb'gen pflidjten I 

®u fannji in (5rogen nid^ts t>emid?ten 1360 

Unb fdngji es nun im Kleinen an. 


Unb ftcilid? ijl ntd^t ciel damit getljan. 

Xt>as jtdj l)em Xtidits entgegenPcHt, 

2)05 (Ettoos, biefe plumpe IDcIt, 

So pici ols id? fdjon untemontmen, 136s 

3cli tougte nidit tl|r betsufommen, 

mit XPeBen, SHxtmen, SdinMn, Sran& ; 

(Berul^ig bleibt am €n5e ZHeer un6 ianb I 

Un& 5em pcrbamntten §^ng &er CI|ter* unl) tncnfd^en- 

3)em ijl nun gar nidjts ansuliab^n. 1370 

IDie mele iiab* idj fd?on begraben 
Un5 immer ctrculirt ein ncues, frifd^es Slut. 
So geB|t es fort, man ntod|te rafenb xoctben ! 
Vex £uft, l)em IDaffcr toic bev <£tbm 
€nttoin5en taufenl) Keime fid?, 1375 

3m Crodnen, 5eud?ten, JDarmen, Kalten I 
fjdtt' xdt mir ntdit bk 5Iamme PorbcI|alten, 
3di I^Stte nid^ts Jtparts fiir mid?. 


So fe^ejl b\x bet exx>ig rcgen, 

Vex liexl\am fd^affcnben (Sewalt 1380 

Die falte Ceufelsfauji entgegen, 

Die. fid? oergebens tiidifd? baUtl 

Was anfeers fud?e 3U beginnen, 

T>es (Ziiaos u>un&erlid?cr Sot|n I 


VOix »oKen rDirHtd? uns befinnen. 1385 

Vie ndd?)lcnmale mrf|r bapon I 
VixxfV id? tool biesmal mid? entf emen ? 


3d? \eit^ nxdit, tDorum bn fragjl. 

3dj liabe jcfet bidt Urmen letnm ; 

Sefudje nun mtdj, u>te bu magft I 1390 

£im ifl bos 5enjler, I^ter 6ie Cljilre ; 

£in Haud^fong ift Mr auct) dctoig. 

<5eftel{ id|s nur I X)ag id? t^inousfpasicrc, 

I>erbietet mir cin Hemes JEjin^emt^ : 

5)er Srubenfug auf eurer Sdjioelle. 1395 

Sos pentagromma mad)t &tr pcin? 

© fage mir, bu 5oI|n ber ^oKe, 

IDcnn bos 5idj bannt, u>ie famji 5u betm Ijerein? 

H?ie toori ein foldjer (Beiji betrogen ? 


Sefdjaut es redjt 1 es ifl nidjt gut gesogen ; 1400 

Der eine XDinfel, bet nadj augen 3U, 
3P/ wie bvi jteliji, em ipenig off en. 


©05 l^at 5er guf oD gut getroffen I 

Unb mem (Befongner n>Srji bemt bu? 

Dos ijl pon oi^ngef dl)r gelungen 1 1405 


©er pu&el merfte nidjts, als er Ijeremgefprungen, 
Die Sadje flefjt jefet an6er5 aus ; 
Der tEeufel faun nid)t aus bem ^ous. 



'5 iji dn (5efefe bcr Ceufel m\b ©efpenjler: 1410 

Vas crjie jiel|t uns frci, beim jweiten ftttb ix)ir Kncdjte. 

2)ie fjSHe fclbji Ijat %e Hcdite? 

2)05 pn6' id? gut 1 6a liege ftdj ein pact, 

Unb ftdjer tool, tnit eudj, iljr fjerren, fdiliegen ? 1415 


IPas man t)erfprid?t, 6as foDjt 5u rein geniegen, 

J)ir tx>ir6 6at)on nid^ts obgescoacf t. 

Vodi bos iji nidjt fo furs 5U faffen, 

Unb n>ir befpredjen bos junSd^fi; 

2>od? jefeo bitt' id?, l|od? un6 I|odjji, 1.420 

5iur Wefesmal mid? 3U entlaffen, 


So bleibe bodi nod? einen 2lugenbKcf 
Um mir erji gute TXlav* 3U fagen. 


3^fet I<^ ™<^ I<55 ^ i^ f omme balb suriicf ; 

J)ann magjt 6u nad? SeKeben fragen. 1425 

3d? B?abe brx nid?t nad?geflellt, 

Sift bn bod? felbft ins (6am gegangen. 

J)en Ceuf el I?alte, wet il?n I?dlt I 

(£r tt>ir6 il|n nid?t fobaR) sum jweitenmale fangen. 


Wmn bits beliebt, fo Bin xdt ctudj bevext, 1430 

Dir 5ur (BcfeBf djaft I|ter 5U bfeibcn ; 

Vodt mit Sebmgmg, bir bie geit 

J)urdj meme Kunfle tt>ur&tg 3U ocrtreiben. 

3(i^ \elf es gem, bos jtel|t bit frei I 

Ztur bag bie Kunji gefdllig fei I 1435 

©u tDtrp, mein 5reun6, fiir beine Smnen 
3n biefcr Stunbe tnel^r geroinnen, 
2tl5 in bes 3<it|re5 Cinerlei. 
IDos bit bie sarten ©eijler jtngen, 
7>k fdionen Silber, bie fie bringen, 1440 

Sinb nid^t ein leeres gouberfpieL 
2tudi bein (5erud? toirb ftd^ ergefeen, 
2)ann roirji bu beinen <5aumen lefeen 
Unb bann en^udPt jtdi bein <5efuI|L 
Sereitung hvandit es nid^t ooran, 1445 

Seifammen jtnb voxt, fanget an I 


Sdjujinbet il)r bunleln 

H^olbungen broben 1 

Heisenber fd^aue 

5reunblid? ber blaue 1450 

2letl|er therein I . 

XDdren bie bunfein 

IDoKen jerronnen I 

Stemelein funfeln, 



TXlxlbetti Sonnen 
Sdiexnm 5ardn. 

(5eifKge Sdione, 

Sdjipcmfenbe Seugung 

Sdiwebet ooriiber ; 1460 

Selinenbe Xtexgang 

Solget fimubcr. 

Unb bet (Sewdnbev 

Slattctnbe TSdnbev 

ScdPen bxe €dnbet, 1465 

©edPen bxe Coube, 

XDo ftdj fiirs Ceben, 

©ef in (Sebanhn, 

Cxebenbe gchen, 

Ccmbe bei Caube I 

Sproffenbe Sanfen 1 

Cajlenbe Croube 

Stui^t ins Sclidlter 

Vtdngenbex Kcltcr, 

Stiirjen in Sdd^en 

Sd^dumenbe XDeine ; 

Hiefcin 5urd^ reine, 

<£bk (Befieine. 

Caffcn 6ie f;5l|^n 

Jointer ftdj liegcn, 1480 

Sreiten 5U Seen 

Sid? urns (Beniigen 

(5runen5er fjiigel. 

Iln5 {)a5 <5eflKigeI 

Sdjlurfet fid? IDonne, 1485 

Slxeget bet Sonne, 




5Kcgct Sen I^eHcn 

3nfeln entgcgen, 

Sic fid? auf aWeHcn 

(Sauf eln5 6etx>egen ; 1490 

XDo wit in (Qjorcn, 

3cmdi3cn5'c I^oren, 

Ueber &^n Tbxen 

^n^en^e fd^ouen; 

J)fe jtdj im 5refen 149s 

2tnc serfhreuen. 

£imge tlimmcn 

Ueber 6ie ^oBjen, 

Tbibexe fd^tpimmen 

Uebev bie Seen ; iso© 

2ln5ere fdiioeben, 

3UIe 5um iehen, 

TiSie 5ur 5eme 

£ieben&er Sterne, 

SeKger ^uI5. 1505 


<Er fdjISft 1 So redjt, % luft'gen, sarten 3ungen 1 

3I|r I|abt iljn trenlid? eingefungen I 

SSix bies (Concert bin idi in enrer Sdjulb. 

Du bijl nodj nidjt ber Zllann ben Ceufel feji ju I^alten ! 

Umgaufelt it|n mit fii^en Craumgeftalten; 1510 

Perfenft it|n in ein ZTleer 5e5 IDaljns I 

3)odj biefer SdimeBe ^ouber 5U jerfpolten 

Sebarf idi eines Hattensotins. 

Zlxdit lange braudj' idj ju befd?i»oren ; 

Sdjon rafdjelt efate I^ier vmb xovcb fogleidi ntidi t^Sren, 151s 


2)er ^crr bet Sotten unb bet TXl&a\e, 

J)er 5Kegcn, 5tofdje, Xt)an3en, Cdufc, 

Sefirf|lt bit, bidi Ijeroorsuipagen, 

Hub fetefe 5djn>dlc ju benagen, 

So wxe cr jte ntit ®rf betupft. — xsa© 

Da f omtnjl bu fd^on Ijen)orgeI|upft ! 

Ztur frifdi ons XDerf 1 2)ie Spifec bie midi bannte, 

Sic jlfet gons ©omen an 5cr Kante. 

Ztodj einen 8t§, fo iji*5 gefdjclin I — 

Zlun, 5cmjle, trdume fort, bis toir uns iDtc&erfeI|n 1 1525 

5auft etwadftnb. 

Sin idi 6enn abermals betrogcn ? 
I?erfdjtt>in5ct fo ber geiflerrddjc Jhrang, 
2)a§ mir ein Craum ben Ccufel porgelogen 
Unt) ba^ ein pubel mir entfprang ? 


(EsHopft? ^creinl XDcnpillmiditoicberjrfagen? 1530 

3cll bins. 

herein I 

Vn mugt cs ^reimal fagen. 

J^rein 5enn 1 


So gefdUp ^u mir. 
Xt>ir toetben, I|off' xdi, uns oertragen ! 
Derm bvc b'w ©riittcn 3U oerjagen, 
Sin tdj, als Met 3unfer, B|ier 1535 

3n rotI|em, qolbvevbvamtem Ulcxbe, 
Das TXl&niddten t>on jlarrer Sctie, 
®ie ^al|ncnfe&er auf 5em fjut, 
OTt cinem lanqen, fpifecn Degen, 
Uni) ratine rain 6ir, fu^ un^ gut, 1540 

Scrgleidjen glcid^folls anjulegen, 
J)amtt 5u losgebunben, frei, 
£rfat)rejl tpos bos ieben fd. 


3" jebem Kfeibe t»crb' idj tool bxe pein 

Ses engen Crbelebens fuycn. 1545 

3di bin 3U alt, um nur 5U fpiden, 

5u jung um oI|nc XDunfdi 5U fcin. 

Was tann bxe Welt mir tool gemdljrcn ? 

(gntbel^ren foUft &u 1 follfl entbeljren I 

J>as ifl 5er en?ige (Sevang, iss© 

Der iebem an bxe (Ditxen Hingt, 

J)en unfer gonses teben lang 

Uns I|cifcr jebe Stunbe jtngt. 

tlur mit (Entfefeen wadf id? ZHorgcns auf, 

3dl mod^te bittre Q|rdnen n>einen, isss 

J)en tEag ju ^efyx, bet mir in feinem Cauf 

Zlxdit (Einen IDunfdj erfiiQcn u>ir&, nid^t €inen I 

J)er felbjl bie ^I|nung jebcr £ujl 

Znit eigenjtnnigem Krittel minbert, 

Die 5d|$pfung meiner regen 53rufi 1560 



ZnU taufcnt) Cebensfrofeen lixnbett. 

Tbxdi mug id], rocnn Me Ztadjt jid? nieberfenft, 

Zdidi dngjlKdj auf 5as Cager jhredfen* 

2lud? ba n>irb feme Hafi gefdjenft, 

2Tlid] n>er&en n?il5e Crdume fd^rerfen. 1565 

2)er (5ott, 5er mtr im ^n\en xDoitni, 

Kann tief mem Onnerjies erregen ; 

®er uber alien memen Krdften tiixont, 

€r fonn nad? Tinmen nidits beu>egen. 

Unb fo ijl mir ios Dafein eine Cajl, 1570 

Vex Cob ertpilnfd^t; bos Ceben mir perl^agt. 

Unb bodt ift nie 5er So5 ein gans tpiQfommner (5ajl. 

Q) felig &er, bem er im Siegesglcmje 

Die bluf gen Corbeem um &ie Sdjidfe win&et, 

Sen er nadj rafd? &nrd) raftem Sonse : is7s 

3n eines Vfi&bdtens 2trmen finbet 1 

(D rodr' idj »or bes I^ol^en (5eijies Kraft 

£n^d(t; entfeelt ^at^ingefunten 1 


Unb bod] I|at jemanb einen braunen Saft 

3n jener Zladti nxdit ausgetrunfen. 1580 

t>as Spioniren, fdjeinf s, ijl Seine Cujl. 

^IIu>iffen5 bin id? nid]t ; bodj oiel ifl mir beipugt. 


Werm aas 6cm fdircdPtid^cn (5eix>ul|(e 

€in fug befcmnter tEon mid? 309, 

©en Sejl oon fint)Kd?em (5cfuI|Ie 1585 

Znit 2(nHang froE)cr ^ctt bctrog : 

So fiudi' xdi attem, toos bie Seefe 

TXlit £od» un5 (5aufelrr>erf umfpannt 

Vinb jte in 6iefe Craucrl^ol^le 

Znit Slenb* unb Sd?meid|elfrdften bannt I 1590 

X>erf[ud|t porans 6ie I)ol?e ZTIeinung, 

IDomit 6er <6eip ftd? felbft umfangt 1 

Perflud^t 605 Slenbcn 5er firfdjeinung, 

J)ie fid? an unfre Sinnc brdngt I 

Vev^nd\t xvas uns in tErdumcn l?eud?clt, 1595 

2)e5 Hulims, bet Xlamensbanev Crug I 

Perf[ud?t was als Sefife uns fd?meid?elt, 

Tils Wexb unb Kin6, als Kned?t un6 pflug ! — 

I?erf[ud?t fei 2Tlammon, u>enn mit 5d?dfecn 

£r uns 3U fiilinen Cl^aten regt, 1600 

Xt)enn er 3U miigigem (Ergefeen 

Die polfter uns 3ured?te legt I 

5tudj fei bem Balfamfaft 6er Craubenl 

5Iud? jener I?6d?ften CiebesB^ulb I 

5Iud| fei box JEjoffnilng ! 5Iud? bcm (Blauben 1605 

Unb 5Iud| por allem 6er (8e6ul6 1 — 

(5eijlerd?or unfid?tbar. 

H^elil u)el?l 

Vn i?aft fte serftort 

®ie fd?one Welt, 

Vflit mdd?tiger SavL% 1610 

Sie ftftrst, fte serfdOt I 


©n ^albgott iiat jte $erfdjlagen 1 

IDir ttagen 

Vie Criimmem ins Zttdits I|Mber 

VLrib tlagen 1615 

Ueber 6ie pcrlome 5d|5ne, 

J)er €r&enf5I|ne, 


Saue fie miefeer, 1620 

yxbemem Sufen bouc jte auf I 

Xteuen Cebenslouf 


Znit I^ellem Sinne 

Un6 neue Cieber 1625 

tEdnen i)arauf 1 


Sies fint) bie Kleinen 

Port ben Zlletneit. 

^ore, tx)ie 5U £uft uni) Cl|aten 

2UtfIug fie ratt|en I 1630 

3n 5te Welt n>eif, 

2lu5 ber €tttfairtfeit, 

Wo Stnrten un& Sdfte jlodPert, 

H?oIIen pe 5idj lorfen. 

J^8r' auf ntit 5einem (5ram 5U fpielen, 1635 

2)er, rote etn (Sexex, 5ir am £eben frt^t 1 

Vie fdileditejie (5efenfd?aft Idgt 6id? fiilileit, 

t)a§ 6u etn 2Tlenfci^ trtit Zllenfdjen biji. 

2)od^ fo iji*5 ttid^t gemeint, 

J)tdi unter bos pad 5U jlogett I 1640 


3di bin feiner t)on ^en (Broken, 

Vodt ipiUp 5u, mit mir vetemt, 

Seine Sd^ritte burdjs Ceben netjmen, 

So toill id? mid? gem bequemen, 

Sein ju fein ouf 5er SteOe, 1645 

3d? bin 6ein (BefeUe 

Hnb mad?' id? bvc*s red?t, 

Sin id? bein ©iener, bin 6ein Kned?t 1 

Unb was foil id? bagegen ^ir erfuHen ? 

Vasix I?ajl bu nod? eine lange 5riji. 1650 

Ztein, nein I Ser Ceufel iji ein (£goijl 

Unb tl?ut nid?t Ieid?t um (Bottes IDiHen 

Was einem onbem niifelid? ijl* 

Sprid? 5ie Sebingung 6eutUd? a\xs ; 

(Ein fold?er Siener bringt (5efal?r ins ^aus I 1655 

3d? u>ill mid? I?ier 5U 5einem 3>ienjl perbin5en, 
Tbxf 5einem IDinf nid?t raften vmb nid?t rul?n ; 
H^emt u>ir uns bruben mie^erfinben, 
So foUft bu mir bas (5Ieid?e tl?un. 


2)05 ©ruben fann mid? n>enig fummern ; 1660 

Sd?tclgfl bn erft biefe IDelt 5U tEriimmem, 
Die anbre mag bamad? entjieB?n. 
Tlrxs biefer €r5e qui0en fneine Steuben 


Vinb biefe Sonne fd^cmet meinen teibea; 

Kann xdi ntidi crfl poh ii^nen fd^eiben, 166s 

7><mn mag was xoxVi nnb tann gefd^cBin. 

5)aoon rottt idj nid^ts ipetter !|6ren, 

®b man aud? Knfttg I^a^t nnb KeBt, 

Unb ob es audi ^ J^nen 5pl|drcn 

€tn ®ben o&er Unten gibt ' 1670 

3n Mcfem Stnnc fannjl bvi*s wagen. 
Pcrbinbe 5idi I Vn foUji in bicfcn Cagcn 
JUit Sxenben nteine Kiinjie feBjn I 
3dj gcbc t>ir voas nodt fetn ZHenfdi gefel^n. 

H>a5 n>illj! 5u amter Ceufel gcbcn ? 1675 

IDarb ernes Zfien^dien (6cijl in feinem Ijoljen Streben 

l^on Seines (Bfeid^en je gefa^t? 

2)odj I|aji 5u Speife Sie nid^t fdttigt, l?aj! 

2)u retires (5oI5 bas ol^ne Zia% 

Quedfplbcr gfeid?, 5ir in bev ^anb serrinnt, 1680 

(£in Spiel bei bem man nie geminnt, 

(£in HTd&d^cn bas an meiner Sruj! 

Znit 2teugcln fd^on bem TXadtbac fid? perbin5ct, 

2)er <£iive fd^one (Botterlup 

2)ie wie ein TXleteox oerfd^toin&ei 1685 

SexQ* mir 5ie ^nid^t bie fault eii' man fie bridit 

Vnb Sdume bie jtd? tdglid? neu begrfinen I 


<£in foldjer ^uftrag f d^recft mid? nidjt ; 
Znit foldjen Sd?dfeen fann id? bienen. 


Vodi guter 5teun6, bxe geit fommt oudj Bjeron, 1690 
Wo wit was (Buts in 2lul|e fdimoufen mogcn. 

n?er5' idj berul^igt je ntidi ouf ein 5cmlbett fegen, 

So fei es gleidi um mtdj gctl^an I 

Kannj! t>u mid? fdjmeididnt) je belugen, 

7>a% xdi mir felbjl gcfatten mag, 1695 

Kannjl bu mid? mit (Benug bctrugen : 

Dos fei fiir midj 5cr fefete Cag I 

X)ie JDette bief idi I 



Unb Sdjiag auf Sd^Iag. 
IDerb* xdi jum Stugcnblirfe fagen : 
Vetwexk bodi, bn bijl fo fdjon I — 1700 

J)ann magft 5u mid? in 5effeln fdjlagcn, 
®ann tx>in id? gem 3U (5run6e get^n I 
©ann mag 5ie tEo5tengIodPe fd?allen, 
J)ann bijl 6u deines ©ienftes frei, 
J)ie Ut|r mag jiel|n, 5er geiger fallen, 1705 

(Es fei bie §eit fiUr mid? Dorbei 1 

Sebenf es tool I wit werben's nid?t pergeffen. 


2)a5U I|aji 5u ein volks Hedit. 

3di B?abe mid? nidjt freoentUd? t)ermeffen ; 

Wxc xdt beBiarre, bin idj Knedjt, 1710 

(Db beitt; was frag' id?, ober toeffen. 


3cfi wevbe Ijeute gleictj beim Soctorfdimaus 

TUs Dicner nteine pfiid^t crfuHen. — 

Zlxvc ems 1 — Um £eher\s ofecr Sterbcns toillen 

Sitt' id? mir ein paor S^\len aus. 171s 

2tudi was (5e\dimhnes forberjl 6u, pebcmt? 

^ajl 6u nodi f^inen ZHann, nid^t Vfianneswoxt gefannt ? 

3jl5 nxdit genug bag mein gefprod^ncs XDort 

2inf eroig fott mit meinen Cagen fd^oltcn ? 

Haft ntdit Me H)ett in alien Stromen fort 1720 

Un5 midj foil em Perfpred^en l^alten ? 

Vodi 5tefer IDal^n iji uns ins ^ers gelegt ; 

Wet mag jtdj gem bapon befreien ? — 

Seglucft, met Creue rein im Sufen trdgt, 

Kein ®pfer tovcb xfyi je gereuen I 1725 

2UIein ein pergament, befdjrieben unb beprdgt, 

3jl ein (5efpenji, por bem jidj alle \dievien, 

Vas XDort erjiirbt fd^on in ber 5^ber, 

Die ^errfd^aft fiil^ren Wadis unb Ceber. 

Was ipiUJi bu bSfer (Beiji oon mir ? 1730 

(£i^, 2narmor, pergament, papier ? 

Son idt tnit (5riff el, Zlleigel, 5^ber fdireiben ? 

3di gebe jebe IPaI|I bir frei. 


Xt>ie magfl bu beine Hebnerei 

Ztur* gleidi fo I^ifeig iibertreiben ? 1735 

3ii bod? ein lebes Sldttd^en gut. 

Vn untet^eid^neji bidi mit einem Cropfdjen Slut. 


Wenn bies bit voUxg (5'nfigc tfyxt, 
So mag es bei bet S^^ai^e bfeiben. 

Slut iji cin gans befonbrer Saft. 1740 


Ztur feme Sutd^t, ba% xdi bxes Sun&nig bredje I 

T>as Streben meiner gansen Kraft 

3fl grabe 6as mas idj t>erfpred)e. 

3<i? liabe midi 5U itodi gebldl^t, 

3" bemen Hang geljor' idj nur : 174s 

®er gro§e (5etji I^at mid^ oerfd^mdI|t, 

Por mir Derfd^Kegt fid? 5ie Ztatur. 

©es ©enfens Saben ift serriffen, 

Znir efelt lange por aCem IDiffen. 

ta^ m bm Ciefen bet SxmAxditeit 1750 

Uns glul|eni)e Cei&enfd^aften jKHen ; 

3n unburd^brungnen ^auberl^unen 

Set jebes H^un&er gleidj berett I 

Stiirsen roir uns in 5a5 Haufdjen bex Sext, 

3n5 Hotten bev Segebent^eit I i7ss 

2)a mag 6enn Sdjmers mxb <6enu§, 

(5elingen mxb Derbrug, 

Znit emanber loedjfeln, toie es fann ; 

2lur rajHos betl|dtigt fid? 5er 2tlann. 


<Eud? iji fern 7Xla% nnb ^tel gefefet. 1760 

Seliebts eud? iiberall 5U nafd?en, 
3tn Sii^^rx etn>as ju erB|afd?en, 


Sefomm' endi tool was cudj erge^t 
Zbxx grcift ntir 5U unb fei5 md)t blobe 1 

Du I^orefl ya, von S^mb* ift nid^t Wc Hefte. 17^5 

Dent tCoumel meil| id^ midi, bem fdiTnerslidjjlen (Senug, 
Perliebtem ^a§, erquidenbem Perbrug. 
ZlTem Sufen, 5er Pom XDijfensbrang geljcilt ijl, 
Soil feinen Sdjtnersen funftig fid? t>erfd|tte§cn, 
Vinb was 6er gonsen Znenfdjl|ctt sugetficilt ift, 1770 

XDill idj in meinem innem Sdbji gentegen; 
TXlit nteinem (5cijl 605 fjodjfl' un6 (Eicfjle greifcn, 
3I|r IDol un5 Wdi ouf meinen Sufcn ^dufcn 
Vinb fo mein eigen Selbp 3U iljrem Sdbji erit>eitem 
Unb rote jte felbji am (£nb audi id| serfdjeitern. 1775 


© glaube mtr 5cr mand^e toufenb 3al?re 

2ln biefcr Ijarten Speife faut, 

Dag t)on bev Wwge bis jur Saljre 

Kein ZHenfd? ben alien Sauerteig l)cc^aut ! 

<5Iaub unfer eincm, ^iefes <5an3C 2780 

3j^ nur ffir cinen (5ott gcmad^t 1 

(£r finbct fid? in dnem em'gen (Slan^e, 

Uns I^at er in bxe Sinfiemig gebrad^t 

lln& eudj taugt cinsig tCag un& Zladt^. 

TiSiexn id? tx>ill 1 


Vas Idgt fid? E|6ren I 178s 

Dod? nur t>or £inem iji ntir bang : 




j Die Scit ifl fm^, bk KunjI iji lang. 
3cl? bddif, ifjr liegct cudj beleljren, 
^Ijfociirt endt tnit einem poeten, 
ia%t ben J^erm in (5c5anfen fditocifcn 
Un^ aHe eSlcn Qualitdten 
Tbxf euren €I^renfdjeiteI Ijdufen, 
Des towen zhutl), 
©es fjirfd^es SdjneDtgf eit, 
2)es 3taKencrs feurig Slut, 
©es Zlovbens ©au'rbarfeit. 
Ca§t iljn eud? bos <5el|cimm§ ftnben 
(Bro^mutlj unb 2lrglift 5U vevbxnben 
Unb endi mit xoaanen 3ugen5trieben 
Ztadj einem plane ju »eriieben. 
Hlod^te felbft fold? einen ^erren fennen, 
VOuxb* iijn i^erm ZHifrofosmus nennen ! 



Was bin xdi 6enn, ipenn es nid?t moglid^ ijl 
©er JTI!enfd|I|eit Krone 3U erringen, 
Zladi bet jtd^ aUe Sinne bringen ? 


Du bijl am €n6e — mas b\x bifl. 
5e^ 6ir perriiden auf x>on ZHiQionen Coden, 
Sefe &einen S^% auf eflenljol^e Soden, 
©u bleibjl 5od| immer was bn bi% 


3d? fut^rs I 2?ergeben5 tjab idj aHe Sdjdfee 
©es 21Tenfdjengeijt5 auf mid? I^erbeigerafft, 
Unb u>enn id? mid? am (£nbe nieberfefee, 
QuiQt innerlid? 5od? f eine neue Kraft ; 




j 3dl bin nidjt urn em ^aar brcit ii&tiex, 

\ Sin bem UnenMidien nid^t ndljer. isis 


Xtlein guter ^err, il|r fel|t bie Sadden, 

IDie man 6ie Sadden eben fid|t; 

ItHr mfijfen bos gefd^eiter ntadicn, 

&l uns bes Cebens 5tcu5e fliel|t. 

IDos ^enfer 1 Stexlxii fjdnb' un& S&^e 1820 

Un5 Kopf un5 J^ , ^ie pnb bein ; 

Vodt oUcs, toos idj frifdi gcnie^e, 

3ji 505 bvum wenxqet ntcin? 

IDenn id^ ^edis £jengjle saljlen !cmn, 

5in5 il^re Krafte nid?t bie mcine ? 1825 

3di rcnne 3U nnb bin cin red^tcr ZITann, 

Tils iidW idt pierunbsrpansig Seine. 

Srum frifd^ 1 £a^ aUes Sinnen fein, 

Unb Qtab mit in bk Welt Ijinein I 

3di fag' es bit : ein Kerl bet fpeculirt, 1830 

3jt n>ie ein tEt|ier, auf bmxev J^eifee 

Don einem bofen (5eijlt im Kreis I^erumgefuljrt 

Uni rings umijer liegt fd^one griine IDeibe. 

IDie f angen n>ir bos cat ? 


IDir gel^en eben fort. 
Was ifl bos fur ein ZHarterort ? 1835 

. Was ite\%t bas fiir ein Ceben fiil^ren, 
Sidi mxb bxe 3ungen5 ennuyiren ? 
£a% bn bas bem ^erm Zladibav H?anfi ! 
Was loiCjt bn bxdi bas Sttoit 3U brefd^en plagen ? 


T>as Sej!e xoas ^u mtffen fonnjl 1840 

(5Ieici{ I^or* id} einen ouf 5em (Songe I 

Hlir i{b nid^t mdglidi it{n 5U feljn. 


J)er arme Knabc tpartet lange ; 

2)cr barf nidjt ungctrojUet geB|n. 1845 

Komm gib mir bcinen Hod un5 2Ttufee I 

J)ie ZlTasfc mu§ mir foj!Iid| jletin. 

(£r fletbet {ic^ um* 
Ztun ubcrlag es mcinem XPifee I 
3di braud^e nur ein Wcrtclflunbdjen S^it; 
3n&cffcn mad|e t)id| jur fdionen 5ct^rt bcrcit I 1850 

^aujl ab. 

in ^aufis langcm Kletbe. 
Pcrad^te nur Dcmunft un5 IDijfcnfdiaft, 
J)e5 2Ttenfd|en aHerl^od^fte Kraft I 
Cag nur in Slenb* unt) ^aubertocrfen 
2)idi t)on 5em Cugengdp bcjidrfen, 
5o Ijab* idi Wdj fd^on unbeiingt. — 1855 

3I|m I|at bas Sdjidfal eincn (5eljl gegeben, 
®cr ungebdnbigt imntcr pormdrts bringt 
Un5 beffcn iibcreiltes Streben 
®er €ri)e 5teu5en iibcrfpringi 
Sen fdjiepp' idj t)urd} feos toilbe Cebcn, i860 

Surdj ^aii^ Unbcfecutenl^cit ; 
€r foH mir sappein, jlarren, Heben 
Unb fdner Unerfdttlidjfeit 
Son Spdf un5 (Eran! oor gier'gen Cippen fd^mebcn ; 


£r voxxb firquirfung jtd^ umfonft cv^efyi 1865 

Unb Ijdtt' cr fidj audj mdit bem (Ecufel iibcrgebcn, 
(£r mugte feodj 5U <5run6e gel|n I 

€itt Siguier tritt aitf . 

3d| bin oltt^ier erjl fursc §eit 

Unb fomme doH (JErgebenl^eit 

(Einen ZHann ju fpred^en mxb 3U fcnnen, 1870 

Sen olle mir mit €t|rfurdit nenncn. 


€ure J^ofiidif eit erfrent ntidi fef^r I 
3l^r feljt cinen TXlann tote onbre meljr. 
fjobt tt|r eucf? fonji fdjon umgctljan? 

3^1 bitt eud?, nel|mt endt mcmer an I 1875 

3d? fomme mit aKem guten Kbxtli, 
CeiMid^em (Selb rnib frifdiem Shit ; 
HTcine ZHutter roollte mid? foum entfemcn ; 
2n5d)te gem toos Hed^ts I|ier augen lenten. 

Da fei5 il|r eben red)t am ®rt- isso 


2Iufridjtig, m6d?te fdjon roieier fort ; 

3n feiefen ZHauem, feiefen EiaUm 

XO\Xl es mir feineswegs gefaKen. 

€5 iji ein gar befdjrdnfter Haum, 

TXlan jte^t nid^ts (Smms, feinen Saum 1885 

Unb in t)en Sdlen, auf ben Sdnfen 

Dergelit mir fjoren, 5el|n unb Senfen. 


2)05 f ommt nur auf Sewofyiiiext an. 

So nimtnt cm Kin& 6cr ZHuttcr Sruji 

Ztid^t glcid} im 2(nfang toiDig cm, 1890 

Vodt baib emdl|rt es jtd? mit Cuji. 

So u>ir&5 eudj an 5er XDcist^eit Srfljlen 

ZnU je&em (Cage meljr geKjien. 


Tin it|rem ^als tx>in idj mit Steuben fymgen ; 
Sod? fagt mir mur u>ie fann tdj Ijingelangcn ? 1895 


€rfWrt eudi el|' iljr ipdtcr geljt, 
IDos tt)dl|lt il|r fflr cine Sacvdtdt? 


3di tx>ilnfdjte rcd?t gelel^rt 3U toericn 

Un6 mod^te gem mas auf t)er (£vben 

Unb in 5em ^immel ijl, erfaffen, 1900 

J>ie a>ijfcn[diaft nnb bxe Zlatax. 


3)a fdt) il|r auf ^cr redjtcn Spur ; 

Sodj miigt it|r endi «id|t serftreuen laffcn. 


3d! Kn ftabei mit Seef un5 Ceib ; 

5)odj fretttdi wuxbe mir bel^agen 1905 

€in tt>enig 5reiljeit unb ^extoetttexb 

Tin fdjonen Sommcrfeiertagen, 


(Sebtcmdit bet 3dt I fte geiit fo fd^nell ©on Ijinnen ; 

Vodi (Dtbrmng Irf^rt eud^ 5^it gewimten. 

ZHein tl|curer 5teunt), idj ratlj' eud^ brum 1910 

Suerjl Collegium logicum ! 

7>a voxtb bev (5eijl mdt tool brcfftrt, 

3n fponifd^c Stief cin emgefdiniirt, 

Dag er bebad^tiger fo fortan 

^mfd^Ieid^e bxe (SebcaiUnbatin 19x5 

Unb nid^t ehx>a We Kreuj un6 fljuer^ 

3rrUd|teUre Ijin unb Ijer. 

Sann fel^ret man efld^ mandjen Cag, 

Va%, was \tit fonjl auf €inen Sd^lag 

(Betrieben, n?ic €jifen unb tErinfen fret, 1920 

(Einsl 5tDeil btexl basu ndtl^ig fci. 

Stoar ifts mit bet (Bcbanfenfabrif 

H?te mil einem IDebermetfterftud, 

XX>o €in Critt taufenb S^ben regt, 

Die Sd^ifflein fyxnbev fjiniibcrfdiiegen, 192s 

Die 5^b^n ungefel^en fliegen, 

£in Sd^Iag taufenb Perbinbungen fd^Idgt 

Vet pf|ilofopI| bet tritt Ijerein 

Vinb beroeif t endi es mfi^f fo fein : 

Vas (£rff xx>dt' fo, bas S^eite fo 1930 

Unb brum bos Dritt' unb Oierte fo 

Unb voerm bos €rft' unt) ^roeif nid?t todr', 

7>as Dritt* unb Piert' todr' nimmermel^r. 

X)a5 jnreifen 5ie Sdtviet aller ®rten, 

Sinb aber feine XDeber getoorben. 1935 

Wet wxU was Cebenbiges erf ennen un5 befd^reiben, 

Sud^t erji ben (5eift t^eraussutreiben ; 


©arm iicA cr bw CI|eiIe m feiner ^anb, 
ieyt; Uxbet I mur feos geijMge ^on^. 
Encheiresin naturae nennts 6ie CBjemie, 1940 

Spottet itjrer felbfl unt) roeift nidjt mie. 

Kaitn cud? nidjt eben gans pcrjlel^en. 


Dos xvxvb n&di^ens fdion bcffcr geljen, 

IDenn ttjr lemt afles rebuciren 

Uni) gel^orig clafftftcuren. 194s 


Znir ix>tr5 pon aHebem fo t)umtn, 

Tils ging* mir em IHuI^Irat) int Kopf t^crum. 


tTad?I|cr por alien onbcm Saitm, 

TXlvi^f itit endi <nt 6ie 2TtetaptjYfrf mad^n ! 

3)a fct^t bag il^r ticfjtnnig fa^t X950 

Was m fees ZlXenfd^en fjim ntd|t pagt ; 

5ur was ferein geE^t unt) nid^t ferein ge^t 

£in prdd^tig IDort 5U Dienflen jlel^i 

Dodi porerjl Mefes I^albe ^aiit 

ZXefynt la feer bejlen ©rbnung n>aljr. 1955 

5iinf Stunben B^abt iljr jefeen (Eag ; 

5ei6 fermnen mit feem (SlodPenfd^lag I 

^abt eud? voxiiev tool prdpartrt; 

paragraptjos tDoI emjlubirt, 

Damit iEjr nad^Ijer beffer fe^t, , i960 

®a§ er mdtts fagt, als loas im ^udje jlet|t ; 

Dodj eudj fees Sd^reibens ja befleigt, 

^Is feictirf eud? 6er E|etlig <5eip 1 

SCENE IV. 8 1 

2)05 foDt il|r mir nid^t sroeimal fagcn I 

3di benfe mir wxe oiel cs nufet; 196s 

J)enn was man fd^toars auf we\% beftfet, 

Kann man gctroji nadj ^aufe tragen. 

J)ocIj xoSiilt mir cine 5acultdt 1 


Sm Hcdits^elefjrfamfeit fann idi rmdi nxdit be* 


3dl Jann es eud| fo fet|r nidjt fibel nel^mcn ; 1970 

3di toeig, n>ic es um 5iefe Cel^re jicl|t. 

€5 erben jtdi (5efefe' un& Hcd^te 

IDie cine em'ge Kranttjeit fort; 

Sie fd^Ieppen von (5efd^Ied|t fid^ 5um (Sefd^Ied^te 

Unb diden fad^t von (Dtt ju ©rt 197s 

Demunft tx>ir6 Unfinn, Woliiiat plage ; 

Well &ir, 5ag l)u ein (£nf el bij! 1 

Pom Hedite bos mit uns geboren ifl, 

Von bent ijl lei&er 1 nie We S^^age. 


Zltein 2tbfdieu toirb bwcdi eudi ©ermel|rt. 1980 

(D gliidlid? 6er &en il^r beleljrt I 

5ajl mSdjf xdi nun d^eologie fhibiren. 

3d| mflnfd^te nid^t eudj irre 5U fiitiren. 
Was Wefe tt>iffenfd?aft betrifft, 



€5 ijl fo \diwex ben folfdjen XDeg 3U mciben ; 1985 

€5 Uegt in iljr fo vxel vetboxgnes (5ift 

Unt) Don bet Th^enex ifis fount ju untcrfdjctben. 

2tm bejicn ijis oud^ I^ier, werm it^r nur CEinm I^ort 

Urxb auf 5e5 Zltcijlers XDovte fditoort 

3tn (5an3en — iialtet endi an Wotte I 1990 

©ann gelit iljr burdj We jtdire pforte 

gum Cempel bet (Sexox^lieit era. 

J)odi exn Segriff mu§ bet t)em IDorte fein. 


Sdjon guil Xlur mug man fid? nidjt all5udngjllidi 

7>enn eben wo 33egriff e fel|len 199s 

7>a Pent ein H?ort jur redjten ^eit jtdj ein. 
Znit IDorten Idgt ftdj trefflid? fhreiten, 
Znit XDorten ein Syjiem bereiten, 
2ln XDorte la%t fidj trefflid? glauben, 
^ Von exnem Wovt Id^t fidj tein 3ota xaviben, 2000 


Vex^exiit 1 idj Ijolf eud? ouf mit pielen S^agen, 

villein id? tttug eudj nodj bemiilin. 

XPoDt il|r mir t>on t)er ZHebicin 

Ztxdit oudj ein fedftig VOoxtdien fagen? 

Drei 3^^' if* ^^^ f^^ S^tt, 2005 

Unb, (5ott 1 bos 5rfi> ift gar 5U toeit. 

XPetm man einen Singerseig nur iiat, 

t^t fidjs fd|on eB^er weiter fiiyen. 


ZnepI|ijiopIjeIe5 vox ^d^. 

3di bin 6c5 troAtcn (Cons nun fatt, 

ZlXug toiebcr rcd^t &en tCeufel fpicbn. 20x0 

Der (5cijl 5cr Znefetcm ifl leid^t 3U f offcn ; 
3Iir 5urdijlu5irt &ie grog' un6 Heine IDelt 
Um es am Sxibe get^n 5U laffen, 
XWe's (5ott gef ant. 

Pergebens 5a§ iljr ringsum njiffenfctjoftlidj fdjroeift, aoxs 
©n jeber lemt nur was er lemen f ann ; 
Sod) &er &en Slugenblid ergreift, 
©05 ijl 6er redjte ZJIonn. 
31^^ H^ nodi jiemlidi tool gebaut, 
2tn Kfttinljeit witbs exxdt coxdt nxdit fel^Ien 2020 

IXnb w^rm itjr end) nur felbfi pertrctut, 
Pertrauen eudi bie anbem Seelen. 
Sefont)er5 lemt &ie IDeiber fuljren ; 
£s x^ \tix en>ig XDet) mxb Tldti 
So taufen^fad) 2025 

Tius (ginem punfte 3U curiren. 
Un6 u:>enn il^r t{albn:>eg el^rbor tl^ut, 
Sonn Itabt iB^r jte oil unterm ^ut. 
€in Citel ntug fte erji t>ertraulid{ ntad?en, 
Va% eure Kunji mel Kiinjie iiberfleigt ; 2030 

Sum IDiDfomm toppt it{r datm nadi aQen 5ieben« 

Um 6ie ein onftrer t)iele 3al|re jhreidji 
Perjlel)t bas piUsIein wol 5U ^diden 
Unb f affet jte mit f eiung fdilcmen Sliden 
Wol um Me fdjianfe fjilfte frei, 2035 

gu fel^n, »ie feji gefdjmlrt fie fel 


2)05 fiel|t fd^on buffer ous. Z(lan jteB|t feodj tpo un6 roie. 

(5rau, tl|curer 5teunt), ijl alle Cljeorie, 
Unb gr&n bes Cebens golbner Saum. 

3dj fd^tDor' cudi 3U, ntir ijis als rote em Croum. 2040 
Durft' idj eudj ix>oI em anbermal befdiroeren, 
Port eiurer IDeisI^ett ouf t>en (Sruttt) 3U I|6ren? 

ZDos idi Dermag foK gem gefd^el^rt^ 


3dl fattn uitmoglidj t»ie^er gel^n, 

3di muj5 eudj nod? mem Stammbudj uberreidjett. 2045 

^inn* emre (gunjl mtr Mefes ^etd^en I 


5el|r n>oI I 

(Er fc^reibt unb gtbts. 

Sd^iUer Itejl. 
' Eritis sicut Deus, scientes bonum et malum. 
Vfiadjis eiirerbtettg 5U uttb empffe^ilt ftc^. 


5oIg' rtur 5em alten Sprud? uitb meiner TXlvfyne, bev 

Sd^Iange ; 
] J)ir totr5 getoig einmol bei Reiner (5ottdI|nItdifeit 
j ; bangel 2050 


^aufl tritt auf. 
Wottin foil es nun geljn ? 

XDoIjin es Wr gefdHt 
IDir fel|n 5ie Heine, 6ann bie gro§e Welt 
TXixt weldiev Sxenbe, tDeld^em Hu^en 
Xt>ir jl bu ben (Curfum &urci?fdtmaru^en 1 

2tnein bei meinem (ongen Sart 2055 

5eI|It mir ^ie leid^te Cebensart. 

£5 wvcb mir 6er Perfud^ nid^t gUXden; 

3ct? tDugte nie mid? in bxe H?elt ju fd^iJ en. 

Vox anbem ^V id? ntidj fo Hein, 

3di tper&e ftdts t>erlegen fein. 2060 

tlTein guter Sxennb, bos wixb fid? aHes geben; 
Sobaib b\x bit pertrauj!, \obalb wex^t bn 5U leben. 

IDie f omnten n>ir 5enn caxs bem fjous ? 
Wo iia^ bn pferbe, Knedjt mxb Wagen? 

Wit bvexterx mxc bexx ZlTantel aus, 2065 

Vet foil uns burd? 6ie Ciifte tragen. 
Thx nimmft bei feiefem f iilinen Sdivxtt 
Xtwc te'xrxerx gro§en Siinbel mit 
(£in bisd?en 5euerluft, bxe id? bereiten wexbe, 
S^ebt uns beiierxb pon Wefer €rbe. 9070 

Urxb \irxb xx>xv Ieid?t, fo geljt es fd?nell Ijinauf ; 
3d? gratulire bit jum neuen Cebenslauf I 


2Iuerbadj5 Keller in £etp3igv 

Stdft Infitger (Sefetten. 


IDill f enter trinfen? f enter ladjen? 

3dj K>ill eud? lel^ren (5ejtdjter mact)en 1 

3^t fei5 ja I^eut n)ie najfes Strolj 2075 

Unft brenitt fonji immer fid^terlotj. 


2)05 fiegt an bit ; &u bringfl ja mdits Ijerbet, 
Ztid^t eine 2)umtnl|ett, feme Souerei. 

gtegt ti)m ein (SIos IPein fiber ben Kopf * 
Z>a t{a{l 5u beiges 1 

®opi>eU Sdjtoein I 

3t|r tpoltt es ia, man foil es fein I aoSo 


Sur tCI^ur Iitncms n>er fid^ ent3n?eit I 

Znit offner Srujl jingt Hun&a, fauft unb fdjrett I 

aufi JEjoflal fjol 


IX)eB| mir, td| bin oerloren 1 
SauntrDoHe Ijer I bev Kerl fprengt mir &ie ®I^ren. 

SCENE V. 87 

IDenn bos (Setoolbe miebet^iicSlt, aoss 

5ulllt mem erjl redjt bes Saffes (5xxmbgexx>cit 


So vedtt 1 f|maus mit bem, bet etoos iibel nimmt 1 

2{ I tara lora 2)a I 

2( ! tara lata ba I 

©te Keyen fin& gejttmmt. 
Das Kebc, t^eilge rom'fdje Heid?, 2090 

IDie Ijdits nur nodj sufammen ? 


€tn garjHg Cici 1 pfui 1 em politifctj Hkb 1 

(Ein leibig Cie6 1 J)anft (5ott mit Jebcm ZHorgen, 

2)ag il)r nid^t braud^t fiirs rom'fdje Held? 5U forgcn I 

3di Ijalt' es njcnigjlens fflr rcidjlidjen (Setoimi, 3095 

3>a§ id^ nid^t Kaifcr obex Uan^lex bin. 

®odj mujj audi wns ein ©berl|aupt nid^t fel|Icn ; 

H>ir tPoKen einen pap^ etwci(Un, 

3i?t roi^t weldi eine (Qualitdt 

X)en 2tu5fd|Iag gibt, ben VHcaxn eviioiit axoo 

5rofdi fln0t. 

SdjiPtng Wdj auf, fycax ZtaditigaD, 
(Briijj' mir mein Ciebd^en 3cl|ntaufen5mal ! 


©em Ciebd^cn f einen (5ru§I 3^1 w^iK bavon nidjts 
tjSren 1 


J)cm Ctebdien (5rug unb Kugl 5u ix>irjl mtrs nidjt 


Hicgel auf 1 in ftiller Zladit 2105 

Hicgel auf 1 5er Ciebjic road^t. 
Hiegcl 5U I fees OTorgens frul|. 


3ci, Itnge, jtngc nur unl> lob* unl> rul^me jte I 
3d| tt)ill 3U metner ^eit fdion lad^en. 
Sie l^ai mxdt angcfut|rt, bxv mvcb pes audi fo 
tnad^cn. 21 10 

Sum Ciebjlen fci ein Koboto tl|r befd^ert I 
J)cr mag mit it^r auf einem Kreustoeg fdidfem. 
©n alter Socf , tpenn er t)om Slodsberg fet^rt, 
tlTag im (Balopp nod| gute Ztad^t xiiv medem ! 
©n braper Kerl t>on cd^tem 5feifd| un5 Slut ans 

3ii fur bte ©true t>iel 5U gut. 
3di roUt t)on feinem <5ru§e toiffen, 
Tils xfy; bie 5^1*^1^ eingefdimijfen ! 

SranScr auf btn (Etfc^ fc^Iagenb. 

pajjt auf, pa^t auf I (5eI|ordiet mir 1 
3I?r ^crm gejicl|t, idj n?eig 3U leben. 2120 

VevlkbU Ceute fifeen Ijier 
Unb biefen mu§ nadj Stanbsgcbfitir 
gur guten Ztad^t id? roas 5um Sejlcn geben. 
(5cbt Tldit I ein Cie5 pom neujlen Sd^nitt I 
Uni ftngt ben Hunbreim froftig mit I 2125 

€r ftngt. 
€5 tt)ar eine Hatt im KcIIcmeft, 

SCENE V. 89 

£ebte nur Don S^tt nnb Sutter ; 

^atte jtdj ein Hdnslein angemdjl't 

2II5 w\e bet J)octor CutEjer. 

3)te Kod^m l^att' tl^r (5ift gcjlent ; 2130 

Sa u>ar5'5 fo cng tf|r in ber Welt, 

7Us t{dtte jte Cieb im Ceibe. 

Cf{oru5 jau(^3enb. 
»ls Ijatte fte £ieb im Ceibe. 

Sic fuljr Ijerum, jte ful)r Ijercms 
Unb foff ous aQcn pfii^en; 3135 

Semagf, serfro^f bos ganse J^cms, 
XDoHte nictits it|r IDutEjen nfifeen ; 
5ie tljdt gar tnondien Jlengjiefprung ; 
Bal5 I|atte feos arme (Eljicr gcnung, 
^(s I{&tf C5 £ieb im Ceibe. 2140 

205 l^att' es Ceb im Ceibe. 


Sie f am fiir 2tngP am I|dlen (tag 

J)er Kiid^e sugelaufen, 

5iel an ben ^er5 un5 sudf unb lag 

Unb Hicit erbdrmlid^ fdinaufen. 2145 

3)a ladite bie Oergifterin nodt : 

^a I pe pfeift auf bem le^ten £odi, 

yHs Ijdtte fte £ieb im €eibe. 

7Us I^atte fte Ceb im £eibe. 



Wxe pd? bie ^laiten Surfdje freuen I 2150 

€5 ijl mir erne red^tc KunjI 

Sen ormen 2taitcn (Sift 5U {heuen 1 

Sxe jiel|n tool fcB^r in feeiner (Bunji? 


Vet Sdimeetbarxdt mit 6er f allien platte ! 

©as Ungliiif mad^t iljn sal^m un5 ntilb ; 2155 

€r jtel^t in 5er gefditooQnen Hattc 

Sein gans naturiid^ SbenUlb. 

^aufi unb Dlepi)iflopi{e(e5. 

3d? mu§ bid? nun t)or alien J)ingcn 

3n lujHge (BefeUfd^aft bringen, 

©amit bu jteliP, u)ie leid?t ^dis Uhen Id§t. 2160 

Sem Polfe I?ier loirb jeber tEag ein 5^ji. 

Znit wenig ibife un5 piel SeE?agen 

J)rel|t jeber ftdj im engcn girfeltans 

Wxe junge Kafeen mit bent Sdivoan^, 

Werm pe nidjt iiber KopftocI? Hagen. 2165 

So lang ber IDirtI? nur roeiter borgt, 

Sinb jte pergnugt unb unbeforgt 


3)ie fomnten eben ©on ber Heife, 

ZHan fieljts an xfyet n>unberiid?en tt)etfe ; 

5ie finb nid|t eine Stunbe Ijier. 2170 


SCENE V. 91 


XOciixitaftiQ bn fyx^ Hed^t 1 ZITetn Ceij^d Ioi> id} mir 1 
£5 i^ em Hem poris tmb bilbet feme Ceute. 

5ur toas jtel) j} btx bxe jremben on ? 

£ag mid} nur gel{n ! 33ei einem ooQen (Blafe 
^iet} id}; tx>ie einen Kin&er5al}n; 2175 

Den Surfd}en leid}t 5ie IDflnner aus feer Zlafe. 
5ie fd}einen mir aus einem eblen E^caxs ; 
5ie fe^en jlols un5 un5ufrieden ousv 

Znarftfd}reier pnbs gewig, id} roette I 



(5ib 2ld}t, id} fd}raube fte. aiSo 

Zne)?I}ijlopI}ele5 3U ^attfl. 

2)en Ceufel fpflrt feos P5If d}en nie, 
Unb toenn er pe beim Kragen t|dtte 1 

Seib uns gegrugt, il}r fjerm I 


X>iel Don! jum (5egengrug ! 
£etfe, lTTept}ipopl}eIes pon bet Sette anfei}en^. 
IDos I}inft ber Kerl ouf €inem 5^6 ? 


3jl es erlouBt xms caxdt ju erxdt ju fefeen ? aiss 

Statt ernes guten Crunte, 6en man nictjt t^aben famt, 
Soil bie (BefeUfd^oft uns ergefeen. 

3I|r fdieint em fel|r vevtodlfntet ZITarm. 


3I|r fei5 tool fpdt t>on Hippadj aufgebrod^en ? 

Ejabt il^r mit ^erren fjans nodj erft ju Hadjt ge* 

fpetft ? ai9o 


^eut ftn5 wir U|n porbeigereifi ; 
li>ir iiaben xh(a bos lefete TXlal gefprodien. 
Pon feinen Pettem voix^t er ptel ju fagen ; 
X>iel <5rfige l|at er uns an je6en aufgetragen. 
€r netgt fc^ gegen ^rofc^. 

Tlltmayev letfe. 
J)a I|ajl bu's, bet t)erjiel^ls I 


€m ppffiger patron ! 2195 

Xlun, n>arte nur, id) frieg it|n fdjon 1 


IDenn idj nid^t irrte I|6rten roir 
(Beii^bte Stimmen (Elborus fingen ? 
(Serx>\%, <5efang mug trefflid] t|ter 
Don 6iefer XDoIbung «>ie6erHingen ! 


SCENE V. 93 

Scto il^r wet gar em XHrtuos ? 

© nein I J)ie Kraft iji fd^toadi, aUcin bie Cuji ijl gro^* 

(5cbt uns em Cieb 1 

Wexm xiiv begeB|rt, bk Znenge, 

ZTur aucf{ em nagelneues Stiicf 1 


tt>tr fommen erj! aus Spanien 5urfidP, aios 

2)em fdionen £anb bes IPeins mb &er (Sefdnge. 

€5 roar emma( em KSnig, 
J)er I^att' emen gro^en 5Iolj — 


^ordjt I emen 5IoI| 1 J^abt il|r bas n?oI gef agt ? 
£m jIoi{ ifi mir ein foubrer <9ajl. 22x0 

tnepl|tjiopI|eIe5 pngt. 
€s mar emmal ein Kdnig, 
®er Ijatt* einen grogen Sloli ; 
t>en liebf er gar nicfjt rpenig, 
2U5 ix>ie feinen eignen Soiin. 
Va rief er feinen Scftneiber, 2215 

3)er Sdjneiber f am I^eran : 
7>a, mx% &em 3unfer Kleiner 
Uni mi§ il|m ^ofen an 1 



Pergegt nur nid^t bem 5d?nei5er msufdjdrfen, 
Dag er mir aufs genouftc migt 3220 

Unb 6a§; fo Keb fein Kopf il^m \% 
Z>k J^ofen f eine 5ciltcn wetfen 1 


3n Sommct unb in Seibe 

IPar cr nun angettian, 

^atte Sdnber cmf bem Kleibc, 2225 

^att' audi ^n Kreu3 baran. 

Unb u)ar fogfeidj Zninijlcr 

Unb Ijott* einen groften Stem. 

2)a tt>urben feme <5efditDtjler 

Sei fjof aud) groge fjerm. 2230 

Unb ^erm unb 5^ aun am ^ofe, 

3)ie maren feljr gejjiagt, 

3)ie KSnigin unb bie ^ofe 

(Bejlod^en unb genagt; 

Unb burften pe nidjt fnidPen 2235 

Unb n>eg fte jucf en ntdjt 

tt>ir fnidfen unb eyjHcfen 

7>odi gleid); n>enn einer fiid{t. 

(Oiorus janc^senb. 

U)ir fnicf en unb et^dm 

Vodt gteid{, menu enter ^dtt 3340 

3rat)ol Srapol bas u:>ar fd)§n 1 

So foD es jebem Slolt ergel^n ! 

SCENE V. 95 

Spifet bxe Svfiget unb padt jte fein. 

€5 lebe bie 5reii|€it 1 cs lebc t)cr Weiti I 


3cil trdnf e gem em <5las, bie 5teit|eit t|od) 3U eljren, 2245 
^ertn eure XDeine nur ein btgdien beffer waxen. 

VOxt mSgen bos nid^t wieber I|8ren 1 . 


3d? furd^te nur 5er VOict befdjtoeret pd? ; 

Sonji gdb' id? biefen toertl^en (Sdi^cn 

2bxs unferm Keller was 5um Sejien. • 2250 

Ztwc immer I^er, id? nelim's auf mid?. 


Sd?ajft iljr ein gutes (Slas, fo tooHen wit eud? loben. 

Ztur gebt nid?t gar 3U Heine proben I 

Senn toenn id? jubiciren foD, 

l^erlang id? aud? bas TXlavi red?t poD, 2255 

2tltmaver letfe. 
5ie [xnb »om 2tt?eine, ipie id? fpiire. 

Sd?ajft einen SoI?rer an I 


Was foil mit bent gefd?et?n ? 
3I?r I?abt bod? nid?t bie 5affer t>or ber Cf?ure ? 


- 2lItmaYer. 
Doljinten I^at bet XDivt ein Korbd^en tt>cr^eug jiel^n. 

Xtan fagt, toos toflnfdiet Ujr ju fd^medPen ? 25*60 

XDxe memt U|r ios? J^abt xfyc fo ntandieriei? 

3di jleD es etnem jcien fret 

Ttttmayct yi ^rofc^. 
2ttia 1 Jhi f dngjl fdjon an l>ie Cippen obsuleden. 


(But ! merm idj todl^Ien foD, fo miQ tdj HI^cmiDcm l^abcn. 
2)05 Doterlant) per(eit{t &ie ollcrbcjicn (5abcn. 2265 


inbem er an bem pla^, too ^Jrofc^ flftt, ein £oc^ in ben 

(Cifc^ranb boljrt. 

Pcrfdjafft ein roenig Wadis, bxe pfropfen gleidj 3U 

madden 1 


2tdi 605 jtnb Cafdienfpielerfadjen 1 

ZnepI|ijlopI|eIe5 3U 23ranbet; 
Uxib il^r ? 


3d? tt)in Cf^ampagnertoein 
Un5 red|t mufftren^ foU er fein I 

SCENE V. 97 


hofyci ; einer Ijat tnbeffen bte IPad^spfropf en gemac^t 

unb ocrflopft. 

ZlTan fann nid^t jidts bos 5rem5e mci5cn, 2270 

Dos (Bute Kegt uns oft fo fern, 
(£in editor beutfdier ZHann mag fcinen Jtansen Iciben, 
J)odi il|re H?cme trinft er gem. 

tnbem fic^ ItTepl^tftop^eles fetnem pla^e nSt^ert. 
3ci? mu§ gejiel|n, ben Sauren mag id? nid^t. 
(5ebt mir ein (Bias pom ed^ten Six%m I 2275 

7XlepiiV(topiieles BoI|rt. 
(Eudj foil fogleid^ Cofaier flitegen, 


2i:etn, J^erren, fel|t mir ins (Befldit 1 

3dj fell es ein, il|r I|abt m\s nur sum Sejlen. 


€i €i 1 mit fold^en e&Ien (5djien 

IDdr* es ein bifed^en t>iel geu^agi 2280 

(5efdiu>in5 1 2Tur grab I^eraus gefagt ! 

Znit tt?eld?em IDeine tcaxn idj bienen ? 

Znit jebem 1 2tur nid^t lang gefragt. 

Ztadfi>em bte £3c^er aUe geboljrt urib cerftopft [mb, 

ZHepI^ijiopIjeles mit feltfamen (5eberben. 

Crauben trdgt ber XPeinftodP, 

J^omer ber ^iegenbocf ; 228- 



Der VOein ift faftig, Ejols t>ic Hebcn, 

J)er tjolseme ©fd^ fann tDein audi geben. 

£in tiefer SKcf in bie ^atur I 
\ £)ier ijl em tt)unber, glaubet nur I 

2lun 5iel|t bk pfropfen un6 genicgt I 2290 


tnbem jie Me Pfropfen 5teljen unb jebem ber perlangte 

IDetn tns <5Ias ISuft. 

(D fdioner Srunnen 5er uns fSegt I 

Jilur I|utet eudi, ba% xliv mtr nid^ts pergiegt I 

Sic trin!en wtcberl^olt. • 

JlUe pngen, 

Uns tji gans fannibalifd^ tool, 
2II5 tt)ie funfl|un6ert Sduen I 

2)05 Volt ijl fret I Sel^t cm, toie tools if^m gel^t I 2.95 

3di I|dtte Cuji nun absufol^ren. 

(Bib nur erjl 2tdit ! Die ^efKalUat 
Xt)ir5 jtdj gar I^errlidj offenbaren. 


trtnft untJorjic^ttg ; ber IDetn fitegt auf bte €rbe nnb 

tPtrb 3ur ^lamme. 

J^elft I 5euer I ^elft 1 J)te fjdKe brennt 1 

SCENE V. 99 

2Tlcpt|ijiopI|eIe5 bte ^famme befprec^cnb. 
Sex wttxQ, freunWid? €Iemcnt 1 3300 

gtt ben (ScfcHen. 
5iir diesmal n>ar es nur ein (Eropfen 5^9^f^u^t. 


Was foU 605 fern ? Wcact I il^ besal^It es tl|eucr I 
€5 fdijeinet, 6ag Ujr uns nidit femtt. 

ta% er uns das sum 5n>eiten ZITale bleiben I 


3di Md^f , wir I^iegen il|n gonj fadjte feitodrts 
9^Ijn. 3305 

IDos ^err ? (Er voxU jtdj unterjlel^n 
Un5 I^ier fcin ^ofuspofus treibcn ? 

Sm, alt(^ W(mfa% I 


SefenjHel I 
Vn u>illji uns gar nodj grob begegnen ? 

Woxt nur I (Es foUen Sdjidge rcgncn I 33x0 


3te^t einen pfropf aus bent Ctfc^ ; es fprtn^t ifyn ^euer 


3cli brenn I id? brenne I 



^ouberei 1 
5to§t 5U ! ber Kerl iji oogelfrei 1 

Sie 5tel)en bte llTeffet unb $et{n auf in[epi{i{lopi{eIes los. 

2TrepB|iJiopI|de5 mit ernjiljafter (Bebdrbe. 

5alfdi (Bcbili) mxb Wott 
Perdnbem Sinn unb ©rt 1 
Sexb I^ier unb bort I 2315 

Sie pelin erjlaunt unb fet|n ctnanber an. 

Wo bin xdi ? Wddies fd|Sne Conb 1 

Wembevge ! Selj' idj redjt ? 


Unb Craubcn gleid) siir fjant) ! 


Qier unter biefem grfinen Coube, 

Set|t, roeldj cin Storf I fel^t, roeldjc Croubel 

€r fa§t Stebein bet ber Hafe; bte anbern tijun es 
ipec^felfeitt^ unb l)eben bie lITeffer* 

ZnepI|ipopI|cIe5 wie oben. 

3rrtl|um, la% los 5er 2tugen Sanb 1 9320 

Un^ mettt endt, tok ber (Eeufel fpage 1 

€r perfc^ipinbet mit ^aujl ; bie (Sefetten f al^ren ausein* 

Was gibt's ? 

SCENE V. loi 


Wat bos beme Ztafc ? 

Sron&er ju Siebel. 
Xlnb deine I^ab idj in feer f}an6 1 

€s tx>ar cin Sdtlag 5er ging burdf oQe (5Iie5cr I 
Sdjafft einen Stuljll idj jtnfe nieber. 23*5 

Zleiii; fagt mir nur, was ijl gefcl|el|n? 

XDo ijl bet Kerl ? IDcnn idi it^n fpfire, 
£r foQ mir nid)t Ieben5ig gel^n 1 

3d? Ijab' iljn fclbjl l^inaus jur KeDertl^flre 
2[uf einem 5ciffe reiten fel|n. — 2330 

€5 liegt mir bleifdjn>er in 6en Siife^n. 

5t(^ nac^ bem (Eifc^e menbenb. 
Znein ! SoUte ipol &cr IDein nodj f[i^6^« ? 

23etrug roar dies, Cug un5 Sd^ein. 

Znir bSaxdtte bo* ols trdnf idi IDein. 

2tber tx>ie wax es mit &en tCrauben ? 2335 

Hun fag* mir eins, man foil fein IDunber glauben ? 


2inf einem ntebrtgen Qerbe jlel^t etn groger Keffel tibec bem 
^euer. 3n bem 2)ampfe, ber bavon in bie ^Slje fleigt, 
3et$en fxdf oerfd^iebene (Seftalten. (Eine lUeerfa^e ft^t 
bet bem Keffel unb fc^ciumt iljn unb forgt ba% er ntc^t 
uberlduft. Der UTeerf ater mit ben ^uitgen fiftt bant' 
htn nnb tpdrmt fic^. W&nbe nnb Decfe {!nb mit bem 
feltfomflen Qesent)ausraU) gefc^mucf t. 

janfl. inepf)iflopt}eIe5. 

Znir tDib^rfleI|t bos toUe 5<JiiI>^J^w>^f^n I 
Perfpridift bu mir id? foil genefcn 
3n biefcm XDujt port Haferci? 
Perlang id? Hatl| t>on einem alten IDeibe, 2340 

Unb fdjafft 5ie 5u5elf8djerei 
XDoI 5rei§ig 3al|re mir ©om Ceibe ? 
Weil mir, loentt bn nxdits Seffers loeifet ! 
5d?on ijl &ie ^offnung mir perfdjix)un5en. 
^at bie ZTotur unb I^at ein ebler (Beijl 2345 

' TXxdtt irgenb einen Salfam ausgefunben ? 


ZHein 5teunb, nun fprid^ft bu toieber f lug 1 

2)idi 5U oerjixngen gibts oudj ein noturlid? ZHittel. 

^Hein es jlel)t in einem anbem Sud? 

Unb iji ein wunberlidi Kapitel. 235© 

3di tt)ill es n>iffen. 


SCENE VI. 103 

<5ut 1 ein 2TfitteI, ot|nc (5elJ) 
Unb 2lr3t unb ^aubcrci 3U liaben I 
Segib ^idj glcidj I^maus aufs 5^1^/ 
5ang an 3U iiadm nnb 3U graben, 
(Zvfydte bxdt 11"^ fteinen Sinn 2355 

3n cinem gan3 bcfd^rdnften Kretfe, 
(Emdijre bid? mit ungemifd|ter Spcife, 
£eb mit bcm Pict| als Vxebi nnb ad|t es nidtt fiir 2?aub 
Den 2trfer, ben bn emteji, felbjl 3U bnngen 
2)05 iji bos bejle Znittel, glaub, 2360 

2tuf adit^XQ 3at|r biii 3U periiingen. 

T>a5 bin id| nid^t gctool^nt ; id? tann mid] nid|t beqnemen 
Den Spaten in bie Sianb 3U neB^men. 
Das enge £ehen jlel|t mir gar nid?t an. 

So mu§ bcnn bodi bk ^cf e bran. 2365 

Xt)arum bcnn jujl ftas altc Weib I 
Kannjl bu ben Cranf nid]t felber brauen ? 


Das war cin fd?dner g^itocrtreib ! 

3di rpoHt xnbe^ wol taufenb TBvnden bauen. 

Z&dit Kunfl unb I0iffenfd?aft allein, 2370 

&ebnib toiD bci bem XDerfe fcin. 

€in jKIIer (5eift ip 3^^^^ ^<J"9 gc[d|dftig ; 

Die 3eit nur mad?t bie fcine (5dl?rung frdftig. 


Unb oOes was ba^ gel^ort 

€5 pn5 gar vomibevbave Sadden I 2375 

Vet tCeufel I^at pes stoor geIcB|rt; 

2tIIetn 6er tEeufel fonns ntd^t madjcn. 

Die <Ei{tere tvUidenb, 
5iel|, ipeld? em sicrlictics (Scfdjiectjt I 
Dos tfl t)te Znag& I ios iji ber Knedit 1 

gu ben Ctjieren. 
£5 fdtefatt, 5ie 5t^au ifl nid^t 5U ^oufe ? 9380 

J)ic Cl^iere. 

Scim Sdjmoufe, 

2tu5 bem SianSf 

Sum Sdjorjiein I^inaus 1 

IDte langc pflegt jte tool ju fditodnnen ? 

Sfe €l|fere. 
So lang toir uns i>te pfotcn todrmcn. 3385 

Xnepbix^o^llcUs 3tt ^oup. 
It>fe ftnbcji bn bk patten Ci|iere ? 

So obgefdimacft ols idj nur ctoos fal| I 

Zlein cin Siscurs tote bicfcr ba 
3P gra^c bcr, &en id? am licbften fiiljrc I 

Sn ben Cl^teren, 
So fagt mir bodt, tJcrffud^te puppen, 2390 

Was quirit U|r in bem Srei I^erum ? 

SCENE VI. 105 

Vie tn^iere. 
XDir todien breite Settelfuppcn. 

Da I|abt il|r cin gro§ publifum. 

Der Kater 
tnac^i jic^ i^erbei unb fc^meic^elt bem XtTept{tjlopI{eIes. 
(D toiirfle raur gleidj 

Un5 mad?e nrid? rcidj 239s 

Un5 lag micf) geioinnen I 
(Bar fdjledit ijte bejicOt 
Unb n>4r* idj bet (5eI5 
So rodr* \di bei Sinnen. 


XPie giadlidi tourbc jtdi bcr 2tffe fdjdfeen, 2400 
Konnt er nur audi itis Cotto fefecn 1 

3ttbeffen l(ahtn bie jungen HXeerfd^d^en mit einer grogen 
Kugel gefpielt unb rotten fie tiervor. 

©er Kater. 

Ste peigt unb faflt 
Un5 roHt bejtanbig. 

Ste Hingt toie (Bias ; 2405 

IPie balb brid^t bos? 
3ji iiobil tnu>en&tg. 
^ier gidnst fie fel^r 
Unb I|ter nod? mel^r. 
3dj bin lebenbig ! 2410 

) HTein lieber Sol^n, 


\ fjalt bxdt baoon ! 

\ Vn mugt fterben 1 

I 5xe ijl pon Cljon, 

I (£5 gibt Sdjerben. 2415 

Was foil 505 Sicb ? 

®er Katcr Ijolt es tjcrunter. 

IDdrft bu cin Dicb, 
XDoHt xdt bidi gkxdi ettennen, 
(Hr lauft 3ur Kafetn unb lagt jle bur^/fcf^n. 
5ieB| &urd| bos Sicb ! 
€rfennjl t)u ben J)feb 2420 

Unb barfft iB)n nid^t nenncn ? 1 

UTepI^tjioplicIcs ftc^ bem ^Jcucr nSljernb. 
Unb biefer Copf? 

Kater unb Kdfein. 

Dcr albemc Cropf 

<Er fennt ntdjt ben Copf , 

(£r f cnnt nid|t ben Keffel 1 2425 

XlnJiofiidics Cl^ier 1 

Der Katcr, 

J>en VOebd nimm B|tcr, 
Unb fefe bxdi in 5effel I 
€r nStljigt btn IHcpl^iftopljeles 3U ft^en. 

SCENE VI. 107 


ipelc^er btefe geit fiber vox einem Spiegel gejianben, fic^ 
ifyn haU> gendliert, balb fic^ con tl^m entfernt l^at. 

Was \eti xdt ? Weldt rin l|immHfdi SU5 

geigt jtdj m Wefem ^auberfpicgcl I 2430 

© txebe, kxiie tnir l>en fdinefljicn 5ciner 51^9^1 . 

Unb future mtdi in il^r (5efilt) 1 

Tidi, toenn idi nidit auf biefer StcHc bicibe, 

IPenn id? es rnagc nolj 3U gcl|n, 

Kann id? jte nur als tow im Ztebel fet^n ! • 2435 

Vas fd^Sn^e Bilb von einem IDeibe I 

3^5 moglidi, ijl bos XDeib fo fd^Sn ? 

ZHug id^ an biefem t|ingejhrerften Ceibe 

Den 3"I^^9riff ©on alien JEjimmeIn fel^n ? 

So etoas finbet fid^ auf €r&en ? 2440 


Jftatiiriidi, u>enn ein (5ott fidj erji fed^s Cage plagt 

Unb felbft am <£nbe Sraoo fagt, 

J)a mu§ es toas (Befd^eites mermen. 

5ur feiesmal fiel| bidj immer fatt ; 

3dj ipeig ^ir fo ein 5d]dfed|en ausjufpuren 2445 

Vinb felig, it)er bos gute Sd^idPfal I|at, 

yis Srdutigam fie t^eimsufutiren. 

^an^ jteljt tmmerfort in htn SpiegeL Iltepfjiftopljeles, 
ftd^ in bem Seffel beljnenb unb mit bent IPebel fpielenb, 
fSi|rt fort 3U fprec^en. 

^ier fife' idj n?ie bet KSnig auf bem Cl^rone ; 

3)en S^pter l|alt' idj I|ier, es fel|lt nur nod? bxe Krone. 


Vie CI|tere, 

wtld^e btsl{er aHerlet tpnnberlic^e Betoegungen butdf 
einanber gemac^t IjaBen, bringcn bem IRepIjiflopI|eIes 
cine Krone mit gro§em <5efc^ret« 

© fei bodt fo gut 2450 

UTit S(iiwex% vmb mit Slut 
T>ie Krone 3U leintcn I 

Sie getjn ungefc^tcft mit ber Krone um unb ^tthttdfen 
fie in 5n>ei StiicFe, mit melc^en {le tjerumfprtngen. 

2lun iji es gefd^elin ! 
Xt>ir veben unb fcB|n, 
Xt>tr lidtm vmb reimen — 2455 

ScQX^ gegen ben SpiegeL 
Well mir 1 xdt werbe fdjier vevt&dt^ 

ZnepI|ijiopI|eIc5 anf bie (Eljiere beutenb. 
Hun fdngt mir an f aft fclbjt 6cr Kopf ju fd^manf en. 

J>ie Ct|iere. 
Un5 n>enn es uns glilcft 
Un5 wenn es pd? fd^idt, 
So fin& es (Befeanfen. 2460 

5aujl wit oben. 
UTein Sufen f dngt mir an ju brennen ! 
(Entfemen tt>ir uns nur gefdiu>in5 ! 

ZnepI|ijiopI|eIe5 in obiger Stellung. 
Ztun wenigftens mug man befennen, 
J)ag es aufrid^tige poeten jtn5. 

Der Keffel, ©eleven bie KSftin bisf^er auger 2Ic^t gelaflfen, 
f angt an iiberjulauf en ; es entfteljt eine groge ^lamme, 

SCENE VI. 109 

tpelc^e 3nm Sc^orfletn ftinausfc^Idgt. Die £^e$e fommt 
burc^ bit jiamme mtt entfe^Iid^em (5efc^rei i{erunter« 

Die J^cf c, 

2(U1 :(U1 2(U1 %ll «465 

VevboxnmUs (Et^icr 1 pcrfludjte Sou I 
l^erfdumjl ^en Keffel, perfengji bxe S^aa I 
Oerfludjtes Cl^ier I 

^an^ unb IHepljijioptieles erbltrfenb. 

Was ijl ^05 liter ? 

Wet fei& iijt I^ier ? 2470 

Was xooUt ifyc ba? 

Wet fd|Iid^ jtdj em ? 

Die 5^^n?^in 

€udj ins ©ebein I 
Ste fSfyci mtt bettt Sc^aumldff el tit ben Keffel nitb fprifet 
^latttttien nac^ ijauji, IHepljiftopljeles unb ben (Eljieren. 
Die Ct)iere oinfeln. 


tpelc^er btn IDebel, ben er in ber ^anb l^^li, umfel|rt unb 
unter bie <5Idfer nnb Cdpfe fc^I^dt. 

(Entstoeil €nt3tx>etl 2475 

7>a liegt &er Srei 1 

Va (iegt 5a5 (SIos I 

€5 iji nur 5pa§, 

Der fLact, 6u 2ta5, 

§u 6einer ZHelobei. 2480 

3nbem bie ^eje voU (Srimm unb €ntfefeen suriirftrttt. 
(Erf ennjl 5u tnidj ? (5erippe I Sd^eufal bu ? 
(£rf ennji bn 5einen Ejerm un5 ZHeijler ? 
Was I^dlt midi ab, fo fdjlag' idi 3U, 


tgerfd^mettrc bxdi mxb bexne Kafeengeifter ! 

^aft b\x porm rotl^en Wamms nid^t mel^r Hefpcct ? 2485 

Kannfl ^u ^tc fjal^nenfe&er md^t erfennen? 

£iaV lit bks ^tngejtdit oerjiecft ? 

5oU id? midi ctoa felber nennen? 

(D fjcrr, t)er3eil|t 5cn rol^en (5m§ ! 

5elj id? 5od? temen pferbefug. 2490 

XDo jtnb bemi cure beiben Habcn ? 

5ur biesmal fommjl bu fo bavon, 

2)enn freilid? ift es cine XPcUe fd^on, 

Safe totr uns nid^t gefeljen Ijaben. 

Tbxdi b\e Cultur, Me oHe Welt belecft, 2495 

fjat auf ben Ccufel jtd? erjhrerft; 

Sos norWfdie pI|antom iji nun nid^t ntel^r 3U fdiauett ; 

Wo fiel^ji b\x fjomer, Sdjmcif unb Klauen ? 

Unfe Eoos 5cn 5u§ betrifft, 6en id? nidjt miffcn f ann, 

3)cr rourbe mir bei Ceuten fdjaben ; 950© 

©arum bebien' id? mid?, u>ie mand?cr junge ZHann, 

Scit t)iefen 3al?ren falfd?er IDaben. 

Sxnn mxb Vevjliaxxb vetlkx id? fd?ier, 
Set? id? ben 3unfer Satan u>ie5er ^ier I 

Ven Jl:amen, Xt>eib, perbitt' id? mir I 2505 

5)ie ^e^e. 
Waxmn ? was I?at er eud? getB?an ? 


(£r ijl fdjon long ins Sobdbnii ge\d\neben ; 
2incin Me UTenfd^en pnb nidits bcjfer &ran ; 
7>en S6fen finb jte los, bk Sofcn fin^ gebKeben. 
2)u ncmtji tnidi JEjerr Saron, fo tfi 5te Sadje gut ; 2510 
3ctj bin ein Capalier, roic anbve (Zavcixeve. 
Thx ycoexfel^ nxdit an mctnem eblcn Slut. 
Sxeli l|er, bos ijl bos WapTperx, bos xdi future ! 
(Er tnac^t eine nnanfi&nbige (Seber^e. 

T>xe f}e^e Ia(^t unmSgtg. 
^a ! fja 1 605 iji in eurer 2trt I 
3I?t: fei6 ein Sdjelm, u)ie iljr nur imnter u?art. 2515 

XlTepEjijiopIieles 3U Jaufl. 
JTlein 5teun6, bos leme u>ol vex^efyi 1 
Dies iji 6ie 2trt mit ^e^en umsugelin. 

®ie fjeye. 
2lun fagt, it|r ^erren, was iljr fd^afft I 

(gin gutes (Bias pon bem bef annten 5aft I 
Dod? mug xdt eud? urns dltjie bitten ; 2520 

3)ie 3al|re t)oppeln feine Kraft. 

J)ie ^ef e. 
(5ar gem I l^ier liah xdi eine Sla\dte, 
2lu5 6er idj felbji suweilen nafd^e, 
Die audi nid^t mel^r im minbpen jKnft; 

^dl roiH eud| gem ein (5I^djen geben. 2525 

Dodj voerxrx es 6iefer UTann untjorbereitet trinft, 
So tamx ox, u>i§t iB^r xx>o\, nidjt eine 5tun6e (eben. 


(£5 tji cm gvdet 5teun&, i)em es gebexlien foil ; 

3ct? gomt' tl^m gem 605 Sefie fceiner K^d^e. 

SicB^' t)einen Krcis, fprtd? l)cme Spriid^e 2530 

Un6 gib iB^m cine Caffe poD 1 

2)tc ^ef e, 

mit feltfamen (5eb'dxbtn, 5tc!|t cineit Krets unb jieHt 
tpunberbare Sac^en I^inetn ; tnbeffen fangen bte (SlSfer 
att 3u fitngen, bic Keffel ju tSnen unb mac^en IRufif . 
gulcfet brtngt fie ctn grogcs 33u(^; ftettt bte IReerfaften 
in ben Kreis, bie il^r 3um pult bienen nrib bie (Jarf el 
I^alten miiflfen. Sie iPtnft ^Janften 5U tf^r ju treten. 

5ciu|i 3u UTepIitftopI^eles. 
Ztein, fage ntir, toas foil bos mermen ? 
J)a5 toQe S^ug, 5ie rafenben (5eb^&en, 
Vev abgcfd)macftej!c Sctrug, 
Sinl) mir hetamxt, t>erl|a§t genug. 2535 


€i, poffen 1 bas ifi nur 3um tadim. 
Sex nur nid^t ein fo jhrenger ZHann 1 
Sic mu§ als 2tr3t cin fjofuspohis ntad)cn, 
Samit 5cr Saft Wr ipol gcfecil^cn fann. 
€r notl^igt ;faujlen in ben Kreis 3U treten. 

2)ic ^Cf c, 

mit groger €mpl^afe, fSngt an aus bem 33uci?c 3tt be* 


Du ntu§t per jict^n I 2540 

Tins (£xxxs madf §el:ixx 
Unb grpci Ia§ gcljn 
Un5 Drci madf glcid?, 

SCENE VI. 113 

So biji 5u vcxdt. 

Vexlm' bw Pier ! 2545 

2tii5 5unf un5 Sed^s, 

So fagt bk Siejc, 

TXladf Sieben nnb 2ld|t, 

So ijis t)oUBrad|t ! 

Unb Zteun ijl €in5, 2550 

Un6 5et|n ifl fetns, 

Dos ifl i)as ^e^en*€inmalein5 ! 

Znid? bunft, bxe 2Ute fprid^t im 5i^b^r. 


Dos tjl nod) lange ntd^t ooriibcr ; 

3d) fenn es tx)oI, jo Htngt bos gansc Bud). 2555 

3d) l)abe tnand)e ^cit bamit oerlorcn ; 

Venn cin oollfommncr lDi5crfprud) 

3Ieibt gleid) geI)cimnigpoD fiir Klugc rpie fur CB)oren. 

ZHcm 5i^^un6, 6te Kunj! ijl alt un5 neu : 

!(£s wat bw Tixt 3U alien ^eiten 2560 

Surd) Dret un& €in5 un6 €in5 nnb Vvcx 
3n:tl)um jlatt lDaI)rI)eit 3U oerbreiten. 
So fd)n>dfet un5 Iet)rt man ungejiort, 
IDer roill jtd) mit &en Ztarm befaffen ? 
(5eu>oB)nHd) glaubt ber ZlTenfd), wmn er nur XPorte 
I)5rt, 2565 

€5 miiffe jtd) 5abei bodt <^wd) toas benfen laffen. 

Die fjef e fai)rt fort. 

Sie I)oI)e Kraft 
J)er rDiffenfd)aft, 


Vex gan^en XDelt oerborgcn I 

IXnb wet nid?t benft, 257© 

2)em xoitb fie gcfd^cnft, 

(£v iiat jtc ol^ne Sorgen. 


IDos fagt jte uns fiir Mnfinn t>or ? 

(£5 ipirb tnir glexdt bet Kopf scrbrcdjen. 

UTidi bxmtt, id? E|or' cin ganses CI|or 2575 

Don I^unfeerttoufenb Ztarren fpredjen. 


©enug, genug, trefflidje SibyUe 1 

(Sib 5einen Cran! t|crbci unl) fMe 

J>ie Sdjole rafd? bte an 5en Hanb i|incm ! 

J)cnn nteinem 5rcun& voxvb 5iefer Crunf nid^t fd^abcn : 2580 

(£r ifi ein UTann von t>ielen (5ra5en, 

Dcr mand?en guten 5d?Iu(f gctf^an. 

Die JJeje, mtt ptelen (Ceremonten, fc^enft ben Cranf in 
eine Sc^ale ; n>te fie ^Jauji an ben HTunb fjringt, ent- 
ftel|t eine leic^te ^lamme, 

Zhxx frifdj B^inunter ! 3mmer 3U ! ! 

€5 toivb 5ir glcid? bos ^ers erfreuen. 
Sij! mit bent Ccufel bix nnb bn, 2585 

Unb u)inj! bid? vox bex 5Iamme fd^euen ? 

Vk Qeje I3ji ben Krets. S<^^^ ^^ l|erans. 

2tun frifd? Ijinaus 1 Su barfji nid^t rul^n. 

Die ^e^e. 
Zndg eudj bos Sdiiixddim tool bel^agen I 

SCENE VI. 115 

Vinb iatm idj Mr was 3U (SefaUen tiimx, 

So iorfjl bn mirs raur ouf XOolpuxQxs fogen. 259© 

^icr tfl em Ciet) 1 toenn il^rs 5utDeUen ftngt, 
So tperbet iljt befonbrc IDirhing fjnteen. 

Komm nur gefditDinb unb log 6td? ful|ren I 

7>vi ntugt not{{mcn6tg iranfpirtren, 

Somit t)ie Kraft burdj 3nn' nnb 2teugre5 brtngt 2595 

X)en eblcn Ztlugiggang Iet|r id) I)cmad{ bxdt fd^^eh 

Un6 bold empfmbefl b\x mit innigem £rge^en, 

XDie jtd} Cupibo regt unb l|m \xnb mkbet [pringi. 

iia% mil nur fdjnell nod) ht ben Spiegel fdjauen I 
X)as jrouenbilb toar gar 5U fd)3n 1 2600 


2tein, 2^ein 1 X)u foQjl bas lITufter aOer $rauen 
Ztan bcdb leibi^aftig oor bit fel)n. 

©u jtel^ji mit biefem Cranf im CeiBe, 
Sail) J^elenen in je&em BJeibe, 



San% tITargarete ooriibergcfjenb* 


IHcin fdjoncs 5tfiulem, 5arf id? loagen, 2605 

IHcincn 2lrm un5<SeIdt tt|r an3utragen? 


Sin w^bev 5tdulein, n>e5cr fdjon ; 
Kann ungeleitet nad? ^aufe gct^n. 

5te mac^t fic^ los unb ah, 


53dm J^immrf, Wcfes Kin6 ij! fd^on I 
So cttoos I|ab id| nie gefeE|n. a6io 

5ie ij! fo Sitt' rxnb Cugenb reidj 
lln& ctoos fd^nippifdi bodi jugleidj. 
J)er Cippe Hoti?, l>cr IDange Cid^t, 
J)ie Cage 5er XDelt pcrgeff' idjs nid^t I 
Wk jtc bie Tbxgen nieberfdjISgt, 2615 

J^at tief pd? in mein fjcrs gepr^gt ; 
Xbk fie furs angebunben wot, 
2)05 iji nun sum (EntjiidPen gar 1 
HTep^t{lopi)eIes tritt auf . 

^8r', &u mu^t mir 5ie ©ime fd^affen I 

2tun, tpeld^e? 

5ie ging jujl porbei. 2620 


J)a bie? Sie Jam ©on iljrem pfaffcn, 

3)er fpradj jte oiler SiXnbexx frei ; 

3d| fdjlidj mxdi Ijart am Stuljl porbei. 

(Es ijl cin gar unfdjuIMg Ding, 

T>as eben fflr nid^ts jur Scidite ging ; 2625 

Ueber t)ie I^ab' id? f eine (5ett>alt I 


3jl liber oiet^elin 3aljr' bodt alt 


J)u fprid^ji ja rote S^atxs Cie^erlid?, 

Der begei|rt jebe liebe Stum' jiir pdj 

Un5 5unfelt tijm, es n>dr' fern €l|r' 2630 

Unb (5unfi, We nid|t ju pPiirfen todr*. 

(5el|t aber bodi nid^t immer an. 


UTein ^err tlTagifier Cobefon, 

£ag er midj mit 5em (5efefe in 5rie&ett. 

Unb 5a5 fag' xdi xfyn furj un5 gut, 2635 

XDemt nid^t bos fii^e junge Slut 

J^eut Zladit in meinen airmen wiit, 

So ftn& roir um Znittemad^t gefd^iefeen. 


23ebenft, was geljn unb jieljen mag I 

3dj braud^e wenigjtens vkt^ciin tEag', 2640 

Xtur t)ie (Belegenljeit au^ufpiiren. 


^att* idj nur pcben Stanben Sulj*, 
23raud|te ben (Ecufel ntdit ba^ 
So em <5efdi8pfd^n ju x>erfftl|rcn. 


3B|r fprcd^t fdjon f ajl rx>\e ein S^ansos ; 2645 

2)odj bitt' idi, la^ts eud? nidjt Dcrbrie^cn ; 

IDos iixlfts, nur grafte 3U gente^en ? 

2)te 5reu6' ijl lange nid^t fo gro§, 

2tl5 toenn it|r erp Bjerauf, lucrum, 

Surely allerfei Srhnborium, 2650 

Dos pfippdjen gcfrtetct unb sugeridit't, 

IDies Ic^ret mandje loelfdje ©efditd|t 

^ab' 2lppetit audj oB|ne &a5, 


3efet oljne Sd^tmpf unb oljite Spa% I 

3cti fag' eud?, mit bem fdiSnen Kinb 265s 

(Seiits em« fiir oQemoI ntdit ge^diwxnb, 

TXlit Sturm iji ba nidits emjunelimen ; 

It>ir miiffen uns 3ur Ciji bequemen I 

5aujl. ■ 

Sdjaff * mtr etoos rom (gngelsfd^afe I f 

Jftlir' mtdj an il|ren Hul^epla^ I 2660 

Sdtdjf* mir em ^alstud^ von ifycev Sruft, 
€m StrumpfbanS meiner Ciebesluft I 



Vamxt xfy: fel|t, 6a§ idt eurcr pcin 

WW, foxbexlxdi nnb bxen^lxdi fcin, 

XDoHcn tDtr femen Thxgenblxd oerlieren, 2665 

H?iH mdt nodj l|eut in il|r gitntncr ffll^rcn. 

Un& foH jtc fel^n ? pe I^aben ? 

Sxe vovcb bet cmer Xtadtbaxm fein. 
3n^effen fonnt il^r ganj ollem 
2ttt oHcr fjoffnung fiinftgcr 5^eu&en ae?© 

3n il|rem Dunjttreis fatt eudj tt>ei&en. 

K5nnen ipir I^in ? 

€5 iji nod? 3U frillj. 

Sorg* 6u mir ffir ein (Befdicnf fur jte 1 2Ib. 


(5Ieidi f djenfen ? T>(xs iji brop I J)a tolri er reu jfiren I 
3d? f enne mandicn fd|8nen piafe ad7s 

Un6 mcmd^en oltocrgrobncn Sdjaft I 
3d? mu§ cin bisd^en repi&iren. 2lb. 


€tn fletnes rcinlic^es gttntner. 

tl|re §opfe ffec^tenb unb aufbtnbenb. 
3d? gdb rocts t)rum, rocnn xdi nur loujjt 
XDer I^eut bev JEjcrr geroefen ift I 
(gr fat? gett>i§ rcd?t tPaJer aus aeso 

Un5 ift aus einem eblen ^aus : 
Das f onnt id? il?m an ber Sttme Icfcn I — 
(£r u>dr aud? fonji nid?t fo ted gerpefen, 

inept|ijiopt|eles. ;Jaup, 

fjerdn, gans Ictfe, nur therein I 

5auji nadi etntgcm Sttllfc^ipetgen* 
3d? bittc t)id?, Ia§ mid? aHein ! 2685 

2Ti;epI?ijiopI?cIes t?erumfpurenb» 

ltid?t jebcs 2Tldbd?en I?dlt fo rein. 


5auft rings auffc^auenb. 

IDiMommen filler Sdmmerfd?ein ! 

Vex bu bie§ ^eiligtl?um burd?u>ebp. 

(Ergreif mein Eiev^, bu fiige Ciebespein, 

Die bu x)om Ci?au ber J^d'ifnung fd?mad?tenb lebft. 2690 

IDie atl?met rings (5efut?I ber Stille, 

J)er 0rbnung, ber 5ufriebenl?eit I 


3n bie^ex 2lnnutl^ weldte 5uIIe ! 

3n bk\em Kerf cr ipeldje Seligf cit ! 

<Er iptrft ft<^ auf ben leberncn Seflfel am 3ett. 

® ntmm mi^ auf, bev bn bk Voxvoelt fdjon 2695 

Sei S^enb nnb Sdtmevi in offncn 2lrm cmpfangen ! 

XDic oft, ad] I t|at an Mefcm VdUvtiivon 

Sdion eine Sd^aar oon Kinfeem rings gctjangen ! 

PieHeid^t iiai, 6an!bar fiir ben I^cilgen Cl^rift, 

ZHein Ciebdjcn I)ier mit voUen Kinbertoangen 2700 

©em 2U|nI|erm fromnt bk voelh JEjan& gefugt. 

3di filial, ZHd^d^en t)einen (5cijl 

®er 5uH unt) ©rbnung um mid? fdufcin, 

Ser miitterlidj bxdi tdglid? unterrpeif t, 

J)en Ccppidi auf ben ©fd? Wd? reinlid? breiten Ijeigt 2705 

Sogar ^en 5an6 3U beinen Sn^^n frdufeln. 

(D licbe Eianb, fo gottergleidi I 

J>ie J^utte u>ir6 feurd? 6idj cin ^intmelreid]. 

Unb tjier 1 

<Er l|ebt etnen Bettoorljang auf. 

Was fa§t mid? fiir cin XDonncgraus ! 
fjier mod^t id? ooUe Stunben fdumen. 2710 

Ztatur ! I|ier bilbeteji in Ieid|ten (Crdumcn 
J>en eingebornen fingel aus. 

fjier lag bas Kinb I mit tt>armem Ceben 

Den sarten Sufen angefiiEt, 

Unb t?ier(mit I|eilig reinem IDeben 2715 

(£nfwxtti\ ftd) bas (5otterbiI5 1) 

Unb bnl Was B^at bxdt I]ergefiit|rt? 

W'xe innig fiitil id? mid? geriil?rt I 

Was toiDft bn I?ier ? Was xoxxb bas ^erj bir fd?n>er ? 

2trmfelger 5ciuft I id? f enne bid? nid?t mel?r. 2720 


Vimgxbt midj itiet ein gaubcrftuf t ? 
Vflidt brands fo qxabe ju geniegcn 
Vinb ffit^Ie mid? in Ciebestraum serflicgen 1 
5in6 ipir ein Spiel von ie&em Srud bet £uft ? 

Un6 trdte jte ben 2[ugenblicf I|erein, 2725 

Wk rourbeft bu far beinen S^evd b^en I 
Ser grofee Eians, adt wxe fo Hein I 
Cag, l)ingefd|mol3en it|r 5U S^^en, 

Zncptiijiopl^efes !ommt» 
(5efdjmini) I id? fet| pe untcn f ommen. 

5ort, fort ! 3^1 tefye nimmermcl|r ! 2730 


J^ier iji ein Kdjid^en, leiMid? fd?i»er ; 

2<ii iidbs too anbers Ijergenommen. 

Stents I^ier nur immer in ben Sd^rein 1 

3d? fd^tDor eud?, it|r Dergeljn bie Sinnen ; 

3d? tl?at eud? Sdd?eld?en Ijinein 2735 

Um eine anbre ju getoinnen* 

Swat Kinb ijl Kinb unb Spiel ift Spiel. 

3d? tt>ei^ nid?t, foil id? ? 


5ragt il?r oiel ? 
ZlTeint il?r meneid?t bm Sd?afe 5U ipal?ren ? 
Vatm rati? id? enrer £iifieml?eit 2740 

Die liebe fd?one Cagesseit 
Unb mir bie roeitre 7XWt( yx fparen. 


3cf? Ijoff nidjt ba% iljr gd^g fei6 1 

3ci? feo^ &cn Kopf, reib an ben Si&nben — 

(Er fiedi bas Kdftc^n in ben Sc^rein nnb briicft bos 
5dfio% mteber 5U* 

Ztur fort 1 gefd^ipmt) I — 274s 

Um eudi bos fuge jung^ Km& 

Itadi ^crsens XDunfd^ unl) XDitt 3U rocnben ; 

Un& \i\x fet^t 6rem, 

2tl5 foitet itiv m &cn ^orfaal l|mcm, 

TUs jlun5 feibl|afttg ©or cudj ba 2750 

pIlTJtf un6 Znetaplivfaa I 

Ztnv fort I 2lb. 

TXlatgatete mtt etner f ompe. 
€5 tji fo fd^ix)fll, fo bumpfig I|ie, 

Sie mac^t bas ^enfler anf . 
Vinb ij! bodj cBcn fo waxm mdit braug. 
€5 xovcb mir fo, xdi xoex% nidit tx>\e — 2755 

3cli uJoUt, t)ie ZTTxitter fdm nadj ^aus. 
2TTir Iduft cm Sdjouer fibem £eiB. 
Sin &odi ein tt|orid|t furd^tfam XDeib I 

Sie fSngt an ^n jingen inbem fie fic^ ans^xtiit 

€5 roar ein Konig in tCIjuIe, 
<Sar treu bis an bas (5rab, 2760 

J)em jlerbenb feine Suljle 
£incn goI5nen ISeiiev gab, 

£5 ging ii^m nid^ts bariiber, 
€r leert' il?n jeben Sdimous. 
Die 2tugen gingen x^vx iiber 2765 

So oft er tranf baraus. 


Unb als er tarn 5U fterben, 
§<xliir cr feme Stdbt im »eid|, 
(56nnf aSles feinem (Erben, 
2>en Bedjer nid^t 5ugleidj. 2770 

(£r fa§ beim KonigsmoI^Ie, 
2)ie Hitter urn Ujn Ijer, 
2tuf iioiiem Paterfaale, 
Sort auf t>em 5djIo§ am ZlTeer. 

Sort fionb ber alte gedjer, 2775 

tEranf lefete Cebensglutlj 
Un5 n>arf 5en I^eiltgen Sed^er 
J^inunter in &ie 5lutlj, 

(Er fall iB|n jtur3en, trinfen 
Unb finf en tief ins ZHeer. 2780 

Die 2lugen tijdten ii^m jtnfen, 
Cranf nie einen Cropfen met^r, 

5ie cr3ffnet ben Sc^retn, ifyce Kleiber ein3urSumen nnb 
crbltcf t bas Sc^mucffSftc^en. 

W\e f ommt bas fd^one Kdftdjen Ijier therein ? 

3d? fd?Io§ bod? gans geroij^ ben Sd^rein. 

€5 ift bodi rounberbar I Was mag tool brinne fein? 2785 

I?ieIIeid]t bradjts jemant) als ein pfanb 

IXnb meine ZHutter Iiel| barauf. 

J)a I^dngt ein Sd^Iiiffeldien am ^anb I 

3d? benfe tool, id? mad? es auf I — 

Was ip bas ? (Bott im fjimmel 1 5d?au ! 2790 

So teas I?ab id? mein Cage nid?t gefel:?n 1 

€in 5d?mucf 1 ZTTit bem f onnt eine (Ebelfrau 

am l?od?flen 5eiertage get?n I 

SCENE IX. 125 

Wk foUtc tnir bxe Kctte ^efyi ? 

Wem mag bie fyxvlxdiUit gel^orcn ? 2795 

Sie pu^t |tc^ bamtt auf unb trttt t)or ben Spiegel. 
IDenn nur 5ic ©I^rring meinc todren I 
IHan fiel|t l)odi gleid? gati3 anb^rs brein. 
IDos i^ilft eudi SdjonB^cit, junges Slut? 
©05 ijl u>oI attes fd^on unb gut, 
2(IIdn man (d^ts aud} aQcs fein ; 2800 

TXlan lobt cud? Ijalb mit €rbarmen. 
Ztadi (5oIbc brdngt, 
2lm (Bolbe t^dngt 
Dodj cdHes I Tldi, wxv airmen I 

^aufi in <5eban!en auf unb ah Qziitnb. gu iljm 


Bci oiler ©erfd^mdl^tcn Cxebel Seim Ijottifdjen €Ie* 
mentc ! 2805 

3cli roottt idj «)u§te roas ^tcrgcrs, bag id^s fliudjen 
f onnte 1 


H>a5 t^ajl? was fttcipt bidj benn fo fel^r? 

So fein (5efid?t fall idi in meinem Ceben I 

3di modjt midj gleidj bem Cleufel iibergeben, 
tt?enn idj nur felbji fein Ceufel wdr 1 asio 

126 FAUST. PART 1. 

JEfat ftdj &tr was im Kopf oerfdiobcn ? 
2)icf| f kibets, roie ein Hafenber ju toben I 


3)cn!t nur, &en Sd^mud, fiir (Sretdjcn ongefd^afft, 

©en I|at em pf aff I^tnn>cggerafft 1 — 

7>'w ZtTutter ftricgt bos Ding 3U fdjouen, 2815 

(5feid) f dngts it|r Iieimlid? an ju grouen : 

2)fe 5x^au Ijat gar exnen fctnen (5erudj; 

Sdjnuff elt immcr im (Sebethrxdt 

Unb riedits einem jeben Zllobel an, 

®b bas J)ing Ijeilig tjl ober profan. 2820 

Unb an &em Sdimutf , ba fpflrt pes f lar, 

2)ag babci nidit oiel Scgen u>ar* 

^ZlTein TXinb/' rief fte, „ungcrcd|te5 (Sut 

Sefdngt &ic Seek, sel^rt auf bos Slut. 

XDoKens &er ZHutter (Sottes u>eit|cn, 2825 

ZDirb uns mtt JEjimmefemanna erfreuen 1" 

ZHargretlem jog cin fd^iefes ZHauI. 

3ji iicit, badit jte, ein gefdjcnfter (5aul 

Unb roal^rlidi 1 gottlos ijl nidjt bev, 

7>et xfyi fo fein gebradjt Ijierljer, 2830 

Vie TXlMet lxe% cinen pf affen f ommcn ; 

7>ex iiMe taam ben Spa% vetnommen, 

£ie§ pdj ben 2tnblitf ix>ol beljagen, 

(£r fprad^ : „5o ifl man redit gcfmnt I 

IDcr iibcrroinbct, bev getoinni" 2835 

Sie Kirdje I^at einen gutcn Zllagen, 

^at ganje Cdn&er aufgefrejfen, 

Unb bodj nodi nie ^xdi fiber gejfen ; 

SCENE IX. 127 

„3)ie Uxtdt" oSLexn, mexne Ixebcn 5rauen, 

Kann ungeredites (But pcr&ouen." 2840 

Vas ift ein aHgcmciner Sraud? ; 
(£irt 3u5 unb Konig farm es audi. 

Stride brauf ein Sponge, Kelt un5 Hing, 

Tils waxens eben pfifferling, 

2>anft* nid^t mcniger un& nid^t mel^r, 2845 

Ttts obs cm Korb voU Huffe wdv, 

Vet\pvadi xtinen a&m Ijimmlifd^en toiin — 

Un5 jte warcn fel|r erbaut &apon. 

Unb (Bretdjen ? 


Stfet nun unruljpoll, 
XDcig voebct was jte mill nod? foil, 2850 

3)enft ans (Bcfdimei^e Cag unb Ztad^t, 
Xlodi mel)r an &en, fters % gebradjt. 

J)c5 Ctebd^cns Hummer tljut mtr Iei&. 
Sdiaff bix il|r gleidj ein neu (Sefd^meib I 
2bn erfien war ja fo nidjt pieL asss 

la, &em ^erm ijl aHes Kin&erfpiel I 


Unb madj rxnb xxdits nadt meinem Sinn 1 
E^dng bxdt arx it^re Ztad^barin I 


Sex Ceufcl bodt nur nidit vow Srci 

Unb fdjaff * cinen neuen Sdinrnd E|erbci I 2860 

3ct, gnabget ^err, pon fjet^en gome. 

So ein ©erlicBtcr Ctjor pcrpufft 

€ud? Sonne, Vflonb nnb aUe Sterne 

Sum S^itoertreib t)em Ciebdjen in i>ie £uft. 


Der ZTad^barin ^aus. 

ZHortl^e aUein. 

(5ott t)er3eil)5 meinem lieben TXlann I 2865 

€r liat an mtr nid^t tool getf^an. 

<5el|t ^a jkarfs in t)ie IDelt I^inein 

Un6 Id§t midt auf 5em StroBj aHein. 

Ct|dt iE|n feod] u>al^rlid| nid^t betriiben, 

Cl^dt iB|n, ix)ei§ (Sott 1 red^t B^erslidi lieben. 2870 

Sie metnt. 
DieHeid^t iji er gar tobt I — ® pein I — 
J^dtt id^ nur einen Cobtenfd^ein 1 

IHargaretc fommt 

5rau ZHartlje 1 

(5reteld)en, mas foils ? 

SCENE X. 129 

5ajl fmf en mir 6te Kniee mebex I 
Da finb id? fo ein Kdjld^en tDteber 2875 

3n meincm Sdiretn, Don (EbenI|ol3 
Unb Sadden, l|crrlid| gart^ nnb gar, 
Weit teidtex, ab das erfle wac. 

Das mu§ fie nidjt 6er ZHutter fagen I 
tCtidis wxebev gleid} 5ur 33eid?te tragen. 2880 

2ldj felj fie nur I adt fdjau fie nur ! 

TXloxtlie pn^t fie auf * 
t)u gliidfelge (Ereatur I 

Darf mid?, lei&er I nic^t auf bet (Baffen, 
Zlodt m &er Kird{e ntit fel|en laffen, 

Komm &tt nur oft 5U mir lierfiber 2885 

Xlnb leg ben Sdimucf I|ier I^eimlidj an, 
Spasier ein 5tiln6d?en lang bem Spiegelglas porfiber I 
IPir I^aben unfre 5teui)e bran. 
Xhib beam gibts einen 2lnla§, gibts ein S^% 
Wo mans fo nait mib nadt ben Ceuten feljen Idgt. 2890 
(Ein Kettd?en erji, &ie perle beam ins (Dfyc ; 
Die ZlTutter fiel^ts tool nidjt, man mad?t il?r aud? ipaspor. 

XDer fonnte nur &ie beiben Kdftdjen bringen ? 
€s gel|t nidjt ju mit red?ten Dingen 1 

<2s «opft. 


Tldi (Soft, mag bas nteine ZlTutter fcin ? 2895 

ZHarttie burets Voxl\&nQt\ gucfenb. 
(Es ijl em fremfter fjerr. — fjerein 1 

Sin |o frei grat) Ijereinsutreten, 
2nu§ bet 6en Socmen Dersetl^n erbeten. 

Critt eljrerbtettg por Ulargaretcn 3uriicf ♦ 
XDoUte nadi 5tau Znartlje Sditoerbtlein fragen 1 

3cf| bins. Was iiat bet J^err 3U fagen ? 2900 

2TlepI)ijlopB|eIe5 leife 3U t!|r. 
3di fenne jte jefet, mir ift bos genug. 
5ie iiat ba gat t>omeI|men Befiidj. 
Vet^exiit bxe 5t^eit|eit 6ie xdi genommen I 
Wm nail Znittage u)ie&erfommen. 

ZHartBie lant 
Vent, Uinb, um aUes in bet Welt I 2905 

2)er J^err bid? fiir ein ^rdulein ii&lt 

3cl? bin ein armes junges Slut ; 
Tidt (5ott ! bet £jerr ijl gar 3U gut : 
Sdimnd nnb ©efdimeibe ftnb nid|t mein. 

Tidi, es ijl nid)t bet Sd^muJ aHein ; 2910 

5ie B^at ein tDefen, einen Slid fo fd^arf I 
XOie freut mid^s, ba% id? bleiben batf. 

SCENE X. 131 

Was bxvagt er benn ? Derlange fel)r — 

3dj tDoKt, idj I|dtt erne froljcre ZTTdl^r I 

34 B|offc, pe Id§t mxdts brum ntdjt bii^en : 29»s 

3I|r Znann tji to&t un& Idgt pe grfl^en. 


3fl to&t ? 2)05 treuc Ejers 1 ® melj I 
ZTlein 2TCann tji tot)t 1 ildt, idi oergeI| I 

Tldt, fi^B^ 5rau, t)er3n>eifelt nid^t I 

So I{5rt 6ie trcmrtge <5e\d(idtt I 39«> 


3cl? mSdjte brum mem Cag nid^t Rebcn ; 
ZDfirbe midt Oerlujl 5U Co5e betr^ben. 

I5rcu6 mug €ei&, £etb mug 5teube I^aben. 

<£r3dl|lt mtr femes Cebens Sdjlug I 


£r Hegt m pabua begroben 3935 

Seim Ijeiligen Tbitonms, 

7bi emer u>oI gen>eil|ten Stdtte 

Sum emig fiU^Ien 2^ebette. 

^abt tl|r fonjl nid^ts an mid? 3U bringen ? 


3a, erne 33ittc, grog nnb fd^wer : 3930 

Ca% pe bodi ja ffir \tin bvexfyxribevt ZHeffen pngcn I 
3m uBrigen fin6 meine Cafdjen leer. 


Was I 2Tidjt em SdjoujHicI I f ein <5efdjmeto ? 
IDosjeber J^anbtoerfsburfdj im (Brunb 5e5 Seclels fpart, 
gum 2lnge&enfen aufben>at|rt 2935 

Vinb lieber Ijungert, Reber bettelt I 


Xnabam, es tijut mir Iierslidj Iei6 ; 

JlHein er l^at fern (5eI6 tx>aljrl|aftig nid^t oersettelt. 

2tudi er bereute feme S^ki^v i^k^, 

3ct unb bqommerte fein UngliicI nod} piel mel)r. 2940 


2(d} I ba% bxe TXlen^dten fo ungliidlid} [xnb I 
<5etx>ig, id} toiQ flu: Hin mandi Hequiem nodi beten. 


3i{t todret u>ert^ gletd{ m Me £t} ju treten 1 
3^1^ feib ein Kebenswiir&ig Kin6. 

2Id) nem I bos get{t je^t nod) md{t on. 9945 


3ji5 nid^t em ZHonn, feis benoeil ein (Sedan. 
£5 ifi eine bet grogten ^immelsgoben 
So ein Keb J)ing im 2trm ju I|aben. 

Vas iji bes Canfees nid^t &er Sraudj. 

SCENE X. 133 

Sraud) o^cr md{t 1 £s gibt {td{ aud|. 3950 

£r5dt{(t tntr bodt I 

3d? jlanb on feinem Sterbcbette ; 
€5 tDor tDOS beffer ols von JJIijl, 
Don Ijolboerf oultcm Strolj ; oDem er jlarb ab (CI|rijl 
Unb fan5; 5a^ er roett me^r noct) ouf der Seci)e I)dtte. 
,,tt)ie/' rief er „rtm% idj mtdi »on (5run6 aus Ijaffen, 9955 
So mein (Setoetb, mem IPeib fo 5U perlaffen ! 
Tldt I 5ie (Erinn'rung t55tet mici{. 
Oergib' pe mir nur nod? in 6iefem £eben 1" — 

2Tlarti?e metnenb. 
tDer gute ZITamt I id) E^ob* il^m Idngjl oergeben. 

„2UIem; n>eij} (Soii I fte toar mel|r 5d}uI5 ols id)/' 2960 

Sos (Ogt er 1 Was I am Han5 5es (grabs 5U (ugen I 


(Er fabelte gen>ig in lefeten gugen, 

HJenn id) mir I^olb ein Kenner bin, 

,;3d) I)atte/' fprad) er, „nid)t 3um S^^^reib 3U gajfen, 

€rjl Kinber unb barni Srot fftr jte ju fd)affen a^^s 

Unb Srot im oIIenDeitflen Sirat 

Unb lonnte md)t einmat mein 0)eil in jrieben effen/' 


^ot et fo ollcr tEreu, fo oHer £feb Dergeffen, 
7>et placf erei bet Cag mtb Xtadit I 


Ztxdit bod?, er tjat eud? Iier3fid? bran gebad^t. 2970 

(£r fpradj : „2tl5 id? nun loeg t>on ZITalta ging, 

Va bctef id? fur S^aa unb Kinbcr briinjHg ; 

Uns uDor benn oud? ber Qimmcl gunfHg, 

Sag unfer Sdjiff ein turfifd? 5cil?r3eug ftng, 

Vas einen 5d?a^ bcs grogen Sultans {iit{rte. 2975 

®a u)arb bcr tEajjferfeit il|r £ol|n 

Unb id? empfmg benn aud?, roie {td?5 gebul?rte, 

ZHein tool gemegnes tCI?eil bapon," 

(Ei toie ? €i n)0 ? ^at ers pieDeid?t pergraben ? 


IDer u>eij}, too nun es bie pier XDinbe I?aben I 2980 

€in ^didnes 5tdulein nal?m jtd? feiner an, 

7Us er in Zlccpd fremb umt?erfpa3ierte. 

Sie tfat an il?m piel Ciebs unb Creus gett?an, 

2)a§ ers bis an fein felig <£nbe fpiirte. 


J)er 5d?elm I ber Dieb an feinen Kinbem 1 2985 

2tud? aSies €Ienb, alle Ztott? 

Konnf nid?t fein fd?dnblid? ieben I?inbem I 


3a feB?t 1 bafur iji er nun tobt. 
XDdr' id? nun jefet an eurem plafee, 

SCENE X. 135 

Setrouert' tdj U|n ein jiid^tig 3al|r, 2990 

Oifirte 6ann unterroeil, nact| cinem ncuen Sd^ofee, 

2ldj (Sott, tx>fe i)odi mein erfter wax, 

Siny idt nxdit Ieid|t auf biefer XPelt t>en anbem 1 

(£5 fonnte faum ein I^ersiger ^drrd^en fein. 

(£r liebte nur bos alljupiele XDanbem 2995 

Vinb frembe XPeiber unb fremben Wein 

Unb bos oerfluditc XDurfelfpieL 


21iin, nun 1 fo f onnt' es gel^n unb fid|en, 

XDcnn er eudj ungefdl^r [0 vxel 

Von femcr Seitc nad^gefct^en. 3000 

3dl fditodr' eudi 3U, mit bent Sebing 

Wc(ii\elt* idt f^K>P tnit eud^ ben Hing I 

® es beliebt bent J^erm 5U fd^ersen 1 

ZlTepB^tjiopIieles fiir flc^. 
2?un tnadj' id? mid? bei geiten fort I 
Die t|ielte tool ben Ceufel felbji beint VOovt, 3005 

§u (Sretc^en. 
XDie jiet|t es benn mit il^rem Qersen ? 

Was meint ber J^err batnit ? 

ZnepI|ij!opi)eIe5 fiir flc^, 

J)u guts, unfdjulbigs Kinb I 
£ebt tool, it|r 5taun 1 


Cebt tool I 

fogt ntir bodt gefd^iptnb I 
3d^ mod)te gem ein 5^W9"t§ itabm, 
Wo, me unb toarm tncm Sd^o^ gejiorbcn unb be* 
grctben, 3010 

3d? 6m i>on je ber 0rbnung 5teun5 getoefen, 
TXlodit' iljn audi to5t im Wodienblditdtm lefen. 


3ci gute fyan, bntdi stoeiet geugen ZHunb 

XJOivb oHeriDegs Me lbal|rt|eit funb. 

Siabe nodi gcitr einen feinen (BefeHen, 301s 

Den tDttt idi eud| oor 5en Htdjter jieDen. 

3di bring' \t(n Ijer. 


(D Hiui bos ial 


Un5 liter 6ie yxng^an iji audi 6a? — 

€in braper Knab', ift i>iel gereij! ; 

5rdulein5 aHe fjoflidifeit erweift. 3020 

ZTlflfete t>or bem ^erren fdiamrotli u>er6en. 

Vov feinem Konige 6er (£r&en« 


Sa Bitnterm ^ous in meinem (8arten 
IDoHen tt>ir &er J^erm iieut ^benb warten. 

Scene xi. 13^ 


Wie ijis ? toiHs f orftern ? wills bolb g^fyi ? 3<»5 


2tt| bxaoo I fmb' id? eud? in 5^ucr ? 

3n furser S^t iji (5retd?en cuer. 

fjeut 2lbcn5 fottt il^r jte bci Zladibaxs TXlaxSien feB|n. 

3)05 ifl ein IDcib toie auscrlcfcn 

gum Kuppler* nnb Sigeunertpcfen I 3030 

So rcdjt I 


7>odt toirb oud? tpos pon uns bcgct^rt. 

<£in Dienji ifl tool bes onbem ipcrtf?. 


tt)ir legen nur cin giiltig Seugnig niebcr, 

Dag it^rcs £l{t{crm ousgereAe (Slicker 

3n pa6ua an tjeilgcr Stdtte ruljn. 303s 

Seljr f lug I IDir xoexben crji bie Heifc madden niujyen 1 

Sancta Simplicitas ! borunt ijls nid^t 5U tt^n ; 
Scseugt nur ot|ne ptel 3U toijjcn. 


Wenn et nxdtts Sejfers Ijot, fo ijl bet plan jcrriffen. 

© Iieilger ZHann I 2)a rodr't it^rs nun I 3040 

3jl es bos erflcmal in euenn £eben, 

3>ag iljr falfd) 3^9"i6 abgelegt? 

^obt it|r x>on (5ott, 5er XPelt un& was jtdj brin Bctoegt, 

Pom ZTlenfd^cn, loos jtdi il^ im Kopf nnb JEjerscn rcgt, 

Scfhtttionen nid^t nttt grower Kraft gcgeben, 3<h5 

Znit fredier Stimc, ffit|ner Srujl ? 

Unb roollt il|r redjt ins 3nnre gct|cn, 

fjabt it|r bapon, iljr ntiigt cs grab gejleljen, 

5o ptel als von ^erm 5d)n>erbttcins (Eob gerx>u§t 1 

Su bifi unb bleibjl ein Cugner, em Sopl^ifie. 3050 


3a, tDcmt mans ntd^t cin bisd^en tiefcr ipflgte. 
©enn morgen toirjl in alien (Eljren 
2)a5 arme (5retd^en nidjt betl^oren 
Unb alle SeelenUeb' it|r fd^ioSren? 

Unb stoar pon fjerjen. 


(5ut unb fd^on I 3055 

2)ann u)irb pon eipger Creu unb £iebe, 
Von einsig iiberallmdditgem Criebe — 
IDirb bas audi fo pon fjersen gel^n ? 


f £a% bos 1 €5 wxtb I — IDenn xdt empftnbe, 
S&c bos <5efuI|I, fiir 5a5 ©etouljl 3060 

2tadi Ztamcn fud^e, femen fmbe, 
3)ann 6urd? 6ie Welt mit alien Sinnen fd^weifc, 
Xtadt aUen I^od^jien Woxten greifc 
Unft ifefe (5Iutt{, pon 5er idj brenne, 
UnenMid?, etoig, eroig nenne, 3065 

3P 605 ciu tettflifdj Cugenfpiel ? 

3di Itdb' bodt ^edtt I 


^or I merF bit bws, 
3cft bttte bxdi unb fd^one meine £unge : 
QDer Hed^t beiialten a>iU unb I)at nur erne S^nqe, 
23etjdlts getDi§. 3070 

Vinb fomm, id^ t^ab* bcs Sd^tDdfeens Ucbcr5ru§ ; 
X)enn 5u fyx^ Zied^t, porsiiglid^ toeil id} mug. 


Xttargarete an ;(anjlens 2(rm* Xttaril^e mit 
XYtepljifiopfteles auf nnb ab fpa5terenb. 


3di ful^r es tt)oI bag midj bet fjerr nur fd^ont, 

^erab pdj Idgt, mid| 3U bcfdjdmcn. 

(£in Heifenber ift fo geu>otint 307s 

2tu5 (SiUigfeit fiurlieb 5U nel^men. 

3d? u>cig 5tt gut, ba% fold? erfaiimen ZHann 

ZHein arm (5efprddi nid^t unterljalten f ann. 


€m SKcf pon bit, €m Wovt meljr unterl|dlt 

2tls oDe Wexsiiext Mefcr IDelt 3080 

3ncommo6irt eud| nid^t I IDie f Snnt \t(t jte nur fiiffcn ? 
Sxe ijl fo gorftig, iji fo routj I 
IDos I|ab' idi nid^t fdjon oHes fdiaffen ntiiffen I 
Vie JHutter ifi gar 5U gcnou. 

<5et)n poriiber. 

Unb Hit, mem ^crr, il^r reift fo immerfort ? 3085 


^d{, bag <0etx>erb unb pfiid^t uns basu troiben I 
Znit it)k ptcl Sdjmei^ vcxld%t man mandjen (Urt 
Unb barf bod? nun emmal nid?t Weiben 1 


3n rafdjen 3aliren gcl^ts n>oI an, 

So um un6 um frei buxdi bie Welt ju jhreif en ; 3090 

®odi fommt bie bdfe ^ett Ijeran 

Unb ftdi als ^agcjiols attein sum (Srab ju fdjieifen, 

Dos I)at nodt f einem wol gett}an. 

Znit (Sraufen fel|' id? bas oon ujeiten, 

©rum, u>ertt|er fjerr, beratt|ct eudj in Seiien I 309s 

<5el|n poriiber. 



3a, caxs ben Tbigen cms bem Sinn 1 
Die J^ofltdjf eit tjl eudj geldufig ; 
2tIIem U^r iidbt bet S^eunbe t^^flg, 
Sie fin& pcr^dnMger als id? bin. 


(D Scjle I gloube, mas man fo ©erjidnfeig nennt, 3100 
3ji oft ntd|r (gitelfeit unb Kurjfmn. 



Tlii, ba% bxe €inf alt ba% bxe Unfd)uI5 nie 

Sxdt fclbjl rxxib iiiten t^eilgen Wetiii erf ennt 1 

7>a% J>eim\&tf 2Tie6rigfeit, 6ie IjSdjjlen (Soben 

2)er liebepoD austl^eilenben Ztotiur — 3105 


Ventt 'ifyc cm mid? ein ^ugenblicf d?en nur, 
3dj xvevbe geit genug an eudj 3U benfen I^aben. 

3I|t feib wol piel attein? 

3<J, unfre It>irtl|fd?afl ijl nur Hein 
Unb bodi wiQ pe perfel|en fein. 3"© 

IDir I|aben f eine ZHagb ; nmg f odjen, f egen, fhri Jen 
Unb ndljn unb (auf en frW| unb fpat 
Vinb mevne ZHutter ift in alien Stucfen - 
So accvxatl 
Zlxdit ba% jte jujl fo fel)r fidj ein5ufdirSnfen l^ai, 3x15 


XDxc lormten uns u>cit el^'r als anbve vegm : 

ZHein Pater l|interiic§ ein Ijiibfcli V^vmogen, 

<£tn fjdusdien unb ein (Bdrtdien x)or feer'Stabt. 

Dodi Ijab' idi jefet fo jiemlid? fliDe (Eage ; 

JJIein Sru6er tji 5oI6at, 3120 

ZlTem Sd^toejierd^en ift to6t. 

3d? t|atte mit bem Km6 ipoI meine Kebe Ztotii ; 

Dodi iibemdi|m* id? gem nodj einmol atte plage, 

So lieb tt>ar mir bos Kin&. 

€in €ngel, werm Mrs glid? I 


3dj 3og es ouf un6 .tjer$Iidi Kebf es midj. 3"5 

£5 tpor nadj tneines Vatevs Cob geboren ; 

Die ZTlutter gaben toir Derloren, 

So elenb wie pe Jamais lag 

Xhxb fie erijolte pd? feljr langfam nadi ««& "«d?. 

®a fortnte fie nun nid?t bran benfen 3130 

t>as amte H>urmd?en felbji ju trdnfen 

Unb fo ersog idjs ganj allein, 

TXlit Zdxldt unb IDaffer; fo warbs mein. 

2luf meinem 2lrm, in meinem Sdjoog 

H?ar5 freunblid), sappelte, roarb grog. 3135 

Du I|af} getoig bas reinjle (5IiidF empfunben. 

2)od? audj geipijj gar mand?e fd^mere Stunben, 
©es Kleinen XDiege ftanb jur Xtadit 
Tin meinem Sett; es burfte faum fid? regen, 
IDor id? em>ad?t. 3140 


Bolb mu§f idjs tv&nten, balb es 3U mir kgen, 
Solb, ipenns nid^t fd^toieg, pom Sett aufjlelin 
Mnb tdnselnb m 6cr Kantmer ouf unb nieder gel^n 
Unb frflli am Cage fd^on am IDafd^trog jlel^n ; 
Damt auf 6em ZHarft un5 an 5em J^erie forgen 314s 
Unb immerfort u>ie Ijeut fo morgen. 
7>a geitis, mein fyn, ntdit immer mutl^ig ju ; 
2)odi fdjme* baffir bos (gffen, fdimecft 5ie Hut| 1 

<5e!]n Doriiber. 


2)ie armen IDetber pn5 5od) iibel bran. 

(gin fjagejlols ijl fdiweriid? ju bcfel|ren. 3150 


£5 Wme nur auf cures (Bletdien an, 
TXlxdt ernes Seffem 5U belet^ren. 

5agt grab, mem fjerr, l^cibt rtit nod\ mitts gefunben? 
£iat jtdj 6as ^erj nidjt irgen5«>o gebunben? 


J)as SptxAtwott fagt: <£tn etgner ^erb, 3155 

£in brapes IPeib ftnb <Sotb unb perlen tpert{). 

3dj meme, ob tl|r ntemals Cuji befommen ? 

ZlTan I|at midj iiberall red^t li&^xdi aufgenommen. 

3di rooUte fagen : voavb*s nie €mjl in eurem ^erjen ? 


TXlxt 5rauen foil man jtdj nie unterjiclin su fdrersen. 3160 

2tdj, iljr t>erfleljt midj nidjt I 

©05 tliut mir IjersKdj leib I 
©odi idt t>erjlel| — 5ag il^r fcl|r giittg feib. 

<Sei{n pornber. 


Vn fcmntefl mid|, fleiner (Engel, iDie6er, 
(Bleid) ols id{ in ben (Borten lorn ? 

5al|t il|r es nid^t ? idj fd|Iug &ie Stugen nie5er, 3165 


Unb 6u ©erseitijl 5fe 5teit|cit, 6te td^ notim. 
Was fidj 6ie 5r«djt|ett unterf cmgen, 
Tils bn jungjl ous &em X)om gegcmgen? 


3ci? tDor bcjlfii^, mir mar ^as nie gcfdjelin I 

£5 foratte nicmonb pon mir Uebds fagen. 3170 

2tdi 1 6adjt' idj, I^at er in beinem Bctragen 

XDas Sxeiies, Unonjidnbiges gefeB^n ? 

£5 fdjien il|n gfeidj nur ansmoanbcin 

Znit 6iefer tAcne gtabe t|in 5U iianbeln. 

(5ejiel| id?5 bod?, id? tougte nidjt was jtd? 3175 

gu curem Dort^eil I^ier ju regcn gleid? begonnte ; 

2inein gett>i§ id? war rcdjt b8f auf mid?, 

Sag id? auf cud? nid?t bojer tocrben f onnte. 




£a§t einmal I 

Ste ppcft etne Sternblume nnb supft bie BlStter ab, 
tins nac^ bent anbem. 

Was foil bas ? €mm Strau§ ? 

2tcm, es foil nur dn Spiel 



(5el|t 1 tl|r lad^t mid? aus. 3180 
Ste rupft unb mumtelt. 

2X>as tnurmelji 5u ? 

ZITargarete Ijalblaut, 

€r Itebt trtid? — liebt midi nidit 

Jhi Iiolbes fjimntelsangeftdit I 

Zltargarete fdl^rt fort. 
Ciebt midj — Ztidjt — ftebt mid? — Ztid^t — 

Dos lefete Blatt ausrupfertb mtt I?oIber ^Jreube. 
€r liebt mid? 1 



3ci, ntetn Kin6 1 £a§ biefes Slumcntoort 
Sir (5ott0rau5fprud^ fcin I €r licbt bidj ! 3185 

Derjict^ji bn, was bos I^eigt ? (£r liebt 5idi 1 

(£r fagt tl|re betbcn fJSnbe. 

Znidj fiberlduft's 1 

(D fdioubre md?t I £ag biefen Slicf , 

£ag biefcn ^dnbebrucf bit fagen 

tDas uncmsfpred^Itdi iji : 3190 

Sxdi I|m3ugcben gans nnb cine lOonne 

Su ful^len, bie ewxg fcin inug 1 

€u>ig 1 — 3I|r €n5e xoixtbe Persipeiflung fein. 

2tein, f cm (£n6e I f ein (Enbe I 

UTargarcte briitft tijm bte fJSnbe, ntac^t flc^ los unb ISuft 
tpeg* €r fle(|t einen 2lugenblicf in (5tbanhn, bann 
folgt cr ifyc, 

TXlaxitie fomtncnb. 

Die Zladit brid^t an. 

3a un5 roir woUen fort. 3^95 


3dj bdf eud? Idnger l|ier 3U bleiben, 

2UIein es ifi ein gar 3U bofer ®ri 

(£5 ift als I|dtte niemanft nidjts ju tretben 

Hni) nid?t5 3U fd^affen, 

211s auf fees Zladibavn Sdintt nnb Critt 3U gaffen 3200 

Xlnb man fommt ins (5ereb, toie man fidi immer jleUt. 

Unb unfer pdrd^en ? 


3jl ben (Sang boxt ousgeflogcn. 
21TutI{tDiirge 5ommen)dgeI I 

£r fd^emt it|r geioogen. 

Unb jte U{m aud{. Sets i^ 5cr £auf &er 2Z)c(t I 

€in <5artenljausd?en% 

ntargarete fprtngi l^eretn, {iecft {i(^ l{tnier bie (Ei|Hr, !{&(i 
bie (f tngerfpt^e an bie £ippen nnb gncft burc^ bie Hige* 

£r lommt 1 

5aufi fommt. 

2td) 5ci{clm, fo nc^ bn mxdt I 3905 

Creff * id? 6i* I 

€r !fi§t fie- 

il|n faffenb unb btn Ku§ juriicfgebenb. 

Scjicr Itlann, pon %r5cn (ieb id{ Md? I 

lllepI)iflop({eIe5 flopfi an. 
5auft fiampfenb. 
Wet ba ? 

(Sut 5^eunb I 


£5 iji tool Sett 5U fdiet^ett* 

Znartlie fomtttt* 
3a, es tji fpSt, titetn J^err. 

Dorf tdi cudi «i<i|t gclcttert ? 

Die ZITiittcr ft)flr6e ttttd? — Ccbt tool 1 


21Xug idj &cttrt gel^tt ? 
£cBt tpol 1 

2tuf bcdbxQ It)ie&crfet|tt ! s^'o 

jan^ nttb tnepi{tflopI)eIes ob* 


Du (teBeir (0ott I tDOs fo exn TXlann 

Z&dit oQes oQes 6ett!ett fatttt I 

Sefdjdtttt itiir jieli' tdi t)or Ujtrt 5a 

Unb fag* ju aHeit Sadjcrt ja. 

Bin bodj eirt orttt untDtffen& Uwb, sais 

Scgreifc ntdit, was et ait ntir fhtb't. 



Crl^oBrtet (5dfl, bu gabjl mir, gahjji nttr oHes, 

IDarum id? bat Vn iia\t mir nidjt umfonji 

Vein 2tngejtdit im 5^uer jugerDcnbct. 

(5abjl mir bic I|errlidie Ztatur 5um Konigrcid?, 3220 

Kraft, fie 5U fuljlen, 3U geniegen. Ztid^t 

Kalt jiauncn&en Sefudi erloubjl feu rair, 

PergSratejl mir in i^rc tiefe SrufI, 

It)ic in ben Sufen eines jfrcun5s 3U fd^auen. 

®u fuljrp &ie Heil^e 6cr Cebenbigcn aaas 

Dor mir porbei un& Idirji midj fheine Sriiier 

3m jHIIen Sufdi, in Cuft unb IDaffer fenncn. 

Un6 loenn &er Sturm im IDalbe brauji unb fnarrt, 

3)ie Hiefenftdjte jlursenb Xtad^bardjle 

Vnb ZTad^barpSmme quetfdjenb nie&erjhrcift 3230 

Unb 'ifycem Sail &umpf Ijo^I ber ^flgel feonnert; 

Vcain fut|rjl 6tt mid? 5ur jtdjem J^oI|Ie, seigjl 

Znid? 5ann mir fdbji un& meincr eignen Sruji 

<5el|cime, tiefe ibun&er Sffnen fid?. 

Unb jleigt ©or meinem Slid ber reine ZHonb 3235 

Sefdnftigenb tieriiber, fd?n>eben mir 

Z?on 5^If^n«)dn5en, aus 5em feud?ten 23ufdj 

®er Dorroelt fUbeme ©ejlalten auf 

Unb lin&em 5er Setrad?tung ftrenge Cujl. 

© ba% bem ZHenfdjen nid^ts Pottfommnes toirb 3240 
£mpfin6' id? nun. ©irgabjl 3U biefer IDomte, 
Die mid? 6en (SSttem nal? rnib ndtjer bringt, 
Znir &en (5efdl?rten, ben id? fd?on nid?t mel?r 
€ntbel?ren f ann, wenn er gleid? fait unb fred? 


TXlxdi VOX mtr fclbft cmiebrigt un6 5U Xtxdits 3245 

TXlit ctnem Xt>o^t^^attdl 6eme (5aben toanfeelt, 

<£r fad^t in meincr Sruji ein roilbes 5^uer 

2l:adi jenem fdjoncn 3ilb gefdjdfttg an. 

So toumr xdt »on Scgierbe ju <8crai§ 

Un5 im <5enu§ ocrfd^madit tdj nadt Segierfee. 3«so 

IHeplji jlopt|eIes tritt auf. 

^abt il|r nun bcib bos CAm gang g^fiUirt ? 
Wxe tarns endt in bxe Cdnge freuen? 
€5 ifl tpol gut, bag mans einmal probirt ; 
®ann aber toieier ju was Zteuen I 

3d? tpoitt, &u I^dttejl mel|r 5U tljun 3255 

Ttts mxdi am guten Cag 5U plagcn. 


Xlun, nun 1 id? laff' feidj geme ruljn ; 

Du Sarfjl mirs nidit im €mjle fagen. 

2tn 6ir (BefeHen, unljolb, barfdj un& toK, 

3P roal^rlidj tocnig ju ©eriieren. 3260 

Z)en gansen Cag {{at man bxe £i&abe ooQ 1 

IDas il|m gefdHt un6 loas man laffen foU 

Kann man 6em ^crm nie an &er 2tafc f^rfiren, 

3)a5 ijl fo juji bcr redite Con I 
€r u>ill nod) J)anf bag er midi^ennuyiri 3265 

IDie I^dttft 5u, armor <£r6cnfoI|n, 
Dein tchen ol^ne mid? gejSIjrt? 


Pom Kribsfrabs bev 3ma9mation 

Slab xdi bxdi bodi auf geiten long curirt: 

Unb mdx* xdt nxiit, fo todrjl b\x fd^on 3270 

Don bk\em (EvbbciO, db fpajiert. ^- 

tJOas I|ajl 5u &a in Qoycn, 5elf«nri^en 

3)idi «>ie cin 5diul|u ju ocrft^en ? 

XDos fdilurfp cms 2)umpfem UToos un& triefenbcm 

IDte cine Krote TXotitmxg em? 3*75 

<£in fd^oncr fiifecr ^eitoertreib 1 
Dir jlccft feer ©octor nod? im £cib. 


Ucrjlrfiji &u, nxxs fur neue Cebensfraft 

Znir Mefcr IDan&d in bev (Debe fdjafft ? 

3a, tDurbeji &u cs al^nben fonncn, 3280 

Du ipdrefl Ceufel gnug mein (5Ifi J mir ntd?t 3U gonncn. 


€tn ubmrMfcijes Vevgnngen : 

3n 2ladit unb Ct{au auf 6en (Sebirgcn liegcn 

Unb <£vb* mxb ^immel wonrxxgixdt umfaffen, 

gu einer <5ottI|eit fld| auffdjwcHen laffcn, 328s 

Der €rbe TXlatt mit 2tl|n5ung5brang burdjtpuljlen, 

2tne fedjs tEageu>erf im Sufcn fiil^Ien, 

2rx jlolscr Kraft idi u)ci§ nidit tx>as gcnicgcn, 

SaI6 liebewonniglid? in alks iibcrfliej^en, 

Vet^dtwmxben gans bev <£vben\oiin 3«9o 

Unb bann bic Ijoljc 3ntuition — 

init etncr (Sebfirbc. 
3clj barf nidit fagen wxe — ju fdiliefeen. 


pfui iibcr bid] I 


t>as tDiH endi nxdtt bet^agcn. 
2il^ I|cibt ^05 Hcd^t gcjtttet pfui 5U fagen. 
Zlton barf bos nid^t oor f eufdjen ®i|ren nenncn, 329s 
Was feufd^e fjersen nid^t entbel|ren Knnen. 
Unb furs w"^ 9^^/ idj gonn* il^m bos l?ergniigen 
(Belegentlid^ fid^ ehpos oorsuliigen : 
®od| lange Iidlt er txis nid^t aus. 
J)u biji fdjon xvxebet abgetrieben 3300 

Unb voditxt es linger, aufgerieben 
3n Coffiieit ober 2tngji unb (5rau5. 
<5enug bamit 1 bein £iebd?cn jtfet babrinnc 
Unb alles wxxb xfyc cng' unb triib, 
©u f omtnft il^r gar nidit aus bem Sinne ; 330s 

Sic Ijat bidj uberrndd^tig lieb. 
(£rfl fam beme Ciebestoutli flbergcfloffen, 
Ww 00m gefdimolsnen Sdjnee ein Sadjlem ubcrjlcigt. 
2)u I|ajt fie xiit ins fjcrs gegoffen, 
2i;un ift bein Sdd^Iein wieber feid^i 3310 

Znid^ biinft, anftatt in IDdlbem 3U tI|ronen, 
£ic§ es bem gro§en J^erren gut, 
pas amte affenjunge Slut 
5ur feine £iebe 3U beIot|nen. 

Vk S^xt voxvb i^r erbSrmlid^ lang ; 331s 

5ie jlel)t am S^^^^^^, fi^I^t bie XDoIfen ^cfyx 
Ueber bie alte Stabtmauer Bjin. 
„1Denn xdt ein Ooglein u>dr' I" fo gel|t iB|r (Befang 
Slag lang, I^albe ZTddjte lang. 
(£inmal ift pe munter, meift betdibt, 3320 


€inmal rcd^t ausgeroeint, 
7>arm iDie5er ruB^ig, wxes fdjctnt, 
Un6 tmmer pcriicbt, 

Sdjlongel 5d|Iange! 

(Selt 1 &a| icf? &icf| f ange I 3325 

Perruditer I I|ebc Md^ oon I|innen 
Unfe nennc nidjt bos fdjonc IDeib I 
Sring 5te Segier 5U il^rem fflgen £etb 
Ztid^t xoxebev vox 5ic tiolboerriidten Sinnen 1 


HJos foil es ienn ? 5ie nteint 5u feijl entf[oI)n 3330 
Unb I|alb nnb Ijalb bift &u cs fdjon. 

3cti bin Ujr nalj un6 rodr' idj nod? fo fern, 

3dj f ann fie nie pergeffen, nie perlieren ; 

3a, tdj benei&e fd^on 6en Ceib bes fjerm, 

Wcim it|re Cippen it|n tn6e^ berut|ren, 333s 


(Bar mol, rnetn 5reuni) I 3^? ^^^ ^ii<i? oft beneibet 
Urns S^iDittS^pciar, fcas unter Hofen wcxbet 

€ntfReI|e, Kuppler ! 

5d?5n I iB|r fdjimpft mib xdi mu§ ladjen. 
©er (Sott, l)er Bub' unb ZlTdbd^en fdjuf, 


€rfannte gUidi ben e^cljlen Beruf, 3340 

Thxdi felbft (5elegenf|eit 5U madjen. 
^^tur fort 1 (Es ijl cin grower 3<x"^ttier ! 
3Ijr font in cures Ctebdjens KaTntner, 
2tid|t ettpa in 6en Co^. 


Was ijl feie fjimmel5freu& in iljren 2tmtcn ? 334s 

£a% mxdt an iljrer Brujl etwatmen I 

5fiI|I idj nidjt immer itjre 2totB| ? 

33in id? ber 51ud|tling nidjt, &er Unbel|auf te, 

2)er Unmenfdi ol^ne ^rocrf unb Hulj, 

2)er toie ein IDafferfiurs ©on 5^1^ ju 5^Ifcn brouf te, 3350 

Scgierig u>iltljeri6 nadi 6em 2tbgrunt> ju? 

Hnb feitn>drts jtc mit fin&lid? &umj?fcn Sinnen, 

3itt ^iittd^en ouf &cm Hcincn 2llpcnfd6 

Unfe OH il|r I|duslid?e5 Seginnen 

Umfangen in ber Heincn Wdt 3355 

Unb idi, 6er (5ottperI|a§te, 

-^atte nid^t gcnug, 

Safe idj 6ie 5rffcn fafetc 

Un6 jte ju Crflmmem fd^Iug I 

Sie, iB|ren 5ric5en ntufet' id? untcrgraben I 3360 

Vn £j6tle muftcjl feiefes 0pfer t|aben I 

^ilf, (Eeufel mir bie ^^it bet 2tngjl oerfursen I 

IDos mufe gefd|et|n, mags gleid? gefd?el|n I 

tlTag il|r (Bcfdjicf auf mid? 5ufammenpfir3cn 

Unb fie mit mir 5U (Svmbe geljn I 336s 


H>ic5 wxebet jtc&et, n>ie&er gluljt I 

<Sek exn nnb trojie pe, &u tEB?or I 

Wo fo dn Kopfdjcn feinen 2tu5gang jtel|t, 


SteUt et ftdj gletdj bos <Znbe oor. 

€5 lebe, wet jtdj tapf er Ijdlt 1 3370 

2)u Bijl bodt fonji fo 5temlid? emg^teufelt. 

Zlxdits 7lbge\dtrtiadtevs fm5* id? auf bet Welt, 

7Us exnen (Ceufel bet vetiwexfelt 

(Bretd^ens Stube. 

(5retdien am Spinnrabe allein. 

ZHetnc 2lul| tjl I|m, 

Zltetn ^er3 ijl fd^roer ; 337s 

3clj fm6e fie nttmncr 

Un& nimmcmtel|r. 

IDo tdj it|n nidit I|ab 

3ji mir bos (5rab, 

3)ie gcmsc Welt 3380 

3fl mir oergdQt. 

Vflexn axmet Ko}>f 

3ji mir vettiXdi, 

TXlem atmet Sinn 

3jl mir 3erjHi(ft. 338s 

TXlexne Sul| ijl I|in, 
ZHein Siet^ iji fdjtoer ; 
3cl? ftnSe jte nimmer 
Unb nimmermelir. 


Zladi iB|m nur fd^au xdt 3390 

Sum 5^nfler Ijinous, 
2Tad? il|m nur gel| iclj 
2lu5 i)em JQous. 

Sdn poller (Bang, 

Sem c&fe (Bejiolt; 3395 

Seines Ztlunbes Cddjein; 

Seiner 2tugen (Setoalt 

Unb feiner Sebe 


Sein J^dnbe&rucf 3400 

Un& adj fein Ku§ 1 

2Tletne Hull ifl I|in, 

23Tein fjers iji f d?u?er ; 

^dl ftnbe jte nimmer 

Un6 nimntermel|r, 3405 

Zltein Sufen bv&ngt 
Sxdi "cidj il|m t|in. 
21*, t)urft id? fajfen 
Unt) I^alten il^n 1 

Mnb faffen iE)n 
So tow xdi woUt\ 
2tn feinen Kiiffen 
Z?ergel|en foHt' I 


SCENE XV. 157 

inarttjens (Bartem 

Xttargarete. S^^% 

IDos idj tanrx 1 


Zlun fag, tote t^ajl bus mit ber Heligion ? 34x5 

J)u biji ein I|cr3lidj gutcr JTlann, 

£a§ bos, mem Kinb 1 ©u fiiljlfl xdt bin bir gut ; 

5fir meme Cicbcn Heg idj Ccib un& Slut, 

ZDiQ nteman^ fcin (SefiU|l un& feinc Kird^e rauben. 3420 

Sos ijl nid{t reci{t; man mug dran glauben 1 



Tldi, toenn id^ etmos ouf bid} {Snnte 1 
Z)u et{rfl aud) nid^t 6ie t^cilgen Sacxamcnte. 

3dj el|re pc. 


Sod? ol^ne Perlangen. 



(Bloubjl 5u on <5ott ? 

mem txehdien, wet 6arf fagcn, 

2<it glctub an <5ott ? 
TXlaq^ pricftcr ober IDeife fragen 
Unb Uirc anhport fdicint nur Spott 
Meber 6cn 5ragcr ju fern. 


So glcmbji &u nidit ? 3430 

Zriigiior mil m<i\t, &u I|oI&c5 3lngefidit I 
Wet barf ilin nennen ? 
Unb wet befenncn : 
3di glaub xiin? 

Wet empftnbcn 3435 

Unb jtdi untenx>tn&en 

gu f agen : xdt 9^1* i^iw ^^^ '^ 

Vet 2tDumf after, 

Der Tllietiiciiet, 

S<x^t mb etiiSit et niclit 3440 

IPoIbt ftd| &er ^immd nidjt &a broben ? 

£iegt bw €r&e nid?t Ijier unten f ejl ? 

Hnb jicigen frcunWidj blicf enb 

€it)ige Sterne nidit I^erauf ? 3445 

Sdjau id? nid^t 2lug in 2luge bir 

Unb brdngt nidjt alles 

Zladi SicQxpt rxnb ^erjen 6ir 

Unb roebt in eroigem <8eljeimni§, 


Unftd^tbor fid^tbar neben bxc ? 3450 

€rfull 6aoon bexn ^crs, fo grog es ijl 

Unb menn 6u gans in bent (Bcpiljle fclig biji, 

2Tenn cs bann n)te bn roiUjl, 

Hcnns (SHic! 1 Sie^ I Ciebc ! (5ott I 

3di tjobe feinen ZTamcn 3455 

Safari (5efuI|I ijl aDes; 

Ztame ijl SdioII un5 Houd?, 

Umnebdnfe ^tmmelsglutli. 


Vas ijl oHes red^t fd^on un6 gut ; 

Ungefdl^r fagt bos bcx pforrer audj, 3460 

Zlur mit cm bisdt^^ anbetn IDorten. 

(Es fagens alter ®rten 

2UIe f}er3en unter bent Ijimmlifdien Cage, 

^cbcs in feiner Spradje ; 

U7arum nidjt idj in 6er meinen ? 346s 


IDenn mans fo Ejort, mSd^ts leiMidj fd^einen, 
Stel|t aber bodt immer fd^ief &arum; 
Demt &u Ijaji fein Ctjrijicntlium. 

Ciebs Kin& 1 


£s iiint mir lang fd)on well, 

2)a§ id? &id) in 6er (Befellfdiaft fel|. 3470 



J)cr Znenfdi, ben bn ba bet bit I^ojl, 
3jl mtr in tief er, innrer Seek perl|afet ; 
(Es liat mtr irt tttetnent Ceben 
So nxdits etnen Stid? ins Ejcrs gegeben, 
2tl5 bes 7Xlen\(iien voxbxxQ (Se^xdit 3475 

£tebe puppe, fflrdjf il|n nxdit 1 


Seine (5egentx>art beroegt mir bos Slut. 

3cli bin fonji alien ZHenfdien gut ; 

2tber, rote xdi mxdi feline bxdt 3U fdicmen, 

fjab idj por bem itlenfdien ein l|eimlid? (Brauen, 3480 

Uni) I^df il|n fiir einen Sd)elm basu 1 

(5ott persei^ mirs, «>enn id| il^m Unred^t tl^u. 

(£s mug audi fold^e House geben. 

a^oDte nid?t mit feines (Bleid^en leben 1 
Kommt er einmol 5ur tEI^iir herein 348s 

Sielit er immer fo fp6tti[di brein 
Virxb lialb ergrimmt ; 

XlTan ftel|t, t)ag er an nid^ts f einen ^tntl^eil nimmt ; 
(£s ftel|t il|m an ber Stim gefd^rieben, 
5)a^ er nid^t mag eine Seele lieben. 3490 

Znir voxvbs fo rool in beinem ^rm, 
So frei, fo tjingegeben roarm 
Un^ fetne (5egenu?art fdiniirt mir bos 3nnre 5U. 

SCENE XV. i6i 

Du aiirmngsvoUev fingel &u 1 


Dos ubermannt mid^ fo fetjr, 349s 

3)a^; too et mur mag 3U uns trcten, 

iZnein' xdi fogar, id? Hebte bid? mdjt mcl)r, 

2ludi roemt er ba ip, fount id? mmmer bekn. 

Unb bos fri§t mtr ins fjers I^inetn ; 

Sir, ^einridj, mug es audi fo fein. 3500 

3)u Ijafl nun 6ie ^ntipatl^ic ! 


2di mug nun fori 


2ldj, fann id? nie 
€in 5tfin6djcn rul|ig bir am Sufen l^dngen 
Unb Srujl an Srujl un6 Seef in Secfe brdngen ? 


Tldtf tDcnn idj niu: adeine fdjlief ! ssos 

3dj lieg 6ir gem Ii«it Ztadjt 6cn Hicgel off en ; 
Vodt meine ZHutter fd^Idft nid^t tief 
Vlxxb w^b^n wit von it^r betroffen, 
3dj »Sr' gleidi auf &er Stelle to&t 1 


J>u €ngel, feas I|at feine Ztotfj. 3510 

^ier ifl ein 5Idfdjdjen I Jhrei Cropf en nur 

3" il^ren tCranf uml^iUIen 

ma ttefem Sdjlaf gefaffig We Ztatur. 


1 62 FAUST. PART I. 

Was tl|u xdi nxdit um beincttoiH^n ? 
<£s wxxb iiit I^offcntlidi nid|t fd^abcn ! 3515 

VOnvb xdi fonft, £icbd?en, bir es ratljcn ? 


5cl^ id? bid?, befler TXlamx, nur art, 

IDcife nidjt toos mid? nad? beinem XDiHen treibt ; 

3d? I^cibe fdjon fo ©iel fur &id? getlian, 

J)a§ ntir 5U tE?un faji nid^ts meB|r iibrig bleibt. 3520 

tltepljipoptielcs tritt auf. 

T>et (Brosaff I ijl er voeQ ? 

J^aft tDtebcr fpionirt? 


3dj Ijabs ausfiilirlid? tool oemommen, 

j^err J>octor tourben ba tatedixfxtt; 

JEjoff' , C5 foil il)nen tool befommen. 

3>ie Zndbcis fin6 &od? frf^r intcrcffirt, 3525 

0b ctner fromm unb fd|Iid?t nad| altem Braudj. 

5ie benfen, i)urft er i)a, folgt er uns cben oudj. 

©u Ungeit^victf jtel^ji ntd?t em, 

IDie 5iefe treue liebe Secle 

Don xtivem (5Iaubcn poll, asso 

2)er gans allein 


Dag jte bm Kebjlen 2Tlann perforen Ijalten foH. 

Du iiberfinnfidjer, jtrmlidj^r S^exev, 

(gin Zndg&ckin nosfuliret &id?. 3535 

5? 5eottc[eburt t)on X)?^ ^"^ 5^uer I 


Unb bte plnitognomfe ©crjiel^t fie meijicrlid?. 
3n mciner (5cgcntx>art toxtbs \tix jte roeig nid^t «?ie, 
ZlTcin JTlSsf d^en ba meiffagt ©erborgnen Sinn ; 
5ie fM^It, ba% xdi ganj fidjer ein (5enie, 3540 

PicQeid^i n>o( gar bet Ceufel bin. 
2tun Iieute Ztadit — ? 

JPas gel^t bxdts an ? 

Eicib xdi bod? meine 5^eu&e &ranl 

Tim 23runnen* 

(Sretc^en tinb £tesc^en mtt Kriigen. 

^aji nid^ts von Sdrbeldien gcI|ort ? 

Kein tt?ort. 3d? fomm gar n^enig unter £eute. 3545 


(SetoVi, SibyUe fagf mtrs iievite ; 
Die itat pdi enMidi cmdi bet^ort. 
©as ijl bos Vorndtmii^an I 




€5 jHnft I 
5ie ffittert jwei, iDcnn fk nun t§t vnb trinft 

2tcli 1 3550 

So ijls iljr enMidj red^t crgangen. 

XDie lange liat fie an l)em Kerl get|angen, 

2)05 roar ein Spasieren, 

2tuf Dorf un& Can5pla^ ful|ren 1 

2Tlu§f iiberaQ t)ie erjie fein, 355s 

(Eurtefirt' tt|r imnter mit pajietd^en un6 tt?ein ; 

Bil^'t jtdj iDOS ouf il^re Sd^onl^eit ein, 

Wac bodt fo el^rlos, fid? nidjt 3U fd^cimen, 

(Befd^enfe pon iljm anjunelimen. 

VOat ein <5ef of un& ein (Befd^Ied 1 3560 

Da iji &enn and? feas Sliimd^en toeg 1 


Das arme Ding I 


Sebouerfl fie nod? gar ! 
IDenn unfer eins am Sjnnnen tx>ar, 


Uns Zladits 6ie Vfbxtter nxdit Iiinunterlieg, 

Stcaib jte hex il|rem Suljlen jug. 3565 

2luf 5er (CI|iirbcmf un& im bunfein (5ang 

XDari) ilinen feme Stunbe 3U lattg. 

Sa mag fie benn ^di bucfen nun, 

3nt 5iiniiert|em&d^en Ktrd^bu§* tf|un I 

(Er nimmt jte Qewi% ju femer 5tau. 3570 


€r u>dr' ein ZTarr I €in flinf er 3ung 
fjat onbertD&rts nod? £uft genung. 
fir iji audj fort. 


Sos ijl nidit fdron 1 


Kriegt fie iljn, foils il^r ubel gel|n 1 

Dos Krdnjel reigen Me Suben x^v, 3575 

Unb ^dcf erling fhreuen u>tr por bie Cl^iir ! 

©retdjen nadf ^aufe gcfjenb. 
IDie fount id? fonjl fo taj?fer fdimSI|Ien, 
IDenn tl|dt ein armes ZltdgMein f eljlen I 
IDie fount xdt uber anbrer Smben 
Zlxdit VOotte gnug 6er gunge fin&en I 3580 

IDie fd^ien mirs fd^wars unb fd^wdrst's nodj gar, 
Znirs immer 6od^ nidjt fd^mars gnug u>ar 
Hub fegnef mid? un6 tf^at fo gro§ I — 
Unb bin nun felbjl 6er Sunbe blog 1 
3>odi — olles was ba^a midj trieb, 358s 

(5ott, wac fo gut ! adi, wax fo Reb 1 

1 66 FAUST. PART I. 

3n ber UTauerfjoIjIe etn 2lnbac^tsbtlb ber Mater dolorosa, 

BIumenMgc baoor. 

(5retdjen flecft frifc^e Blumcn in bie Kriige. 
2tdj ncigc, 

Du 5djmer3enmd]e, 
J)ein 2lntlife gnWig mdner Zlotii I 
7><xs Sdiwevt hn JEjei^cn, 3590 

2Tlit toufcnft Sdimersen 
BHcfji auf 5U beines Sol^nes Cob. 

Sum 2?ater BKcfjl l)u 

Unb Seuj^er fdiirfjl bu 

^tnauf um fern' un5 6eme Xtotlj. 359s 

Wet fvkkt, 

Wk voiOiUt 

Vet Sdimcrj mir im (Sebein ? 

XDos mein arm^s J^ers I)ier banget, 

ZDos cs sittert, voas oerlanget, 3^00 

tt?ei§t nur irx, nur bu aHem ! 

XJOolixn xdi immcr gcl^e, 

IDie weiif tote tt?el|, tx>ie t»el|e 

XOitb trtir im Sufert t|ier I 

3cti bin adi foum oHcitte, 360s 

3cfl tt>ein\ id? tocin', xdi voexne, 

2)05 ^ers 3crbrid|t irt mir. 

©ie Sd^crbert vot metnem 5^njier 

53etl|aiit* id| mit Cl^rdnen, acf^ 1 

2tl5 id| am fruB|en ZHorgert 3610 

Sir biefe 3Iume»t brad?. 


Sdixen B^ell in metne Kammer 

Die Sonne frulj f|erauf, 

S<x% xdt in allem 3ammer 

yx meinem ^ctt \dion oaf. 36x5 

fjilf I rette mxdi von Sdimadi xmb tCoi I 

Tldi neige, 

Su Sdjmersenreid^e, 

Dein 2lntlife gndl)ig meiner TXotli I 


Strage t>or <gret(^ens Cfjiir. 

X>alentin, Solbat, (Sretd^cns 33ruber. 

IDenn id? fo fa§ bei 'em (5elag 3620 

IDo mand^er jtdj beruE|men mag 

Unb &ie (Befellen mir ben 5Ior 

Ser Zndgblein lout gepriefen por, 

Znit PoUem (Bias ftas Cob oerfd^roemmt ; 

Den €IIebogen aufgeftemmt, 3625 

Sa% xdi in meiner ftdjem Swl|, 

fjort* att i)em Sd^toabroniren 3U. 

Urxb jhreid^e Idd^Ienb meinen Sart 

Vinb friege bos polle (Bias 5ur ^anb 

Unb fage : utiles nad? feiner 5lrt I 3630 

2lber ift eine im gansen £an5, 

Die meiner trauten ^retel gleidjt, 

Die meiner Sd^roejier bos tt?affer reid^t? 

Cop I Cop I Kling 1 Klang I bos ging l^erum I 

Die einen fd^rieen : (£r iiat Hed^t 3^35 

Sie ijl bie ^m pom ganjen (Sefd^Ied^t I 


7>a fagen oHe bic £ober jhimm. 

Unb nun 1 — urns fjaar jtd? aus5uraufcn 

Unb an ben tO&nbm Ijinauf^ulaufcn 1 

TXlxt Stidjelrebcn, Zta\exnmpfen 3640 

Son jcber Sdjurfe midj bcfdiimpf^n 1 

Son toie cm bofer 5d^uI5ner jtfeen, 

Set jefeem ^^f ^Q^tt^Srtdjcn fd^toifeen 1 

Xbxb mod^f idj jte 5ufammenfdimei§en — 

Konnf xdi jte ^odj nidjt Cugner I^et^en. 364s 

IDos f ommt iietan ? IDos [djleidjt I^erbei ? 
3rr' idj mid^ nidit, es jtn5 itjrer 5tt>ei, 
3P ers, gleid? parf id? xfyi beim 5^IIe ; 
3oII nid^t lebenbig pon bev SteQe 1 

H>te von bent 5^nfler bort ber SaWjlci 3650 

Tbxfwdvis bet Sdiexn bes ewQen Cdntpd^ehs pSmmert 
Unb fd^roadj nnb fd|u>dd?er feitrodrts bdnimert, 
Unb 5tnflemi§ brdngt ringsum bet : 
So fiel^ts in meinem 23ufen ndd^tig. 


Unb mir ifls toie bent Kdfelein fdjmfidjfig, 3655 

2)05 an ben 5^uerleitem fdjleid^t, 

Sid? feif bann um bie 2Tlauem jhreidjt 

Zdxx ip5 gan^ tugenblid? babei, 

€in bisd^en Diebsgeffift, ein bisd^en Hammrfci, 

So fpuft mir fd?on burd? alle (Slieber 3660 

Sie Ijerrlid?e IDalpiurgisnad^t I 

J)ie !ommt utts iibetmtorgen roieber ; 

7>a ipei§ man bod? loarum man xoadit 


Hudt tool bev Sdtai^ mbe^m in &ie fjol^, 

Den idj 6ort lixnien fitmntem \eti ? 3665 


2)u fonnjl 6ic 5reu5e balb crfeben 
2)05 Keffeld^en I|eraus3ul|cbcn, 
yil fdjidte nenlidj fo I|tnein ; 
Sixib ifettlxdie £oa>ent^aIcr Sretn. 

J^^id^t cm (5efdjmei&c, ntdjt cm Hing, 3670 

Zneme Kebc Suljle 6amtt 3U siercn ? 

3d? fall babet tool fo dn Ding, 

2tl5 u)ie eine 2lrt von PcricnfdinCUrcn. 

So iji es red|t 1 ZlTir tB|ut es ix>el|, 

tt)enn idj oljnc (Sefdienfe 3U il|r gelj, 367s 


€5 font eud| cben nid^t oer&ricgcn, 
Umfonjl audi ^ttoas 5U gcniegen. 
3efet, ba bev ^immrf DoHer Stemc glxll^t, 
SoDt il|r ein u>al(rc5 Kunftfiild IjSten : 
3d| ftng \t(t cin moralifdj Ciet), 3680 

Um jte geipiffer ju bett|8rw. 

Singt 3ttr gt%r. 

tPas mad{{l bn mir 

Dor Ciebd^ens Cl^iir, 

Katl|rind|cn, Ijicr 

Sei frfitiem Cagcsblicf e ? 3685 


£ag, Ia§ es fein I 
(Er lafet 5id^ ein, 

2tl5 Jltabdien md|t jurficf e. 

Jl:el|mt eudj in Std^t I 3690 

3j^ ^5 ©oUbrad^t, 

Dann gnte ZXaiit, 

3t|r ormen, armcn Singer I 

Siabt iB|r cud? Ixeb, 

d|ut feincm J)ieb 3695 

2lur nid^ts ju £teb, 

2II5 mit &em Hing am Singer 1 

Dolentin trttt t>or, 
IDen locfji bu l|ier ? Seim (Element I 
Permolebeiter Hottenfdnger I 
Sum Ceuf el erfl bos 3njhniment I 3700 

gum (Ceuf el Ijintenirein &er Sanger 1 

J)ie 5itB|er iji en^ei I an &er ijl nidits 3U I^alten. 

2tun foil es an ein Sdjabelfpalten I 

2nepI|iflopI|eIe5 3U ^auji. 
fjerr doctor, nid^t geu>id^en ! 5tifdj ! 
^art an midj an, roie id^ eud? ffll|re ! — 3705 

£)erau5 mit eurem 5fe&^npifd? I 
2tur jugejiogen 1 idi parire. — 

parire ben I 


XDarum bemt nidjt ? 


Tbxdt ben I 

(5evox% I 


3d? glaub, bev Cmf cI ftd^t I 
Wasr^bennbas? Sdjon toirfe We fjanb mir loljm. 3710 

2ncpI|tjiopI|de5 3tt ^Jauji. 
Stog 3U ! 

Pafentin fSHt. 


Zlnn tji 6er Cummel jal^ I 
Ztan ahet fort I Wrx mujfen gfeid? oerfd^tpinben : 
Demt fd^on cntj!cB|t ein morbcrlidi (Bcfdird. . 
3d| n>ri§ mid? treff lid? tntt bet poIt3et, 
2>odi mit bem Slutbann fd?fed|t mid? absufm&en. 3715 

Zdattlie am ^enjier, 
^crausl J^erausI 

(5rctd?en am ^n^er. 
^erbei ein £td?t ! 

2TlartI|e wk obcn. 
JTlan fd?ilt un& rauft man, fdjreit unl) ftd?t. 

7>a liegt fd?on cmcr tobt 1 

ZHartlie tjeraustretenb. 
©ie TXlixbev, jtnb fie &enn entflot^n ? 


(Rvetdten Ijeraustretenb. 
XDev fiegt iikv ? 

Vcvnev TXbxttex Sofyi. 3720 

MmddiVgev I iDdd^ 2tott| I 


3d? jierbc I bos ijl baI5 gefagt 

Unb bdlber nod? gettjan. 

XDos jieB|t il^r IDcibcr, I^cult un6 Hagt ? 

Kommt ^cr unb I?5rt midi an 1 372s 

Wit treten nm tl^n. 
ZHm (Brctdjcn, firf| I bu bifl nod? jung, 
Sift ^ar nodj nidit gefd^cit gcnung, 
ZHad^jl feeine Sadden fd|Iedjt. 
3d| fag feirs im Vetttauen nur ; 
J)u bijl nun einma( cine ^tir ; 3730 

So fete audi ehen red?t. 

2Tldn Sru&er I (Sott I tt?a5 foil mir bos ? 


£a§ unfcm ^errgott aus bem 5pa§ ! 

(5cfdjei|n ijl lei&er nun gcfd?el?n, 

Un5 ix>te cs gel?n fann, fo xvxtbs gel?n. 3735 

3)u ftngji mit (£tnem I^eimlidj an, 

BaI6 fommen it^rer ntel^re bran, 

Unb mcnn bid? crjl ein j)ufeen5 B^at, 

So l)at bxdi cxud? bie gan3e Stabt 


Xt)cnn crjl fete Sdjanbe u>ir6 geboren, 3740 

Wxxb jte iieimlidj 3ur IDelt gebxadtt 

Unb man siel^t ben Sdikwv bet Xladtt 

y^iv fiber Kopf unb 0B|ren ; 

3a man mod^te jte gem ermorben. 

Wadfi jte aber unb madjt jidi grog, 374s 

Dann geljt jte andi bei Cage blog, 

Unb ijl bod^ ntdjt fd^Sner getporben. 

3e li&pdier ipirb %tit <Bepd)t, 

3^ mel^r fud|t jte bes Cages tidit 

3di fell roal^rBiaftig fd|on bie ^ext, 3750 

J)a§ aHe brape Siirgersleut, 

HMe von etner angejlecften Cetdien, 

Oon bir, bu ZHefee I feitab roeidjen. 

J)ir foil bas fjers tm Cetb persagen, 

tt>enn jte bir in bie 2tugen fel|n 1 3755 

SoQjl f eine golbne Kette mef^r tragen ! 

3n ber Kird^e nid^t mel^r am 2Utar jiei|n 1 

3n einem fd^onen Spifeenfragen 

J)id| nid|t beim ^rx^ tool bel^agen I 

3n eine finjlre 3<»tiwiterecfen 376<^ 

Unter Settler unb Krflppel bid? i?erflecf en 

Unb toenn bir bamt andt (Sott perjeilit, 

2luf <£rben fein permalebeiti 

BefeI|It enre Seele (Soft 3U ^rxaberx 1 
WoVii il^r nod? Cdjirung auf eud| laben ? 3765 

Konnf xdt bit nur an ben biirr^n Ceib, 
Su fd^anblid) Inpplerifdies IDeib 1 


J)a I|offt' id^ oiler mciner Smben 
Vexgebnng texdie Z(la% ju fm&en. 

TXlexn Sruber I Weldie QoIIcnpdn ! 3770 

3d| fage, lag feie Qiratten fern I 
Va 5u bidi fpradift bet €t|re los, 
(Bobft mir bm fcftroetilen Ejcrsensjiofe. 
3di gel^e b\vc<i( ben Co&csfdjlaf 
Su (Sott em als Solbat unb brao. 3775 



2lmt, 0rgel nnb (Sefang* 
<5 r e t d? e tt untcr oielem Dolfe, 35fcr<5eift I^tnter 


Sofer (Sex% 
Wxe axxbets, (Rtetdien,- wat bvcs, 
Tils b\x rxodt voU Vin^dtvib 
£ixet jum 2lltar tratjl, 
3tu5 &em ©ergriffnen Sudiddien 
(5ebete laHteji, 3780 

fjalb Kinberfptefe, 
^olb (5ott im ^ersen, 
(Sretdicn I 

Wo flel^t bein Kopf ? 

3n dement fjcrsen 3785 

Setp bu fiir bcincr Zltutter Seele, bxe 


J)urd) bxdt 5ur langen, langen pcin I^inuber fd^Iicf ? 

2tuf bctner 5d]u>cIIc toeffcn Slut? 

— Unb utttcr bcincm fjcrsen 3790 

Hegt ftd^s nid^t qutllenS fd)on I 

Unb dngjiet bxdt un5 jtd^ 

Znit aBinungspoUer (Segenmart ? 


Wat' xdi bet (Sebanien los, 3795 

Die mir I^criiber unb Ijmiiber gcB^en 
XDibcr mid^ 1 

Dies irae, dies ilia 
Solvet saeclum in favilla. 

Sofor (5eijl. 

(Srtmm fagt bid? I 3800 

7>xe pofaune tSnt I 

2)ic (Brdbcr beben 1 

Unb bein £iet^, 

Thxs 2lfd|enrulj 

Su 5Icimmenquafen 3805 

ZDieber aufgcfd)affcn, 

23cbt ouf I 

iDdr' xdi fyex tx>^g I 
ZlTir iji als ob bie ®rgcl mir 
2)cn 2ltf|em x)crfcfete, 3810 

iSefang tnetn ^crj 
3m Ciefjien lojle. 




Judex ergo cum sedebit, 

Quidquid latet, adparebit, 

Nil inultum remanebit. 381s 

TXlvc toxxb fo eng I 

Vie ZlTauempf eifer 

Scf angen mtdi I 

©05 <5err>6Ibc 

Srdngt mi* 1 — £uft ! 3820 

Vethvtg bicft 1 5un5 un5 5d?an&e 

Sleibt nxdit vexbovgm. 

£uft? Cid^t? 

tt?cli Mr 1 


Quid sum miser tunc dicturus ? 382s 

Quem patronum rogaturus ? 
Cum vix Justus sit securus. 

So[er (5#» 
y^t 2tntUfe toenben 
X)crHdrte von bxv ab. 

©ie ^anbe bvc 3U rdd?cn, 3830 

Sd^aucrts t)en Heinen 1 

Quid sum miser tunc dicturus ? 


Xladihavxn I (gucr Sl^^didien I — 
Ste faUt in (Dkrimad^t 



(Scgcitb ©on Sc^terfe unb €fenb. 
^aujl. inepl|ijlopljeIes. 

Vevlatigflt bn ntdjt nadi etnem ScfenjHele ? 3835 

3dj u>unfd?te mtr ben atterbcrbjlen Sod. 
2luf biefem IDeg finb roir nod? roeit pom Si^f^- 

So lang id? mid? nod? frifd? auf meinen Seinctt fiiljfe 

(Benixgt mir biefer Knotenjlod. 

IDos l:|ilft5, i>a§ man ben IDeg oerfur3t I ^ 3840 

3m Cabyrintli ber d|dler I|in3ufd?Ieid?en, 

J)ann biefen 5^If^n 3U erjieigen, 

Pon bem ber Quell fid? eiDtg fprubelnb jHirst, 

©OS iji bie £uji, bte foId?e pf abe rpur3t 1 

Der 5i^uI?Kng toebt fd?on in ben Sirfen 384s 

Unb felbjt bie 5i*te fut?It il?n fd|on 1 

Sollf er nid|t and? auf unfre (Slieber n?irfen ? 


Sixvwoliv, id? fa?fire nid?t5 baoon I 
TXlxt ift es tt)interlid? im Ceibe ; 



2^1 ujunfd^te Sdt^ee nnb S^o^ auf meiner 9al|n. 3850 

Wie traurig fteigt 6ie uttpollfominne Sdjeibe 

2)e5 rotljen ZHoribs mit fpdtcr (Blutl? Ijeran 

Unb Icudjtet fdifed^t, 5a§ man bet jebcm Sd^ritte 

X>or einen Saum, por etnen 5^Ifen rennt ! 

(Evlanb, ba% idj ein yctlxdit bxtte 1 3855 

J>ort fell lit eins, 605 eben lufHg breratt. 

^e ba I metn i^^eunb ! barf idj bid? ju uns foment ? 

Was wxl^t bvi fo Dergebens lobevn ? 

5ei bodj fo gut unb leudjt' uns ba I^inouf 1 

2lu5 €t|rfurdit, I|off idj, foH es mtr gelingen 3860 

2TI!ein leidites ZtatureD 3U stoingen ; 
Zlm sidfjadf gel|t gemo^nlidj unfer Cauf* 


© 1 ei I €r benfts 6en 2TJenfd?en nad?5ual|men. 

<5eif er nur grab ins Ceuf els ^amen 1 

Sonft blaf id? iE|m fein SlcLdwkben ous. 386s 


3d| merte mol, iljr feib ber J^err t)om ^aus 

Unb win mid? gem nad? end] bequemen. 

2tnein bebenft 1 ®er Serg ift l^eute saubertoD 

Unb u>enn ein 3rrlid?t eudj bie n)ege «>eifen fott, 

So mii^t iljrs fo genau nid)t nel^men. 3870 

ijauft, HTepI|tfiopI?eIes, 3«^>^^i^t ^"^ t0e(^felgefan9. 


3u bie tEraum* nnb 3<iuberfpl|dre 
Sinb voit, fd^eint es, eingegangen. 
Si^v" uns gut unb mad?' bir CB^re, 

SCENE XX. 179 

Va% wxv votwdxts bcdb gelangen 

3n &cn voextm oben Hdumen. 3875 


Sell' bw Sdume Ijinter Sdum^n, 

Wxe fie fdjneH poruberriicf en 

Unfe iie Klippen, Me pdi burfen 

Un5 Me Icmgen 5^Ifennafen, 

IDie fie fdinardjen, roie fie Wafen 1 3880 

©urd^ bie Sterne, bmdi ben Hafen 

€ilet Sadj unb Sdctjlein niefe^r. 

J^or' xdi Saufdjen ? I|5r' idi £xebet ? 

J^or' td^ I|oR)e CiebesHage, 

Stimmen jener ^immelstage? 3885 

„Was tx>tr I|offen, toos njtr Iteben 1" 

Urxb bos €djo, tote 6te Sage 

2tlter Seiten, t^oHet wxebev, 


m|u ! 5d?ul|u ! tdnt es ndB|er ; 

Kau3 mxb Kibife unt> 6er fjdljer, 3890 

Sinb jte oHe xoadi gebtteben? 

Sxtxb bos ZHoIdje bwcdis (5ejhrdud?e? 

Cange Seine, bide Sdudje I 

Unb bie ZDur5eIn, toie bie Sd^Iangen, 

XDinben fidj ous 5^5 unb 5an5e, 3895 

Streden ipunberlidje Sanbe, 

Hns 5U fd^reden, uns ju f angen ; 

21x15 belebten berben fttafem 

Streden fie polypenfafem 

Zladi bent ZDanbrer, linb bie ZHdufe 3900 


Caufcnbfdrbig, fdjaarentoeife, 

Vuxdi bas TXloos imb bwcdi bie J^et&e ! 

Unb bk 5unfcrn©urmer fiicgen 

Znit gebrdngtcn 5d|w?drme5ugen 

Sum t>eru>irren6en (Beleite. 3905 


Tiber fag' mir, ob wit jlel^en, ' 

®&cr ob tt>tr loeiter geiien ? 

TlHes, cdHes fd^eint 3U &rel|en, 

Sels unb Sdume, fete (Sepditer 

Sdinexben nnb bk irren Cid^ter 3910 

J)ie flct^ tncliren, t)te jtd? bldl^en, 


Saffe u>acf er meincn S^PM 1 

^ier tjl fo exn 2TJitteIgtpfeI, 

ZDo man mit (Erjiaunen firf|t, 

ZDie im Serg 6cr ZHammon gliil^t. 39x3 


XDte feltfam glimmert 6urdj bk <5xmbe 

<Em morgenrotlilidi tdibcr Sd|cin 1 

Unt) felbji bis in bie tiefen 5d?lun5e 

©es jtbgrunbs roittcrt er I^inein, 

Da jidgt ein Sampf, 6ort siel^cn Sdiwaben, 3920 

^icr leudjtet <5Iutl| aus J)unji un5 5ior, 

©onn fdifeid^t fic it>ie ein sartcr S<^bm, 

Vanti bxxdit fie roie cin Quell iievoov. 

^ier fd^Iingt jte eine ganse Strerfe, 

Znit I^un&ert Tlbem fidj feurdjs Cljal, 3925 

Unb likv in 5er get>rdngten €dfe 

Pereinselt fte pd? ouf einmol. 

SCENE XX. i8i 

Da fprutjcn 5unfen in bev 2tdt|c, 

W\e ausgejheuter golbner Scaib. 

7>odi fdjau I in il^rcr gan^en ^otje 3930 

<£ni^nbet fidj 6ie 5^lfcntt>an&. 


(grfeudjtct nidjt 3U feiefcm S^jjte 

ffcrr IHammon prdd^tig l)cn palaji ? 

€in (5Iudf, bag bvCs gefet^en tjajl ! 

3di fpure fd|on bic ungejKimen (5djie. 393s 

IDic raP 6i^ Wmbsbvaat feurd? 5ie €uft I 
Znit toeld^en Sd^ldgcn trifft jte meinen 2Tacf en ! 


©u mugt fees 5«If«n5 altc Hippen pacfen, 

Sonjl fturst fte bid? l|inab in biefcr Sd^liinbe <5ruft. 

€in ZlcM v^vbxdiUt bxe Xlad\t 3940 

^5rC; roies burd? bie XDdlbcr fradit ! 

2lufgefdicudit fiiegcn bie (2iilen. 

^or' I es fplittem bie Sfiulcn 

€i©ig grflnec palSjie. 

(5irren unb Srcdjen ber Tie^e, 394s 

J)er Stdmme madjtigcs Dtofyxen, 

J)er It>ur3cln Knarrcn unb (5dl|ncn 1 

3itt furd^terlidi ocrroorrenen 5ciIIe 

Uebcr cinanber f rad^en jte alle 

Unb burdj bie ubertrummerten Klflfte 3950 

Sifd^en unb t|eulen bie Ciifte. 

^8rjl bvi Stimmen in ber i^olje ? 

3n ber 5^i^ne, in ber Ztdl^e? 


Coufcnfefdrbig, fdjaarenu>eife, 

Durd) bos ZlToos un5 burdj 5ie ^etoe 1 

Unb bxe 5unfenu>umter fliegen 

Znit gc&rdngten Sdiwdtmeyxqen 

gum pcnx)irren5en <5eleite. 390s 


Tibet fag' mir, ob wxv ^eiien, • 

®&cr ob tt>ir wetter geljen ? 

utiles, olles fd^eint 3U brel^en, 

5el5 vmb Sdume, bk ©ejidjter 

Sd^neiben unb bie irren Cidjter 3910 

J)ie fid) tnel^ren, We jtd) Wdt|en, 


Jaffe toader metnen §\pfd I 

fjier tjl fo ein IHittelgtpfel, 

ibo man mit (£rjiaunen pel|t, 

IDie im Serg 6er Znammon glilt|t 39x5 

IDie feltfam glimmert burdj Me (5run&e 

£in morgenrott|Bdi triiber Sdjein I 

Vinb felbji bis in 6ie tiefen Sdiliin&e 

Ses ^bgrunbs mittert er I^inein. 

2)a jleigt ein Sampf, bort sieljen Sd^wabeit; 3920 

^ier leudjtet <8IutI| aus J)unjl un6 5ior, 

®ann fd^Ieidjt jte roie ein sarter 5<»ben, 

Sann brid^t jte roie ein QueH iietvov. 

^ier fd^Iingt fie eine gan^e Stredfe, 

Znit I^unbert Tlbetn fid? burdjs Cljal, 3925 

Vinb ^ier in ber gebrdngten (£dfe 

Pereinjelt fie pd) auf einmal. 

SCENE XX. i8i 

Da fpriilien Junfen in bet Zldlie, 

XOk aus^ejhcuter got6ncr Sanb. 

Vodt fdjau I in il|rer gcai^m ^oI|c 3930 

€nt3un5ct fid| &ie 5^If^ntt>an&. 


(grieudjtct nidjt 5U Mefcm 5^^^ 

Siext ZHammon prad^tig 5en Palaji ? 

(gin (Slucf ; 6a§ bvCs gcfel|cn liajl 1 

3di fpure fdion bic ungejKimcn <5dj!e. 3935 

IDie rajl bie IDinisbraut burdj 5ie €uft I 
Znit meldien Sd^lSgen triff t fie mcinen Zlacf en ! 


2)u mu§t bes S^If^ns alte Hippen paden, 

Sonjl fturst jte ^idj hiinab in liefer 5d|lun6e (Sruft. 

(£in Ztcbel pcr^id^tet 5ie Ztad]t. 3940 

Sieve f roies feurd) &ie W&lbcv ttadit ! 

2lufgefdieudit fiiegcn bk (Eulen. 

^or' 1 es fplittem bie SSuIen 

€tDig gruncr paldfle. 

(5irren unb Sred^en 5er Tte^e, 394s 

J)er Stdmme mdditiges Droljnen, 

Der IDxirscIn Knarren unb (Bdl^ncn 1 

3m furd|terlictj t>errt)orrenen SoUe 

Uebev einan&er f rad^en fie olle 

Unb bmdi bw ubertriimmerten Kffifte 3950 

Sifd^en unb I|eulen bxe Cufte. 

^orjl 6u Stimmen in bet J^ol^e ? 

3n bcv 5eme, in 6er Zldtte ? 


3ci/ ^en gansen Serg enttang 

StrSmt ein roull^ber 5<»i6^J^g^<Jtt9 1 3955 

Die Qejen 5U 5em ^rorfen jidin ; 

J)ie Stoppel iji gelb, i)ie Saat iji grfln. 

2)ort fammelt fidj &cr gro§e ^ouf ; 

^err Urion jtfet oben auf. 

So gciit es fiber Stein ixnb Sto J. 3960 

(gs f — t 6ie ^ef e, es fhnft 6er SoA 

2)ie alte Soubo f ommt oHein ; 
Sie rcttet auf etnem Zn^erfdiroem. 

So el^re benrt, tocm €Iir' gebulirt I 
5rau Saubo por I un5 angeful^rt I 3965 

(Ein tudjtig SdjtDein unt) 2Tlutter brauf, 
2)a folgt bet ganse ^ejenl|auf . 

It)elcl?en XDeg f ommfl 6tt I^r ? 


Uebem 3Ifenjlem I 
Da gudft' id^ ber €ule hts ZTeJi I^tnem ; 
Die madif ein paar 2lugen I 


(D f o^re 5ur £}otte I 3970 
Was reit'P l)u fo fd)neae ? 

2nidr ^at pe gcfdiunben, 
3)a peBj nur bie XOnnben I 

SCENE XX. 183 

3)er XDeg ijt brett, bcr IDcg iji lang I 

XDos tjl bos fiir ein toiler ©rang ? 3975 

2)fe (Babrf fUd?t, ber Scfen frafet, 

Dos Ktn5 erjKd t, bie ZlTuttcr plafet. 

^cfcnmeijier. ^albes (£B|or. 
a?ir fdilcidjen wk bie Sdincrf im Qaus ; 
J)ie ibciber alle fin5 ooraixs. 
Venn grf|t es 5U ies SSfen Qous, 3980 

Das IDcib l^at taufeni Sdjritt ©oraus. 

Tlnbte fjaifte. 

XDir ncI|Tnen 6a5 nxdit \o gcnau, 

Ztlit taufenl) Sdivxtten madits bic 5rau ; 

Sodj iDtc fte oud) fidj etfen fann, 

Ztlit €inem Sprung^ madits &er Znann, 398s 

Stimme oben. 
Kommt tnit, fommt mit, 00m 5clfenfee I 

Stimmen von unten. 

tt>ir moditen gerne mit in bie Q6I^\ 

XDir roafdjcn un6 blanf pnb roir gans uni) gar, 

Jtber aud^ eipig unfrud^tbar. 

Seifte Ct|8re. 
(gs fd^tDcigt bet XOxnb^ es f[iel|t ber Stem, 3990 
Z)cr trfibe ZlToni) perbirgt [xdi gem ; 
3m Sarx^en fprfll[t bas gauberd^or 
XHd taufenb 5^uerfunfen t|erpor» 

Stimme ©on ttnten. 
£}altcl fjaltel 


Stimmc port oBen, 
ZDer tuft ba cms 5er 5df^nfpalte ? 3995 

Stimme nnUn. 

Zteiimt midi mit I ^el^mt midj mit ! 
3d? fteige fd^on l)reil?un6ert 3al?r 
Vinb tann ben (5ipfel nid^t erreid|cn. 
3dj mdre gem bet metnes <5Ieid?en. 

Seibe CEjore. 

€5 trdgt ber Sefen, trdgt 6er Stodf, 4000 

J)te (5abel trdgt, es tragt 6er SocF ; 
Wet tjeute fid? nidjt t|eben fcaxn, 
3ft eipig ein t>erIomer ZHann. 

J^olb^eje urtten. 
3d? tripple nad?, fo lange g^W ; 
Wxe finb 6te anbem fd?on fo toeit 1 4005 

3d? I?aJ)' 3tt ^aufe feine Hut? 
Unb fomme l?ter bod? ntd?t ba^. 

(EI?or 5er JE?ef en. 

Ste Salbe gibt ben Steven ZHutE?, 

€in £umpen tft 5um Segel gut, 

<£tn gutes 5d?iflf tft jeber tErog ; 4010 

2>er fSeget nie, bet lieixt ntd?t flog. 

Set6e (£I?ore. 

Un5 tr>entt voxt um 5en (Btpfel 3tel?rt, 
So f!retd?et an bem Sofcen i?m, 
Unb bedPt We £?ei5e toett unb brett 
2Tltt eurem Sditoatm bet f?ejenl?eit 1 4015 

5te laffen ftc^ nteber. 

SCENE XX. 185 

7>a5 brdngt nnb fiSgt, bos rufd^t un5 flappcrt ! 

5)as 3ifd?t unb quirit, feos 3ielit un5 plappert I 

J)a5 feud^tct, fprut)t unt) jHnft unb bremtt ! 

(Ein K)aB^rc5 ^ejenelcment I 

Jftur f efl an niir 1 fonji finb mir gfeid^ getrennt. 4020 

5auft in ber ;Jcrne, 


XDos I bort fd^on Ijingerijfcn ? 
2)a tr>er5' xdi J^ausrcdit braud^en muffcn. 
plafe! 3un!er Volarib tommt plafe! fa§er pobel, 

J^ier, Sector, fajfe mxdi 1 nnb nnn in €incm Sa% 
£ag uns aus 5cm (Bebrdng enttpcid^cn , 402s 

(£s ijl 3U ton fogar fur meincs (Blcid^en, 
Sort nebcn Icud^tet was mit gans bcfonbrcm Sdiein, 
(£5 jtelit midj roos nad| i^n^ 5trdud|en. 
Komm, f omm I tt>ir fd^Iupfcn ba Ijinein. 

X)u (5eift bes XDtberfprudjs I 2tur 3U 1 i>\x magji midj 
fiil^rcn I 4030 

3dj benfe bodi bas toat redjt Hug gcmadjt: 
Sum Srorfcn n>anbfen u>ir in bcr XDalpurgisnad^t 
Mm uns beliebig nun I|iefelbji 3U ifoliren. 

t>a fxeli nur n>eld?e bunte 5Icitnmcn I 
€5 ifl ein muntrcr Klub beifammcn. 4035 

I 3m Kleinen iji man nid^t aQein. 


Dodj bvoben mSd^t id^ Itcber fctrt I 

Scfton fet|' td| (Shx&i nnb XDirbelrcmdi. 

^ort jhromt bie Vflenge 3U &em Sofen ; 

3a mu§ jtdi mandjes Hdtfifel lofen. 4040 

2)odi mandies Sdtlifd fnupft ftd? cmdj, 

£a§ l)u bie gro§e JPelt nur faufen I 
, XDir woUen I^ier im Stitten Ijoufcn- 
\ <£s ijl fcodi langc itevgabtadit, 
{ Sag in 6cr gvo^m tt)dt man Heine XDcIten madit. 4045 

3a felj' idi junge ^cj d^en nacFt un6 blog 

Unb alte, 5ie ftdj flug vevitnUen, 

Sexb freunWidj, nur um meinctoiHen I 

Sic Zniilj iii Hein, 6cr Spag ifl grog. 

3di I|Src n>a5 pon 3njhrumenten toncn 1 405© 

Vevfindtt <5e\<itnatv I ZHan mug ftdj 6ran gewoiinen. 

Komm mit I Komm mit I €5 fann nidit an6ers fcin, 

3dj tret' l|eran un6 fuljre 6idj therein 

Hn5 idi vevbitxbe bxdi aufs ncue. — 

Was fagjl l)u, 5^eun& ? bas i|t fein ffetner Haum. 4055 

3)a jtetj nur I|in I bn jtclifl bas €nt)e faum. 

€in I|un6ert 5^uer brcnnen in bet Hcilie ; 

TXlan toxi^, man fdjipafet, man fod^t, man trinft, man 

Ztun fage mir, n)o es tt>a5 Seffers gibt ? 


tDinp bu 6id| nun, um uns lixev exn^fulftm, 
2II5 gaubrer ober Ccufcl probuciren ? 


SCENE XX. ig; 

Stoar bin xdt \eiit gcwoiint incognito 5U qefyi ; 

Dodj Id§t am (BaDatag man fcinen 0r6cn fel|n. 

€in Knicbanb scidjnct mid? nid?t aus, 

J)odj ijl 6cr pfer5efu§ Ijicr el|rcnPott ju ^aus. 4065 

Sictifi 5u bie Sdjn^e ba? Sk tommt i^crongcfrodfen ; 

Znit it^rem iafien5«n ^cfkiit 

^at jte mir fdjon was db gerodjen. 

ibenn xdt (xvidt roiC, pcrldugn' xdi iiiet mid? nid?t. 

Komm nnr 1 I?on 5^uer geE|en xx>\x 5U 5^uer ; 4070 

^di bin 6er XDerber un& 5u bijl 6er 5reicr. 

gu etntgcn, bte urn oerglimmcnbe Koljlen p^n. 
3l|r olten ^erm, toas mad]t il?r I?ier am €ni)c ? 
3dj lobt* cud?, ujcnn id? eud? I^ubfd? in &er ZHitte fdn&e, 
t>on 5au5 umsirft mib 3ugcn6brau5 ; 
(genug oDcin ift jc&er ja su fjaus. 407s 


I IDer mag auf Ztotionen trou^n 1 

ZTlan E|abc nod? fo ©id fiir fte gctf^an; 
, 3)enn bci'6em Volt, wie bei &cn 5raucn, 
, 5td|t immcrfort fcie 3ugen6 obcnan. 


3cfet ifl man von ben Hcdjten aHsutocit, 4080 

3d? lobe mir 5ie guten 2Utcn ; 
©enn frcilid?, 6a wvc aSies galten^ 
2)a war &ie rcd?te golbne S^it. 


ZDir toarcn toal^rlid? aadi nid?t 5umm 

tlnb tijaten oft, toas wir nid?t foUten ; 4085 


2)od| jcfeo Uiivt jtdj dies um un6 um 
Hub ebcn 5a roirs fe^ crl|altcn tx>oHtcn. 

VOev mag tool uberljaupt jefet cine Sdjrift 
Port mdgig Hugem 3^^^*^ k\en 1 
Un5 mas bas Ixebe junge Polf betrifft, 4090 

Vas ijl nod^ nie fo nafetoeis ge«>c|en. 

ber auf ctttmal fcljr alt erfc^etnt. 
Sum jungjlen Cag fuiiV xdi bas Volt gcrcift, 
Da id? 3um lefetenmal 5cn fjc^ enbcrg crfteige ; 
Vinb toeil mcin 5a6d:ien triibc lauft, 
5o ijl bie XDcIt aud? auf 6cr Ztctge. 4095 

3I|r ^erren, gcBjt nid^t fo porbei I 

£a§t bie (5elegenljeit ntdjt fal:|rcn ! 

2lufmerffam blidt nadj meincn Waatm 1 

€s jlel|t balmier gar mandierlei. 

Unb bodi ijl nid^ts in mcinem taben 4100 

J)em feiner auf 6er €r5e gfeidit, 

J>as nidit einmal sum tud?tgen Sdiaben 

Dcr ZHcnfdjcn unb bev Welt gcreidit. 

Kdn Sold? ijl I)ier, ©on 5em ntd?t Slut gcflloffcn, 

Kein Keldj, aus bem jtd? nidjt in gans gcfunbcn Ccib 410s 

Vev^eiivenb I^ei^es (5ift ergoffen, 

Kcin Sd?mud, b^r md?t cin lteben5tt)ilr&ig IDcib 

VevfiXiitt, fcin Sdju^crt bas nidjt 6en Sun6 gcbrod?cn, 

^id?t etu>a I^interrfids ben (Begenmann burdj^odjcn. 

Srau ZHuE^me 1 ftc i>crftel?t mir fd?Ied?t &ie geiten. 4110 

SCENE XX. 189 

Pcrleg' pe pdj auf Ztcuigf eiten I 
2ftur Hcutgfeiten stel^n uns an. 

Da§ idj ntidi «ur ntd^t fdbji ccrgeff^ ! 

fjeife' idi mir feas fcodj cine 2TJeffc I 4"s 


©er gan5c Strubel prcbt nadj oben ; 

7>n glaubji 3U fdiiebcn unb bu rotrft gefdjobcn. 

Wet iji bcnn bas ? 


^trad)te {te gcnau I 
£xl\tll i<i 6a5. 



2lbam5 erjie 5tau, 
Zlintm &idj in 2td?t t>or iljrcn fd^onen Ejaaren, 4120 

Por 6icfem Sdjntudf, mit 5em pe dn5ig prangt I 
IDenn jte bamit ben jungcn ZHann erlangt. 
So Ici^t pc iB|n fo balb nidjt roieber fal|ren. 

Da fi^cn ^wex, bxe 2llte mit bev 3ungen ; 

Die l|aben fd^on was Hedjts gefprungen I 412s 

Dos iiai nun I|eute feine Hull. 
€5 gel|t 3um neuen Cans 1 Xlmx fomm, tx>ir greifen ju. 


5auft tntt bet 3ttngen tan^nb, 
(ginjl I^att' xdi einen fd^oncn Craum ; 
Da \ait idj einen ^Ipfelbaum, 
Stoei fdione 2tepf el gKnsten bran ; 4130 

Sie reijten miii, id\ ftieg t^inan. 

Die 5d)one. 
©er 2tepf eld^en begclirt ti|r fel^r 
Unb fdjon t>om parabiefe I|cr. 
t>on 5i^cubcn ffty* id? rmdi bewegi, 
Dag aud? mem <5attm foldje trdgt ! 413s 

TXle^iiX^opildes mit ber 2IIten. 

(ginft I^att* lit ^en wfljlen (Eraum ; 
Da fa^ id? eiwn gefpaltnen Saum, 

Der J^atf em 

So — es u>ar, geftel mirs bod?. 

Die 2tlte. 

3di bicte meinen bejien (Sru§ 4140 

Dem Hitter mit &em pf erbefug 1 

J^alf er einen bereit, 

IDemt er nid^t fdieut 

Derfiudites Volt I ir>a5 unterjleB^t it|r eud? ? 
fjat man eud? lange nid^t beroiefen, 414s 

(Ein (Seip fteEjt nie auf orbentlidjen 5ugen ? 
Ztun tan$t it^r gar uns an5ern ZHenfd^en gleid? I 

Die Sdidne tanjeitb. 
VOas xoxVi berat ber auf unferm SaH? 

SCENE XX. 191 

5auP tansenb. 

€1 1 bet iji eben ubcrall. 

Was anbve tanierXf mug cr fd?5fecn; 4150 

Kann cr ntd^t j^bcn Sd^ritt bcfdjipafeen, 

So ijl ber Sct)ritt fo gut als nid^t gefdjeB|n. 

2lm meijim Srgcrt it|n fobalb loir oortoarts gefyx. 

Wetm tt|r cud| fo im Kreife brcljen tooHtet, 

XDte ers in fetner altcn ZHuIiIe tfyxtf 4155 

©05 Ijieg cr ollenf alls nod^ gut ; 

Sefonbers, toenn il|r il|n barum begrugen folltet 


3I^r fd5 nodi immer ba I Zlcin, bos iji unerI|ort. 
X>erfdj«>mbet 6odi I rotr I^aben ja auf geHdrt 1 
2)05 Ceufd5potf, es frogt nodj fetner Hegel : 41^ 

XDir fin5 fo fhig unb bennod^ fpufts in Cegel 
Zt>ie longe l|ob* idj nid?t om XDai(n tjinousgefel^rt 
ttnb nie wxxbs rein ; bo5 ijl bodi unerBjort I 

J)ie 5d)6ne. 
So liovt bodt <^f ^^^ ^^^^ 3^ enniiYiten ! 


2dt fogs eudj <5eijiem ins (Beftd^t: 416s 

J)en (Beijtesbefpotismus leib' idj nid^t ; 
ZHein (5eifi fonn iljn nid^t ef erciren. 

(Es ipirb fort3etan5t. 
Qeut, fetj* xdi, wiU mir nid^ts gelingen ; 
Sod^ eine Heife nel|m id? immer mit 
Unb I^offe nod? t)or meinem lefeten Sdjritt 4170 

Die Ceufel unb bie Vidftev ju be3U)ingen, 


(Er wxtb jtdj gleidj in erne pfufee fefeen, 

©05 ift bxe 2trt, roic cr ftd? foulagtrt, 

Vinb menn 23IutcgeI fidj an feinem Steig ergefeett, 

3jt er port (5eijiem un5 t>on (5eifi curirt 4175 

gu ^aufl, bcr aus bem Cans getreten ijl. 
IDos Idffeft bu bas fd^one Vfidbdien faljren, 
2)05 Mr jum Cons fo Reblid^ fong ? 

2td| ! mitten im (Sefonge fprong 

(£in rotI|e5 2Tldn5ct|en it^r ous 5cm 2Tlun&e, 


' 2)o5 tjl tD05 Hed^ts 1 ©o5 nimmt mon nid^t genou 1 4180 
(5enug 6ie 2Ti!ou5 roor bod^ nid)t grou, 
IDer frogt bomodi in einer Sd^dferftunbe ? 

J)onn foil idj — 



2nepI|ijio, ftel)ft 5u bort 
€in bIoffe5, fdjones Kinb oUcin unb feme ftel^en ? 
Sie fdjiebt jtdj longfom nur pom (Dvt, 4185 

5ie jdjeint mit gefd^Iofenen S^%en 5U geljem 
(3<i) tnu§ befennen, bo§ mir bdud)t, 
{ J)o§ jte bem guten (Bretd^en gleid^t 


Cog bos nur fleljn I Dobei n>irb5 niemonb tool. 

€5 ift ein gouberbilb, ift leblos, ein 3bol. 4190 

SCENE XX. 193 

y:im 3U begegncn ijl nidjt gut. 

Pom jiarren SHcf erjtarrt bcs 2Tlcnfdjen Slut 

lint) er iPtrb faft in Stein Dcrfet^rt: 

2?on ber 2Ti!e5ufc I^aji bu ja gel^Srt. 

5unx>af^r es jtnb bie 2tugen cincr Cobten, 4195 

Die eine liebenbe Ejanb nid^t fd^Io^. 
Dos iji 6ie Brujl, bie <5retd)en mir geboten, 
©05 iji ber fii§e Ceib, ben xdi genog. 


Dos iji bie ^^^lubcrei, bu leid^t vet^ut^ttev Ct^or ! 
Venn jebem fontmt fie mie fein Ciebdjen t>or. 4200 


TOeldi eine Zt)onne I toeld? ein Ceiben ! 

3dj fann von biefem Blicf nid^t fdieiben. — 

IDie fonberbar — mn% biefen fd^onen J^als 

<£in ein5ig retires Sdjniirdien fd^miicfen, 

rtid^t breiter ols ein 2Tlefferrucf en 1 4205 


<5an3 red^t ! id^ \eii es ebenf alls ; 

Sie fann bos fjaupt audi unterm ^rme tragett, 

2)enn perfeus iiats iB|r abgefd^Iagen. — 

Zlm inrnter biefe Cujl 3um IDal^n 1 

IContm bod^ bos fjugeld^en B|eran 1 4aio 

^ier ijis fo lujHg, u)ie im prater 

Unb liat man mirs nid^t angetE^an, 

So fe^ id? roaJirlid? ein Cl^eater. 

Was gibts benn ba ? 




(Skxdi fdngt man toiebcr an. 
€in neucs Stiicf , bos lefete Stiicf von fieben ! 4215 

So t>iel ju gcbcn iji affi^icr bev 23raud?. 
€m 3)ilettant I^at cs gcfd?rieben 
Unb Difettantcn fpielens aadi, 
Vetiexiit, il|r ^erm, ipenn id? t>erfditDint)e : 
Znid? I>iletttrt5 bm VoviiarxQ auf5U5tet|n. 4220 

Wetm xdi endt auf 6em Slocfsbcrg fht&e, 




(Dhetons unb Cttanias golbne i^od?3ett 


^eute rul|en toir einmal 

Znicdtngs wadte 5ot|ne. 

filter 23crg un& fendites CIjoI, 4225 

5)05 ifl bxe ganie Scene I 

7>a% bxe J^odiseit gol&cn fei, 

SoB'n furtj^g 3aljr fein ooriiber ; 

Tibet tji &er Streit porbet, 

Vas (Solben ijl mir Ixebex. 4330 


5ci6 U^r (Sextet too id? bin, 
So seigts in bicfcn Stunben I 
KSnig un5 &ie Konigin, 
Sic fm& aufs neu ©erbun&cn. 


Kommt bet Pucf unb breljt fxdi quer 423s 

Unb fdjfeift Sen Jufe im Seit|en ; 
Spxnbevt fommen I^mterljer, 
Stdj oudj mit il^m 5U freuen. 


2triel betoegt 5en Song . 

3n I|immHfdj reinen CSnen ; 4240 

VxeU 5tafeen locft frin Ulang, 

t>odt lodt er oud} 6te Sc^nen. 


(5atten We pdj oertrogen moHen, 

Cemens t>on uns beiben I 

tt>enn jtd? stoete Keben foUen, 424s 

]3raud}t man jte nur 3U fdieiben. 


Sct^moOt 5er ZlTonn un5 griOt i>te jt^^u 

5o f a§t jte nur beljenbe, 

SQiitt mtr nadi 5em ZHittag fie 

Unb ilin an Ztorbens €n5e. 4250 

©rdjejler. Culti. 

5Kegenfdinau3 unb JTlucf ennos 
2Tlit it^ren ^tnoerroanbten, 
5rofdj im Caub un5 (Brill im (Bros, 
Dos finb 5ie ZHufif anten I 

5el\t, ba f ommt bet 2)u5eIfacF I 4255 

€s ifl 5ie Seifenblafe. 


Vuxdi feme jhimpf e Xtaf e ! 

(5etp, bev ftdj erji bifoet. 

5ptnnenfu§ un5 Krotenbaudj 

Un6 Jlii^^Idien bent Wxdiidim I 4260 

^cDor em 0{ierd^en gibt es nidjt, 

7>odi gibt es ein (5el)td^td?en. 

€in pdrdien. 

Kleiner Sdjritt un6 I|oIjer Sprung 

Jhirdi Qonigttiau un5 J)ufte ; 

^rpar 5u trippeljl mir genung, 426s 

Vodt get{t5 nid^t in &ie Cilfte. 

Xteugieriger 2leifen6er. 

3jl bos nid^t Znosferabenfpott? 

SoU id? 5en 2lugen trauen? 

©beron 5en fd?onen (5ott, 

Thxdi I^eute t^ier 5U fd^ouen I 4270 


Keine Klauen, feineh Sdiwan^ I 
©od| bteibt es auger ^n^^ifrf^ 
So ipie ^te (5otter (Sried^enlan^s, 
So ijt oud^ er ein Ceufel. 

Jftoribifd^er KunjHer. 

Was xdi ergreife bas ijl I^eut 4275 

5uru>al|r niur {ft35enrDeife ; 
7>odi id? bereite midj bei Scik 
3ur italienfdjen Heife. 



Zdt, mem Ungliicf ful^rt midi I^er ! 

XDie voxvb nidit I^icr gelubcrt I 4280 

Unb pon bent gonsen ^ef enl^eer 

5m6 3«>eie nur gepubett. 

3unge fje^ e. 

Vex puber ift, fo r»ie ber Hod, 

5ur alf unb graue Wexbdien ; 

Srum jtfe idj nacft auf meincm Socf 4285 

Unb jeig em berbes Ceibd^en. 


IDir iioben 3U mel Cebensart 

Um I|ier ntit end? 5U maulen ; 

Sod? t|off id?, foUt ifjr jung unb jart, 

So u>te iljr feib, perfaulen. 4290 


5Uegenfdinau3 unb ZHudennos, 
Umfdirodrmt mir nid^t bie Zladte I 
5rofdi tm £<Xixb unb <5riC im (Bros, 
So bleibt bodi aud? tm Cacte 1 

IDtnbfatine nac^ ber etnen Sette» 
(5efeIIfdiaft u>te man tDunfd^en fonn. 429s 

XDaiixiia^g, lauter Brdute I 
Unb 3unggefetten, ZlTcmn fiir ^Hann, 
©ie tioffnungspoHjlen Ceute ! 

U!>inbfaB|ne nac^ ber anbem Seite. 

Unb tB|ut fid? nid^t ber Soben auf 

Sie aHe 3U perfd^ltngen, 4303 


So roin xdt mit bcl|en5em £auf 
(5Ietdj in &ie fjotle fpringen. 


Znit flcinen fd^arfen Sdjceren, 

Satan, unfem Eiettn papa, 430s 

Xtad? ZPur^en 3U pereliren. 


Seljt, «>ie jte in gebrdngter Sdjaar 

Xlaxv jufammen fdjersen ! 

2lm <£n6e fagen jte nod? gar, 

Ste t)dtten gute ^ersen. 4310 


3d? mag in 6iefem ^ey enl|ccr 
inidj gar 3U gem t>erlicren ; 
©cnn freilid? 6iefe wn^t id? d:|r 
2II5 HTufen an3ufut?ren. 

oi-devant (5eniu5 6cr ^eit. 

znit redjten Ccuten rpir6 man was : 4315 

Komm, f affc meinen Sipf cl ! 
3)er Slocfsberg, wie &cr 6eutfd?e pama§, 
fjat gar einen breiten (BipfeL 

Zteugieriger Seifenfeer. 

Sagt ipie t?eigt 6er jieif c ZlTann ? 

(£r grf?t mit ftolsen 5d?ritten ; 4320 

€r fd?nopert, was er fd?nopem fann, 

„(£r fpiirt nad? 3efuiten." 


3n beni Kloren mag idj gem 

Unb audi im Crubcn fif djen ; 

Sorum fcl|t il|r ben frommen JEjerm 432s 

Sicfi audi tntt Ceufrfn mifdicn. 

3cx, fur 5ie Jrommen, glaubet mir, 

3fl allcs ein Pct^if el ; 

5te bitten auf bent SIocFsberg Ijier 

(5ar mandjes ConoentifeL 4330 


J)a fommt ja tool em neues CI^>r ? 
3di I|ore feme tCrommeln. 
Ztur ungejlSrt I <£s fin6 im Hol^r 
Die unifonen 2)ommetn. 


XDie jeber bodt bie Seine lupft, 433s 

5idi tt)ie er f amt, t^eraussiel^t I 
Vex Kmmme fpringt, ber plumpe I|upft 
Unb fragt nid^t i»ie es auspel^t. 


Das ii<x%t fxdi fdjmer bos fumpenpadP, 

Unb gdb pdj gem bas Hefld)en. 4340 

€5 eint fie I|ier 6er DubelfacF 

IDie OrpI|eu5 Ceier bie Sejljen. 

3di laffe midr uidjt irre fdjrei'n, 
TXxdtt burd? Kritif nod? Sipeifel. 


J)cr tLenfel mug 6od) etoos fern ; 4345 

Wxe Q&bs benn fonfl audi Ceufel? 


3)ie pl^antajie in memem Smn 

3j! 5ic5mal gar yx I|crrifdj : 

5unx)al|r n>enn idj feos olles bin. 

So bin xdi Ijeute ndrrifdj, 4350 


X)a5 IDcfen ifl mir red^t 5ur Qual 
Un5 mug midj ba% ocr&riegen ; 
3d? flet|e I)ier 5um ctjicnmal 
ZTidjt fcji ouf metnen Sfig^n. 


Znit piel Pcrgnfigen bin id) ba 4355 

Un6 frcue mid) mit biefen ; 
©cmt ©on 6en tEcufdn fann idj ja 
2luf gute (Seijler fd^Iiegen. 


5ie gel^n ben JWtnntdjen auf &er Spur 
Un6 gloub'n jtdi natj 5cm Sd^a^e, 4360 

2luf Ceuf el reimt &er ^meif el nur ; 
7>a bin id) red^t am pla^e. 


5rofdj im Coub un6 (5riII im (Bras, 
Derfhidjte Dilettanten I 

5Uegenfdinau5 unb IHucfennas 4365 

y:iT feii bodt ZHupfanten ! 


Die (Rewanbten, 
Scmsfouci, fo l^eigt bos fyev 
Pon (ujHgen (5e\dtopfm ; 
2luf ben S^%en grfjts ntdjt mefyc, 
Drum gefyi wit auf ben KSpfen. 4370 

Die Unbcl^aiflidien. 

Sonjl iiaben voxt mondjen Siffen erfd^ranst ; 
Xlun abcr (5ott befoitlen I 
Unferc 5djul|c ftnb bnvdtgetan^, 
XDir laufen auf nacften SoI^Ien. 


Don feem Sumpfe tommen wiv 437s 

IDoraus wir erft entjlanben ; 
Dod? jtn6 wxt qlexdt im Sei^en I^ier 
Die ql&nienben (Solcmten, 


2lu5 bet £joI|e fd|0§ idi Bjer 

3tn 5tem« un5 5^uerfd^eme, 4380 

£iege nun im <5rafe quer : 

VOev Ijilft mir auf bie Seine ? 

Die Itlafftoen. 

pla^ un5 pla^ unb ringst^erum ! 

So gel|n 6ie (St&sdien niebet : 

(Beijler fommen, (Bei^er aadi, 4385 

5ie Ijaben plumpe (5Iie5er. 

(Eretet nid^t fo maftig auf, 
XPie €Iep^antenf diber ! 


Unb 5cr plumpfl' on biefem Cag 

Sci pucf , &er &crbe, felber ! 4390 

(BaB 5ic (ieben^e TXahvc, 
(Sab i>er <5etp eud? Si&9^i, 
5oIgct tnetner letd^ten Sjmr, 
Tbxf 5um Hofcnt{iigeI 1 


IDoIfensug unft Ztebclfior 439s 

€rlictten jtdj oon oben. 

Cuft im £aub unb It)in5 im Hol|r 

Uni) aUes iji serfloben. 

Crflber Caa.^ 

3in (5Ien61 Pet^etfdnM Crbdtmlid^ auf 5er 5 
£r6e lange Dcrirrt rnib nun gefangeni 2ll5 ZITiffe* 
tl)dterin im Kerfer ju entfc^Iid^cn Qualcn eingefpcrrt, 
fcos I|oI6e unfelige (B^fd^dpf I Sis fcol^in I boiixn I — 
Vett&itivi^diet, niditsxo&xbxgev <5eijl, un5 bos Ijafl &u 
mir t)erl|eimliclit 1 — 5tel| nur, ^eii 1 Wdl^e bxe teuf • 10 
lifd^cn Tiagen ingrimmenb im Kopf lucrum I Steti vmb 
trufee mir bwcdt 6me unertrdglid^e (Begenwartl 
(5efangen! 3"^ unwic&erbringlidien €fenb! Sofen 


(Seiftem iibergcbcn nnb bex ridjtenfeen, gcfui|IIofen 
Zncnfdiljeit 1 Un6 midi ipiegji ^u m5c§ in a&ge« is 
fdjmadften S^^^wungen, oerbirgji mir tl^ren load?* 
fen6en 3aTnmer un5 Wffejl jte I|iIfIos oerfeerben I 

5ie ijl We crfte nidtt 

^unt) I obfd^eulidies Untljier I — XDant)Ie il^n, bu 
unenblid^er (Beift 1 roanMe 6en IDurm loic&er in feme 
^unbsgejialt, rote er jtdi oft nddjtiidier IDeife gefiel ©or 
mir I|er3utrotten, 6em I|armIofen XDanberer vox bie 
5u§e ju-foHem un6 jtdi 5em nieberftiu:3en6en auf 5ie 25 
Sdjultem 5U B|Sngen. IDanM' it)n ix>ie6er in feine 
Cieblingsbilfeung, ba% er oor mir im 5<mb ouf 5em 
Saudi ftied^e, xdi xtin mit 5^6^" trete, bm Denoor* 
fenen I — J)ie erfle nidjl I — 3ammer ! ^ammex 1 von 
feiner ZlTenfdienfeele ju faffen, 6a§ mel^r ols €in3o 
(SefdjSpf in bk ttiefe Siefes Slenbs cerfanf, ba% nidjt 
605 erfie genugtl^at fiir bxe Sdivlb aHer ubrigen in 
feiner n>in&en&en (Eobesnotfi »or 5en 2lugen fees ewig 
Per3eilient)en I ZHir wixiilt es Zltarf unb £eben brvcdi, 
bos (£lenb 6iefer (Ein3igen ; 6u grinfejl gelaffen fiber 35 
^05 Sdjirffal von Coufen^en Ijin I 


2tun [xnb wix fdjon it>ieber an 6er (Srense nnferes 
XDifees, 5a too eud? Znenfd^en ber Sinn uberfd^nO)^. 
IDarum mad^jt 6u (5emeinfd|aft mit uns, n>enn bn fre 4^ 
nid^t ^urd^fiiBiren f amtjl ? IDiH^ fliegen nnb bifl porm 
5diit)inM nid^t fid^er? Srangen mir uns feir auf 
o5er 5u bidj uns ? 


5fetfdjc ferine gcfrSgigen §ciine mir mdtt fo entgeqm 1 45 

Znit ef elts I — (Sro^cr l|errlidjer <5eif!, feer feu ntir 5U 

erfd^einen tDurfeigteji, feer feu mem ^cr3 fcnnejl unfe 

tncrne Seele, marum an fecn SdianfegefeHen midi 

fdnniefecn, feer jtdi am Sd^afeen u>eifeet unfe an I?erfeerben 

ftdj lefet ? 50 


(Enfeigfl feu ? 


Sette jtel ofeer tt>el| feir! Sen grdpd^flen Sbxil 
iXbev bxdi auf 3al|rtaufenfee 1 ss 


3d? fann feie Sanfee fees Hddjers nidjt lofen, feine 
Hiegel nidjt offuen. — ^ette fie 1 — IDer tt>ar5, feer fte 
ins Perfeerben jHirste ? 3di ofeer feu ? 

5au|i bltrft ujtib umljer. 60 


(Breifjl feu nadi feem 3)onner ? IDoI, ba% er eud? 
elenfeen 5ter6Kdjen nid^t gegeben warfe ! Den unfd^ul* 
feig €ntgegnenfeen ju serfd^mettem, feos ip fo Cyran* 
nencort fid? m Derlegen^eiten tuft 3U madden. 65 

Srtnge midj Ijin 1 Sie foil frei fein 1 


Mnfe fete (Sefativ, feer feu feid? ousfefeeji? lOiffe, 
nod? liegt auf feer Stafet 231utfd?ulfe t>on feetner Sianb, 70 
Heber fees (Erfdjiagenen StStte fd?n>eben rSd?enfee 
(Seiner unfe lauem auf feen «>tefeerfet)renfeen 2Tl5rfeer. 


Zlodi bos von bit ? ZlTorb unb Cob ciner IDrft vhev 
bxdt Ungel^euer I ^fit^rc midj Ijin, fag id? unb befrd, pc ! 7s 


3di ful^rc bid^, unb toos id? tljun fann, Ijorc I ^obc 
id? olle Znadjt im ^immrf unb ouf €rben? Ses 
Ct|umers Stnne toiQ id? umnebein; f>cmdd?tigc bid? 
ber Sd?Iuffrf unb ful?re fie I?crau5 mit 2nenfd?en^anb. so 
3d? wadt^ ! bie 5«ub«rpferbe ftnb bercit, id? entfai?re 
cud?. 2)05 t>crmag id?. 

2tuf unb batjon ! 


0ffen ^tlb. 

^au% inepl?tfiop!?eIes auf ^d^wat^en pferben 


IDas wcben bic bort um ben Hofeenflcin ? 

IDeig nid?t was {te fod?en unb fd?affen. 4400 

5d?u)eben auf, fd?n>e6cn ab, ncigen fid?, beugcn fid?. 

€ine f?ef ensunft. 


Sxe fhreuen un6 tDcUjcn. 
Dorbet! Dorbei! 


mit einem 3unb Sd^Iiiffel unb einer £ampe oor etnem 

eifemen Cljiirc^en. 

Znid? f a§t em ISngjl entooI|nter Sd^auer ; 440s 

J>et Znenfdjlieit ganscr jammer fa§t midj an. 

^ter tDot^nt pe Iiinter btefer fcuditen Vflaaet 

Unb it|r Perbred^en mar em guter XDal^n ! 

^ 5au6erfl ju il|r ju gcl^en ! 

©u fftrditeji jtc ix>ie5er5ufct|cn ! 44x0 

5ort I bcin S^gen sSgert ben Cob I|eran. 

<2t ergreift bos 5(^Iog. (Es jingt intpenbtg. 

ZITetne ZlTutter, bie ^ur, 

3)ie mid? umgebrad^t t|at ! 

ZHein Vcdev, ber Sdjelm, 

Der mid? geffen I^at 1 4415 

Ulein Sditoefterlein flein 

^ub ouf bie Bein, 

Tin einem fi^kn ®rt ; 

Da tparb idj ein fd^ones IDalbpogelein ! 

5Iiege fort, fiiege fort ! 4420 


5aujl auffi^Hegenb. 

Sxe aiinet ntd^t, ba% box (B^Kcbte loufdit, 
J)ie Kctten flirrcn Ijort, 5a5 Strolj bos raufd^t. 

(Er tritt etn. 

Ztlargarcte, ftc^ auf bent £ager verbergenb. 
Weil I IDdi 1 5te f ommen. Sittrer Co& I 

5aujl letfc. 
Still ! Still I idj f omme bxit 3^ bcfrcien. 

TXlaxQavete, flc^ oor tt^n l|tntpai3enb. 
Sijl 6u ein ZHcnfct^, fo fiUjIe tneinc Ztotlj. 442s 

5>u tpirjl 5ic IDSdjter cms bem Sdjlof e fdjreien ! 
(£r fagt bte Ketien, fie auf5uf(^Iiegen. 

Zdaxgaxete, anf ben Knieen. 

Wex I^at bxx ^cnfer Wcfe Zllad^t 

Ueber mid^ gcgeben I 

®u Ijoiji midj fd^on um ZHittemad^t. 

€rbarme bidj un5 Ia§ midj leben ! 4430 

3jis morgen fxixii nxdit seitig genung ? 

5te {lef{i auf. 
Sin id^ boil rxodi fo jung, fo jung I 
Urxb foB fd^on fierben 1 

Sd^Sn toar id? andt mxb bos xoax mein Vexbexbm, 
XXaii max bex S^enrxb, nun ijl cr tt)cit; 443s 

S^rriffen liegt 6er Krans, 6ie Blumen scrfhrcut. 
5affe mid? nid?t fo gcroaltfam an ! 
Sd?onc mid? 1 Was iiab id? bxx getf?an ? 
£a§ mid? nid?t Dcrgebens f[e£?en, 
JQab id? bid? bod? mein Cage nid?t gcfcl?en I 4440 


Wevb* xdi ben 3ammer ilberjtel|en ! 


3di bin nun gans in bciner Kladit 

£a§ mid? nur erjl bos Kinb nod? trdnfen I 

3dj I|er5t' cs 5iefe gonse 2tad?t; 

5ie nolimert mirs um mid] ju frSn?cn 444s 

Unb \agen nun, id? B|dtt' es umge6rad?t. 

Unb niemols mexb* id? mieber frol?, 

Sie jtngen debet auf mid? I es iji bSs t)on ben Ceuten ! 

(£in altes 2ndrd?en enbigt fo ; 

XOev iiei%t fie's bevden ? 445© 

5ciujl ©irft pc^ nieber. 

€in £xehenbex Ixegt bit 3U S^%en 

7>xe 3ammerfned?tfd?aft auf3ufd?[ie§en. 

Xdatgatete totrft fid? 3U t(?m. 

© la^ uns fnien bxe £?eilgen ansurufen ! 

Sirf? I unter bxe\en Stufen, 

Urxtet bet SditoeUe 4455 

Sxebet bxe ^oHe 1 

7>et Sofc, 

Znit furd?tbarem (Srimme, 

Znad?! ein (3eto\e I 

5aujl laut, 
(5retd?cnl (5retd?en! 4460 

ZHargarete aufmerffam. 

3)05 root bes Sxenrxbes Stimme I 

Ste fpringt auf ; bxe Ketten f aKen ab» 

XPo iji et ? 3^ ^<3ib it?n rufen I?oren. 



3d? bin frei 1 mir foil niemanb meliren. 

^n femen ^als wiU idi flliegen, 

Tin feinem Bufen fiegcn I 4465 

(£r rtef : (5retd?en I er ^caxb auf 6cr Sd^ipelle ! 

ZTRtten buxdis fjculen unb Klappen bet ^dUe, 

Vnvdi ben gnmmxqen, teuflifd^cn ^ot^n, 

(Erfamtf id? ben \^%en, ben Ixebenben Con. 

3d? bins 1 

Thx bifb 1 (D fag cs nod? einmal I 4470 

3I?n faffcnb. 
€r tjls ! <£t tjls ! Woliin ijl afle OJual? 
lt>oi?tn bxe ^ngji bes Kerf ers ? bet Ketten ? 
®u bifis I Kommfl mid? 3U retten I 
3d? bin gerettet I — 

5d?on ij! Me Strafe wiebet ba, 447s 

2tuf bet id? bid? sum erflenmole fol?, 
Unb bet E?eitere (Savien, 
Wo id? unb Znartl?e beiner voatten, 

5auji fortjlrebenb. 
Komm mit I Komm mit I 


Q) weiie I 
IDeir id? bod? fo gem n>o bn n>eilef!. 4480 



IDenn bu nid?t eilefl, 

tDerben wxvs tl?euer bugen muffen I 


XDfe ? bn f annjl nidjt mel|r fuffen ? 
HXem 5reun6, fo furs J><>" ^^^ entfemt 448s 

Un6 l^ajls Kiijfen perlemt? 
XDorum roirb mir an beinem ^alfe fo bang ? 
Wetm fonjl pon 6etnen IDorten, ^eincn Sliden 
(Em gonser ^immcl mid? iiberferang 
Unt) 5u nitcf{ f&gtejl ols iPoHtejl ^u mid? crjUd^. 4490 
Kfiffe midj 1 
Sonji mff id? 5idj ! 

Ste nmfa^t tl{n. 
© tt)cl| I 5dne Cippen jtn^ fait, 
Svnb jbimnt. 

XDo iji bein Cieben 4495 

B?er brad{te mid? brum ? 

Sie ipenbet ftc^ von ifyn. 

Komm 1 5oIge mir I Ciebdjen, f affe ZTlutt? I 

3^ tierse bid? mit taufent)fad?cr <5IutI? ; 

ZTur folge mir I yii bitte bid? nur bieg I 4500 

JTlargaretc, 5n tl?tn getoenbet. 
Vinb biji bus bemt ? Unb bijl bus oud? geuoig ? 

3d? bins I Komm mit ! 


J)u mad?ji bie 5^ffrfn los, 
Ztimmfl wieber mid? in beinen 5d|oo§. 
XDie fommt cs, ba^ bu bid? vox mir nid?t fd?cup? — 
Unb n>eigt bn bemt, mcin Sxmnb, wen bu bcfreifl ? 4505 


Komm I f omm 1 fd^on weidtt ^tc ttcf e ZCai^t 


JJTeme ZlTultet iiab xdi umgebrad^t, 

mem Umb kab xdi ertranft. 

Wax es mdti bit nnb mir ge\dimtt ? 

^ir aadi I — Vn bifts I id^ glaub' es foum. 4510 

(Bib beine f|ant) I (£5 tj* !etn Craum I 

Seme liebe ^anb I — 5ld] aber fte ijl feud^t ! 

IPifd^e fte ab 1 IPie mxdi bSaxdit 

3P Slut bran. 

Tidi (5ott I mas i|ajt bn getljan I 4515 

Stecf e ben Degen etn, 

3di bitte bxdi brum ! 

Ca§ bos Pergangne r>ergangen fern I 
Vn bringP mid? um I 

2tem, bu mu§t ubrtg bleiben I 4520 

3d| xoxH bxv bie <5rdber befdjreiben, 
5ur bie mu§t bn forgen 
(5Ieidi morgen ; 

Vet zhutter ben bejien plafe geben, 
ZHeinen Sruber fogleid) baneben, 452s 

Znidi ein u>enig bei Seit', 
Ztur nid^t gar 5U u>eit I 
Hnb bos Kleine mir an bie redjte Srufl. 
Hiemanb tt>irb fonft bei mir liegen ! — 
Znidi an beine Seite 3U fd^miegen 4530 

Vas roat ein fft^es, ein I^olbes (5Iiicf ! 


Tibet es wiH mir nidit met|r gelingcn, 

Znir ijls als milfef idj tnidj 3U Wr jroingen 

2tl5 jKegejl 5u midj oon Wr suriicf ; 

Vinb bodi bifi bus unt) blicfjl fo gut, fo frormtt; 453s 

5uI|Iji bu bag id] cs bin, fo fomm ! 

Daiixnaus ? 

3n5 5reie. 


3ji bcis (5tab 5rau§, 
Couert bet tLob, fo fomm 1 
Von i|icr ins ctt>ige Hut^ebctt 4540 

Unb wextet f cinen Sd^ritt I — 
Z)u geljjl nun fort ? ® fjeinrid^, fount id] mit ! 

J)u f annji I So moKe nur 1 Die Zifit jlel|t offen. 

3d] barf nid]t fort ; fiir mid] ijl nid]t5 5U B]offen. 
IDos I]ilft es fliel]n ? fie lauem 6od] mir auf . 454s 
€5 ifl fo elenb bettein 5U miiffen 
Unb nod] ba^ mit b6fem (Bewiffen ! 
€s ift fo elenb in ber 5tembe fd]u?eif en ; 
Unb fte u)er6en mid] bod] ergreifen ! 

3d] bleibe bei bir. 4550 



(Sefd^tDinbl <5e\dixoxnb I 

Hctte 6cin armes Km5. 

5ort ! immcr ben Weg 

2tm ^adi I^inauf, 

Ueber ben 5teg 4sss 

3n 5cn UOaib Eminem, 

Cinfs IPO We planfe jleljt 

3m aicidj. 

5a§ es nur gfeidi 1 

(Es toiH fid^ B^cben, 4560 

(Es sappcit nodi 1 

Hettel rettel 

3c|tnne ^id? bod? 1 
2Tur (Einen Sd^ritt, fo bift btx frei 1 


IDdren toir nur ben Serg »orbci I 4565 

Va jtfet meine ZTIutter auf einem Strin, 

€5 f a§t mxdi fait bcim 5d?opf e 1 

Da jtfet meine Zllutter auf emcm Stein 

Un& n>adelt mit 6em Kopfe, 

Sk wxntt nxdtt, fte ntcf t nidjt, bev Wopf ift iljr fdjtt>er, 4570 

5te fd^Iief fo lange, pe tx)ad|t nidjt mel|r. 

Sie jdilicf 6amit toir uns freuten, 

(Es iparen gliicf Kd^e geiten ! 


fjtift B|ier fern 5IeBjen, I|ilft fern Sagen, 

So wag xdis bxdi B^tntocgsutragcn. 4575 


l£a% mxdt I Zlexn, xii Uxbc fetnc (Setoalt I 
5affe midj nxdit fo moxben^dt on 1 
Sonfl l)ab id^ btr ja cdles 3U Cieb gctljcin. 

Vet Cag grout I Ciebd^cn ! txebdt^n 1 


Slag I 3a es ix>ir& (CagI J>cr fefete (Eag bringt 
I|crcm ; 4580 

Ztlexn fjodiseittag foUt' es fein I 
Sag nicmanb ba§ bn fd^on bei (Srctd^en iparji. 
Well mcmcm Ktanse I 
(£5 t jt ebcn gefdjelin 1 

IDir metberx uns mieberfeljn ; 4585 

Tibev rxxdit bexm Canse. 
©ie IHcnge brdngt pd^, man I^ort jte nid^t. 
J)cr plafe, 5ic <5affcn 
Konnen jtc nid|t faffen. 

3)ie (6Io<fc ruft, 6a5 Stdbd^en brid^t. 4590 

Wxe jte mid? binbm unl) pacFcn I 
Sum Slutjhxljl bin xdi fdjon entrficft. 
Sdjon 5ucft nad^ jebem ^adcn 
3)ic SdiSrfe, 5ic nad| mcincm siicft* 
Stumm licgt 6tc IDelt wxe bos (grab 1 459s 

(D wdv' xdi rxxe geboren ! 

Xde^itx^ophteUs erfc^etnt braugen. 

2(uf I obex xiiv \exb oerloren. 

Unnii^^s ^agen I ^aubcm nnb planbexrx 1 


ZlTeine pferbe \dttaabexn, 

5>er ZHor^en t)cimmert auf . 4600 


IPos ftcigt cms bem Sobcn I|crauf ? 
Der I bet I Sd^icf it^n fort I 
Was voiU bev an bent I|eiKgen ®rt? 
(£r tt>tll mxdi 1 

2)u foKjl feben ! 

(Berid^t (Bottcs ! Sir Ijab id^ mid? ubexgebm I 4605 

Komm ! fomm I 3di laffe bid? mit tl|r im Stiii, 

3)ein bin id?, Vatet I Hette mid? ! 
3t?r (gngcl I il?r l?ciligcn Sdiaaxen, 
Cagert cud? uml?er, mid? ju bcn)al?ren I 
^dnrid? I ZlTir grouts por bir. 4610 

5ie iji gerid?tet I 

Stimme von oben. 
3fi gerettet ! 

2:ncpI?iftopI?rfc5 3u ^aufi. 

fjer 5U mir I 
Derfc^tptnbet mtt ^aufl. 

Stimme pon tnnen oerI?alIenb. 
%inrid?I ^einrid?! 




I. The dedication to Faust was written, it would seem, in 
June 1797, The period of youth, in which Gotz von 
Berlichingen and fragments of the First Part of Faust 
had been written, appeared to Gothe now as a time of 
aimless blind effort, — so to speak, the 'dark ages' of 
his own life. Since then he had lived in Italy, and had 
come to know and to reverence Greek Art and the 
repose of Greek Art. The poet of Iphigenie and Ta^so 
had lost his love for old German architecture and old 
German manners, for Gotz and medisevalism. The 
storm and stress time of his life was over. 

8. umtOtttert=* breathes upon'; *By the magic air which 
breathes around your path.' 

10. By the * shadows,' and 'first love and friendship,' and the 

' kind ones ' are meant Gothe's sister Cornelia, who had 
died in 1777, his finend Merck, who had died in 1779, 
and Gretchen, whom he had known and loved in Frank- 
furt in the year 1764. Gothe had likewise in his 
thoughts the friends of his youth who were now estranged 
from him, — Klopstock, Lavater, and the Stolbergs ; and 
again Jakobi, Klinger, Schlosser, Kestner, who were 
separated from him by the circumstances of their lives. 

1 1 . I^albocrf lungnen = * half-extinct,' • half-forgotten. ' 

12. mit belongs to Kommt, from vb. mitfotnmen. 



1 3. * The pain is fresh, grief mournfully tells over life's erring 
labyrinthine course, and names the dear ones, who — 
cheated by fortune of fair hours — have vanished from my 

In L 13 n>irb = lit. 'becomes.' 

19. gerjioben =* dispersed. * 

20. Perflungen = * silent. ' 

ber erjle IPteberf lang = * the echo that first rang.' 

21. The meaning of the line is, * We shrink from telling our 

griefs even more than our joys to a crowd and to unknown 
people.' There is another reading of this line : ^ITtetn 
Cteb ert5nt' instead of ,inein £eib ertont.' Some 
copies of the edition of 1825 have £teb, but as a rule 
this reading is not found until after Gothe's death. 
Riemer and Eckermann's edition of 1838 reads £etb : 
Schroer and Loeper prefer £eib : Duntzer is in favour 
of f icb. The weight of evidence seems to me to be 
rather on the side of letb. 

23, 24. * If some still live who once took pleasure in my song, 
they wander scattered through the world.' In line 23 
tPas is used of persons. 

25. entiPoi{ni:=' unwonted,' lit. * weaned,' * disaccustomed.' 

27. unbejittttint = * uncertain.' 

28. Itspelnb = * faltering.' Bowring translates * murmuring.' 

31, 32. 'What I possess I see as if far off, And what is gone 
becomes reality.' 

Porfptel auf bem (Ojeater. 


The Prelude, like the Dedication, was written in 1797. It 
was suggested to Gothe by a translation of the Sanskrit drama 
C&kuntalA by Kdlidasa (published at Mainz in 1 79 1 ). ^dkuniald 
begins with an abstract of the subject matter in the form of a 
dialogue between the stage-manager and an actress. 

The Prelude has more to do with the stage in general than 
with the Famt tragedy, yet the concluding lines — 

NOTES. 219 

,5o fc^reitet in bent en^tn Brettert)aus 
2)en ^cmitn Kreis bee Sdjopfung aus^ 
Unb xoanbelt mtt bebddjt'ger ScfjneQe 
Dom ^immel burd} bie DDelt jur ^oQe/ 

are a true description of the First Part of Faust, 

Gothe introduces a stage manager, who has set up his 
theatrical booth in a German town and discusses the prospect of 
his enterprise with a poet, who writes his plays, and a £ufti$e 
Perfon, who represents the public as well as the actors. The 
Faust fragment had made no impression bn the public, and it 
had been attacked and ridiculed by the poet's literary enemies. 
Gothe makes use of this Preface to contrast the poet's pure 
aspirations with the lower tastes and desires of the public and 
of stage managers. Again, the Stage Manager may be said to 
be Mephistopheles^ and the Poet Faust. 


38. Tr. 'Especially since it lives, and lets me live.' 

39. Die pfojien, 'posts.' 

Die 3retter, 'boards.' A booth of boards is here meant, 
such as was made use of for the German puppet theatre. 

42. (gelaffen = *sedat«.' 

43. Perf3ljnt = * reconciles,' *wins.' 
48. mtt Se^eutun^ = < significant.' 

gef&ni^ = * agreeable,' 'pleasing.' 

51. IPef^en = * surging ' ; but it is dat. plural of VOt^i = * pain,' 

'throe,' *pang,* not of IPel^en = *to surge,' — infinitives 
have no'plural. 

52. 5t(^ JlPdngt burc^, *and forces its way through.' 

53. ©or Pieren, 'before 4 o'clock.' In Gothe's time plays 

began to be acted much earlier than at present, but still 
at the earliest not before 5.30 or 6 o'clock. 

54. irtit Stolen = * with blows * ; 'pushing and shoving.' - 
Kaffe = * sellers' box,' * ticket box.' 

55. Gothe writes an occasional Alexandrine, no doubt uncon- 

sciously. The Alexandrine was the metre of his early 
dramas: ,Dte £aune bes Perltebten' and ,Dte ITtit* 
fc^nlbt^en.' It was, too, the metre of the popular 
Faust poem. 



59. Note that the Poet speaks in stanzas — ^in a more poetical 

form than the St^e Manager or the Lustige Person. 

bunt= * motley.' 

60. Bet beren 2InbU(f, *in presence of whom.' 

61. xoocfixi^z (SebrSnge = 'surging throng.' 

62. uns 3um Strubel 3teljt = 'draws us into the whirl of life.' 

63. sitHen Qtmmelsenge, ' some vale of heavenly stillness. ' 

64. IDo nur bcm Dieter . . . The emphasis is not on Dtd^ter. 

The line means, * Only there does pure joy bloom for 
the poet.' 

65. 66. '"V^Tiere Love and Friendship produce and develop 

with power divine the blessings of our heart.' These 
blessings are richness and fulness of emotion. 

67. ViWS \>a zx\i\T^XMXiq,ZXi = * has been conceived by us.' 

68. Pc^, dative = * to itself.' 
f^ii(^tern = * timidly.' 

PorgeloUt, 'muttered,' or 'stammered.' 

69. int§ratl{en= 'failing' [i,e, what has failed now). 

gelungen =' succeeding ' {ji,e, what has perhaps succeeded 

70. Perfc^Itngt = * destroys ' ; but lit. ' swallows without taking 

time to value or understand.' 

71. (Dft ipcnn es erft burc^ 3aljre burc^gebrungen. (Dft erji 

i\Qi6c( 3a^rcn is the meaning here, i.e, * often only after 
years': tDcnn es burc^ %^^ bttrc^ebrungen, i.e. 
' when it has pressed on through years. ' The meaning 
is — ' when it has been toiled at for years,' and Gothe 
has in his thoughts his own poem, which he had pub- 
lished as a fragment in 1790, but which he had con- 
tinued to work at ever since. 

72. (Erfc^eint es, ue, ' it is made known.' 

74. ber ttac^tpelt = ' for after-time.' 

76. <5efeftt= 'supposing,' 'if; 'If I should want to talk of 
after-time, who then would make play for our con- 

78. Den. i.e, Spag. 

NOTES. . 24 1 

79. Here he refers to himself, and thinks of his own importance : 

< the presence of a fine fellow like me is worth some- 
thing, I should think !' 

81. bclja9Uc^=* genially.* 

fic^ mi^utl^etlen = * pour out his nature . . . 

82. Compare with this the Poet's words, L 59, ,(D fptic^ mir 

ntc^t ©on jener bunten JTTcnge.' Note the deep con- 
trast between the ,Dt(^ter ' and the ,£ujHge Perfon.' 

85. 3etgt euc^ muflert|aft = * set the fashion,* * set an example.' 

88. ijdren is dependent on la^t, ' Let Fancy ' . . . and Folly 
too, *be heard.' 

90. 3U fd/an'n — 3U fetjen. The line means they come to see 
a show ; it is not what they hear or learn they care for, 
it is what they see. 

93. ^reite = * breadth,' * width of interest.' 

100. A ragout, ue, a dish made out of various ingredients. 
Gothe elsewhere speaks of ,<Etn Hagout pon lPal{rl{ett 
u. pon £iigen.' 

I o I . vor gelegt = * served up. * 

ausgebac^t = ' invented.' 

102, 103. The crowd in its shallowness only cares for and 
values single incidents ; it is incapable of understanding 
and valuing an artistic whole. 

104. An Alexandrine. 

106. (ember. A. Selss, in his notes to Faust, Part I., says 

fanber, when placed before ^err, Itlenfc^, 'Kvinht, 

Kerl, often means the reverse of clean or pure, ue. 

< dishonest'; cf. the ironical use of the French word 

jolt, and the English nice, 

Pfufc^eret = * bungling tricks.' 

1 08. ungefrSnft = * unoffended. ' 

1 10. t{alten = • hold on to.' 

111. loeic^CS Q0I3, i.e, *you have light work.' 

112. ' Consider for whom it is you write.' 

114. iiberttfc^ten lYTaljIe; a meal consisting of too many dishes ; 
cf. iiberlaben, tiberfiillt, iiberi{dtift. 

117. IHasf enfefl = * masquerade. ' 



119. Cf. * Spectatum veniunt, veniunt spectentur ut ipsae/ Ovid, 

Artis amai.y i. 99. 

3Um 3eften <Xf^Xi= *to give for the common advantage,' 
* to give as a treat ' ; hence 1. 119 means, * The ladies 
show themselves and their dress to gratify us»' 

LI. 117 and 119 are Alexandrines ; so» too, 126 and 129. 

120. Unb fpielen ol^ne (Sa^e mtt=*and act, too, without 


122. VOqs mac^t etn wiles tjaus e»<^ frotj ? = • What is there 

will make a full house glad for you?' i.e. *Do you 
think a full house can be satisfied ?' 

123. bte (Sonner= *the patrons.' 

125, 126. Der — Der, 'this one,' 'that one.' 

127, 128. 'Why plague so much for such an end as this, poor 
fools, the gracious muses ?' 

130. ©om giele nte penrrcn= 'never go astray.' 

132, 133. 5te 311 befriebtgen tft fd^tper. Hare the Poet makes 
a movement of weariness and di^^ust, when the 
Director interrupts himself and exclaims, 'What ails 
you? is it rapture or pain?'^ 

136. Das inenfc^cnrec^t= 'the birthright of mankind,' ue, his 

freedom of will. 

137. freocntlic^ = * wantonly. ' 

140. ber (EinHang =' the harmony,* which swells forth from 

his bosom, and unites in his heart things outward and 
things inward. This line is an Alexandrine. From this 
on I leave the student to note all such lines for himsel£ 

141. 5nni(fe fc^Itngcn, from fc^Itngeit= 'to knot or bind,' not 

fc^Itngen = ' to swallow. ' juriicf e fc^Itngen = ' to bind 
back,' hence here ' to keep imprisoned.' 

142. From I. 142 to 1. 157 the inspiration of the Poet gradually 

rises to its highest expression* 

143. <51etd?giilttg= 'listless.' - 
breljenb = 'twirling.' 

3lPtngt= * forcibly puts.' 

145. t?crbrie§It£^= 'sullen.' 

147. Belcbenb = ' cheering ' ; * Who thfen can cheer and divide 
the monotonous round of life ?' 

NOTES. 223 


148. bas (£in3elne='what is individual. 

3ur aHgemetnen lPeiIje=*to a consecration that is 

150, 151. Anster has beautifully translated these lines : 

' Who to the tempest's rage can give a voice 
Like human passion ? Bid the serious mind 
Glow with the colouring of the sunset hours ?' 

154, 155. It is the Poet makes immortal, , and reaches the 
wreath of glory. 

156. Here Duntzer and Stahr read peretnet (Sdtterrt; but I 

prefer to read with Schroer and Loeper, ,t>eretnet 

Ol3rmpus, the name of a mountain on the boundary of 
Thessaly and Macedonia, of great height, and regarded 
as the home of the gods. 

©eretnen or peretnigen = * to make united.* There is 
here an allusion to Iliad^ i. 602-604, where Apollo and 
the Muses, by their songs, reconcile the gods who are 
at variance. 

IPer pc^ert ben 01ymp; ue. * who gives us Olympus to 
inherit?* lit *who secures for us Olympus?' Cf. 
Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre^ ii. 2 — ,lDer ijat (Sdttet 

gebilbct, uns 3U tf^nen ert^oben, fte 3tt uns Ijcrttieber 
gebrac^t, als bcr Ptc^tcr.' 

157. The climax of the passage is in this line — 

' The soul of Man sublimed — Man's soaring spirit, 
Seen in the Poet gloriously revealed.* — Anster. 

159. bte btc^terifc^cn <gefc^5fte=* poetic functions.* 

1 62. oer^oc^ten = * entangled. ' 

163. angefoc^tcn, from anfec^ten = * to disturb,' or * to attack,' 

here *to disturb.* 

165. ell' w^Ti pc^'s ©erjiet|t = * before one expects*; fi(^ 
©erfeljen = * to foresee,* * to provide* {providere) \ jlc^ 
es ©erfeljen, with accus. or gen. = *to expect,* or 
'look for.* 

168. nic^t Pielen ift's be!annt=*by not many is it compre- 

hended.* otelen, dat. case. 

169. iter's pa(ft=*you grasp it.* 



170-179. The Lustige Person takes life, speaks of life, lightly ; 
and yet in 11. 170-179 he describes powerfully how the 
poet reveals the secrets of their own hearts to men. 

175. laufc^i = * hearkens to. ' 

176. jebes 3drt(ic^e (Semiitt|e= * each gentle heart.' 

1 78. auf^ere^t = * stirred up,* * now this, now that is stirred up,* 
i.e, this emotion, or that. 

181. *They admire your flights, they rejoice to see the show.' 

182. 'A mind once formed is never suited after.' 

183. <Etn IDerbenber = * one yet in growth.' 

In 1^2-183, as well as in 174, 175, the Lustige Person's 
advice to the Poet is to appeal to, to seek to influence, 
men while they are young. 

184-197. In these lines we do not listen to the poet who from 
1 769 to 1 790 thought out and wrote the earliest por- 
tions of the Faust poem, — it is an older man who 
speaks, — Gothe in 1797. He mourns over his lost 
youth ; in spite of his failures he was happier then ; if 
he is to write and do as the Lustige Person would have 
him, he must be young again. 

1 86. gebrSttgtcr = * crowding. ' 

193. Den Drang nac^ IDaljrt^eit u. bie £ujl am drug =* the 

striving after truth, and the joy in illusion. ' 

194. ungebdnbtgt=* uncontrolled,' lit. * untamed.' 
Criebe = * passions.* 

198-213. The Lustige Person will not allow that a poet must 
be young in order to please the young. The master 
must be able to control and command his art. A 
soldier needs to be young, a lover needs to be young, 
a runner needs to be young, but not a poet. Have M. 
Victor Hugo, Lord Tennyson, Mr. Browning, or Gothe 
himself, proved the truth of this or not ? 

204. t^eft'gen lDtrbeItan3 = ' breathless whirling dance.' 

206. in bas Saitenfpiel ctn3ugreifcn ; note the construction 

of etngretf en with in and the accusative. The particle 
ein = ljtnetn. The phrase means something like May 
hold upon ' the harp. 

207. 2lnmntlj = * power to charm.' 

NOTES. 225 


208. felbjigejie(ft= 'self-erected.' 

209. 3rten=* digression.' 
Ijtn3Ufc^n)etf cn = * loiter toward.' 

210. ^crm for ^erren, voc. case. 

212. The Poet must have felt some amusement at the patronis- 
ing encouragement of the Lustige Person. 

216. brec^feln = lit. 'turn on a lathe*; here, perhaps, 'manu- 

218. 5ttmmun9=*mood,* 'inclination,' * inspiration.' 

220, 221. The Director only echoes, somewhat more crudely, 
the words of the Lustige Person. 

223. fc^Iiirfen = * sip.' 

2 24. unoer3U9lic^ = * prompt. ' 

225. ,VOas f^cute nt(^t gefc^ielit, tji morgen nic^t qetiian;' 

a wise sapng enough, with much the same underlying 
thought as * Never put off till to-morrow what can be 
done to-day ' ; or, ' Procrastination is the thief of time. ' 

227. Das IRSgfic^e foil bcr €ntfc^Iu§ . . . betm Sc^opfe 
f aflen ; meaning one should seize Opportunity by the 
forelock. Opportunity was represented of old as bald 
save for one lock of hair. She fled before men, but 
the wise pursued after, and tried if possible to seize her 
by her one lock of hair and stop her. 

229. €r refers to ber €ntfc^Iug, 1. 227 ; ' it will not stop nor 
pause ; it works on, because it must. ' 

2 34. profpccte = ' scenery. * 

IRafc^tnen = * machinery.' 

235. bas grog* unb fletne ijtmmelsltc^t='the sun and the 

237, 238. 2In IDaffer, ^Jeuer, (Jelfenipdnben, 2ttt Cfjter unb 
Pogein feqit es ntd?t (mstead of ,an tEtjteren/ etc.), 
i.e. 'There shall not be wanting water, fire, walls of 
rock, nor beasts and birds ' — stage properties such as 
these Gothe remembered to have seen used when 
Mozart's Zauberflote was represented in Weimar in 
the year 1794, at his own wish and suggestion, 

242. ,Pom fjimmel burc^ bte IDelt 3ur f^SIIc' The old stages, 
on which the Mystery Plays used to be acted, had three 



stories : the highest represented heaven ; in the middle 
was earth ; the lowest represented hell. The spectator 
was thus able to see what was passing simultaneously 
in heaven, earth, and hell. 

In the Stage Prelude we have the Manager full of anxiety to 
satisfy the claims and wishes of the curious uneducated crowd, 
while the Poet, filled with purest, most ideal aspirations, 
opposes him roughly and feels no sympathy with his anxieties. 
The Prologue has, indeed, no direct especial application to the 
Faust poem, yet the Manager in his, so to speak, flippant 
indefiniteness, speaks words which are prophetic of what the 
whole poem will be : * So traverse the whole circle of creation 
from heaven through the world to hell.* Thus might Faust, 
Part I., be described, while the Second Part is the journey 
through creation back from hell to heaven. 

In May 1827, at the age of 78, Gothe said to Eckermann: 
*■ People come and ask what idea I have embodied in my Faust ? 
As if I knew myself and could express it. **From heaven 
across the world to hell, " — that might answer, if need were ; 
but it is not an idea, it is only the course of the action.* 

Prolog tm ^tinmeL 

The Prologue in Heaven makes it clear that what the life of 
Faust represents and signifies is the strife between heaven and 
hell, the struggle between good and evil. That this struggle 
goes on unceasingly round us, and that we should try, however 
it be, to be on the side of the good, was, I think, the chief 
part of Gothe's creed. His belief that good must finally triumph 
he shows plainly in Part II. 

Of this Prologue there is nothing in the Faust Volksbuch, 
The idea of it Gothe takes from the first chapter of the Book of 
Job, verses 6-12, where Satan appears before the Lord and 
offers to tempt and overcome Job. 

Gothe thought the Prologue in Heaven would have called 
forth praise rather than censure. Henry Crabbe Robinson, in 
his Diary, speaking of an interview with Gothe, says : * On my 
mentioning that Lord Leveson Gower had not ventured to 
translate the Prologue in Heaven, he seemed surprised. " How 

NOTES. 227 

so ? that is quite unobjectionable. The idea is in Job." ' That 
this could be a ground of objection had never occurred to him. 

Die bret (Erjengel. — The three Archangels step forth 
according to their rank, as defined in the Celestial 
Hierarchy of the so-called Dionysius the Areopagite, a 
book of much fame in the Middle Ages. Dante made 
use of this book when writing the Divine Comedy. 
<Er3engeI, from Gr. <lpx<iry«^05=* archangel*; cf. <Et3» 
btfc^of, from Gr. dpxcwirio-icoTos = * archbishop.' 

243. Gothe, in his early translations or adaptations of Ossian^ 

has the line, ^Oo aufftetgt tSttenb bie Sonne' Cf., 
too, ' The morning stars sang together, and all the sons 
of God shouted for joy' (Job xxxviii. 7). 

244. By the 33ruberfpl|dren Gothe probably means the fixed 


Pythagoras, the Greek philosopher (he was bom 
about 580 B.C.), taught that the physical law by which 
the heavenly bodies move and are held together ex- 
presses itself in sound, to us inaudible, which he calls 
the music of the spheres. We do not hear it because 
we are used to it from our birth. And, indeed, when 
one remembers the unceasing movement and growth 
going on all round us, one sometimes thinks that it is 
only through custom we can be deaf to the roar that 
lives at the other side of silence. 

246. Donnergang; a grand word ; Schiller had used it before 
in one of his early poems, Elysium: ^zxQ/t bebten 
unter bcffen Donnergang.' 

248. lDenn=ipenn avA^, obgletc^; ste=bte Sonne. 

250. am erpen (Eag = * the day of their creation.' 

251. Raphael has told of the sun and stars; Gabriel tells of 

the wonders of land and sea ; Michael of storms and 
lightnings and thunders. 

254, fc^auerooH. There is no English word to express 

257. fortgert jfen =* hurried on,' i,e. by the revolving of the 
earth. Cf. Wordsworth's lines about the soul of a dead 

' Rolled round in earth's diurnal course 
With rocks and stones and trees.' 



262. VOitfnn^ = * agency * or ' action.' 

263. Light travels quicker than sound, so we see the lightning 

before we hear the thunderclap, though both happen 
simultaneously, blt^enbes Per^eerett = the desolating 
lightning ; por belongs to ^ammt. 

265. Sotcn, i.e. 'angels'; but angels in the sense of mes- 


266. Dos fanfte VOanMn betnes Cag5=* the gentle move- 

ment of thy day.* 

268. Va=wtnn andf; cf. 1. 248. 

ergrfinben = * comprehend ' ; lit. * fathom.' 

271. inep!{tftopt)eIes ; the name (written, however, Mephos- 
tophiles) appears first in literature (so far as I can dis- 
cover) in the Faustbuch of 1587. Marlowe uses the 
form ' Mephostophilis,' and the shortened form 
* Mephosto.' Shakspere, in Act I. Sc. i. of the Merry 
Wives^ calls him 'Mephostophilus.' Duntzer thinks 
the popular form of the name may have been Mephis- 
tophles, and that Gothe formed his Mephistopheles on 
this. Various derivations have been given of the word ; 
for example, M^ 0avoTo ^XKifi (not loving Faust), and 
M^ <fxifT04f>l\7p (not loving light), etc. None seem to 
me satisfactory. Gothe himself did not know the 
meaning of the name. 

Mephistopheles' language is very characteristic, and 
strangely different from the language of the Angels. 
He is from the first a humourist and a Philistine — a 
being without emotion, pathos, or passion. 

277. patl|OS, Or. T<£/?oj=£eiben. How could there be pathos 
in the life or words of one without Ideals, all whose 
desires and efforts were limited to earth ? 

280. f[(^ plagen = * firet themselves.' 

281. von gletc^cm Sc^Iag = ' of the same stamp.' 

There are several Alexandrines in the speech of Mephisto- 
pheles, and Schroer thinks that Gothe occasionally 
uses them to mark less noble language and thought. 

282. ipunberltc^=* strange,' *odd,' — not ipunberpoll =* won- 


285. t)erttunft=* Reason.' Reason is divine, and something 


NOTES. 229 


in which Mephistopheles had no share. Gothe uses 
the word Demunft in the sense in which Kant uses 
it — as something far higher than Intellect; Reason 
passes on from things understood by the Intellect 
[X)er{ianb], things which are finite and subject to 
temporal conditions, to things infinite and unlimited by 
conditions ; Reason has the power to conceive Ideas ; 
Intellect has only the power to understand them. 

286. As a Materialist and the enemy of everything Ideal, it 
becomes Mephistopheles to declare that man has 
become ' more brutal than any brute.' 

288. langbetntgen §tfaben=(5rast)iipfer (grasshoppers), or 
^eufc^rerfe (grasshoppers also), which never fly up- 
wards, — not the singing, chirping ^dk/0 (Lat); Itl., 
cica/a or cicada, 

292. (l}uarf= 'puddle.' 

297. bauern mtc^ = 'move my pity.' 

298. The true order of the words is, ,3^ f^^^fi \o^CiT mag bie 

2Irmcn ntc^t plagen.' 

299. ITletnen Knec^t. In the Lord's answer there is intense 

interest for us ; He recognises and claims Faust as His 
servant, because of his longing for and search after 
truth, in spite of all Faust's doubt, and failure, and 

304' ,V<im Qimmcl forbert er bie fd^dnflen Sterne, 

Vxib von ber (Erbe jebe I)dd?jle Cnfl^ 
Unb aHe Hdi}' unb aQe ^eme 
^efriebigt nidtt bie HefbetDegie Srnfl.' 

The lines recall to one a verse in Shelley's * Ode to the 
Skylark ' :— 

' The desire of the moth for the star, 
Of the night for the morrow ; 
The devotion to something afar 
From the sphere of our sorrow. ' 

The yearning and longing of Faust seem to Mephistopheles 

310. * The gardener knows if there is life in the tree. ' (Stnntn 
is a beautiful word, of which we have no English 
equivalent. _ 



317. <Es irrt bet IHcnfd? fo lang cr ftrebt=*man must still 
err, so long he strives,' — a line whose truth not few 
among us have felt. 

319. befangcn = abgcgeben, befajft. The line means, *I have 
no fancy for the dead.* 

321, 322. It is in this life that men's characters are formed for 
good or bad, hence it is with the living, not the dead, 
that the spirit of evil is concerned. In chap. v. of St. 
Paul's Epistle to thef Romans there is a verse contain- 
ing an interesting and curious thought : ' He that is 
dead is freed from sin.' 

324. ,§telj btefen <5etp von fetnem Urquell ah,' 'Divert and 
draw this Spirit from his original source,' 'Tear him 
free from his ideal strivings.' This source is *God 
Himself,' or * Infinite Reasonableness,' from which 
come to mankind all higher aspirations. 

326. mit Ijcrab= *down with thee.' 

328, 329. /€m gnter UTenfc^ in feinem bttnVeIn Drange 

3fl sidi bes red^ien 2X>eges tool hewtt%t/ 
The thought contained in these lines is the thought most 
present with us in the closing scene of Part II. Gothe 
once compared the Prologue in Heaven to the Over- 
ture of Mozart's jDon Giovanni^ where a particular 
musical phrase occurs, which is not repeated until the 
last scene of the Opera. 

335. inul|me = *aunt,' * cousin'; cf. Gen. iii. 14. 

336. Observe that Gothe does not represent the Lord as reply- 

ing to or contradicting the boast of Mephistopheles. 

337. betnes <SIctc^en=* those like thee.' In Old German 

Mythology there were many devils. We must not, how- 
ever, conclude from this line that Gothe believed this ; 
rather, I think, he held that there were many manifest- 
ations of one negative principle, and Mephistopheles 
was one manifestation. 

339' btt 5c^alf=*the rogue,* or perhaps we may translate it 

340. erfc^Iaffcn=*flag.' 

341. €r liebt ftc^, * the middle voice ' = cr Itebt, here, simply. 
343. * Who stirs, and works, and must as devil be doing.' 

NOTES. 231 


344. bie ed^tett <5dtterfotinc, *the archangels.* 

346. Das IDerbenbe = * the germ of growth,' as opposed to the 
element of decay. Throughout the Tragedy of Faust 
it is taught that growth and destruction are the two 
forces which rule the world, and that the Angels pre- 
side over the former, and the Devils over the latter. 
That this was the idea in Gothe's mind when writing 
these four lines must be clear to any one who will com- 
pare them with the words of Mephistopheles, Sc. III. 
11. 1362-1378. In this Scene, written about the same 
time as the Prologue in Heaven, Mephistopheles says 
that his part is Contradiction, Sin, Destruction, or 
Evil — almost synonymous terms in Gothe's mind — and 
that the ever -circulating ,neues frtfc^es Blut,' the 
thousand germs ever upspringing in air, water, and 
earth— definitions of bas fcerbenbe — are diametrically 
opposed to the principle of which he is the incarnation. 
Das IDerbenbe has been misunderstood to mean creative 
power or creative essence. But, according to the rule 
for German participles when in the neuter gender and 
used in an attributive and collective sense {e.g. bas 
£ebenbe, bas Bliiljenbe), bas IPerbenbe cannot mean 
Power, Essence. It can only mean the sum total of 
rising or growing things, or the aggregate of vital germs 
in the world. (See in A. Selss* edition of Faust., Part 
I., his note on this passage.) In the Spruche or 
* Wise Sayings * of Gothe he thus refers to ,bas 
IPerbenbe': ,Der Pernunft tji auf bas IPerbenbe, 
ber Perpanb auf \><xs <Seu)orbene angeiPtefen.' — 

SprUche^ 896. 

348. ttt fc^ipanfenbcr €rfd?einung» Appearances, things that 
are seen, come and pass away, — only the Ideas which 
struggle in them for embodiment endure. Cf. ,2mes 
Pergdnglic^e ijl nur etn <SIeic^ni§/ as the Chorus 
Mysticus at the close of Part II. sings. 

350-353. Observe here the cynicism and contemptible irrever- 
ence of Mephistopheles, in contrast with the calmness 
and grandeur of the Lord. I think from the first it is 
manifest that Faust, not Mephistopheles, must conquer. 

353. menfc^lic^=* humanly,* 'kindly,* * patiently.* 



A high arched narrow Gothic room. Faust restless in his 
chair at his desk. Rembrandt painted a picture of the scene 
Gothe here describes, and Lips made an engraving of the picture 
reduced to a small size. This engraving was prefixed to the 
first edition of Faust y ue, to the edition of 1790 ((Eitt frag» 
ntent). In this picture magical forms appear to Faust. On 
one side, in front of the lower part of a window, is seen a magic 
circle with letters encircled by rays of light. Behind the circle 
there reveals itself the shadow of a figure holding in one hand 
a round mirror, towards which the other hand points. Atten- 
tive and expectant, Faust looks towards the apparitions, trying 
to discover their meaning, and the import of the magical letters. 

In 1829 Gothe read the whole of Part I. through to certain 
actors who were about to represent it. At first, and up to the 
scene in the Witches' Kitchen, he read in the bass voice of a 
middle-aged man ; but after Faust has drunk the youth-bringing 
drink he read on to the end in the clear strong tenor of a young 
man. (This Laroche related to Schroer, the editor of one of 
the best editions of Faust.) 


354. Faust's monologue was probably written as early as 1773. 
Throughout it seems full of memories of the opening 
Scene of the Faust Puppet Play, which was founded on 
the first Scene of Marlowe's Faust, In Dichtung und 
Wahrheit Gothe says : * The Puppet Play echoed and 
vibrated in many tones through my mind ; I also had 
gone from one branch of knowledge to another, and 
was early enough convinced of the vanity of all. I 
had tried life in many forms, and the experience had 
left me only the more unsatisfied. I now carried these 
thoughts about with me, and indulged myself with them 
in lonely hours, but without committing anything to 
writing. Most of all, I concealed from Herder my 
mystic cabalistic chemistry, and everything connected 
with it.' 

356. yXxC^ Ictbcr auc^ (Efjeologte. Faust mourns most of all 
the time spent over theology, because this it was, he 
thinks, had led him first to doubt, had led him away 
from the happmess of faith ; cf. 765 — ,Dte ^otfc^aft 
IjcJr' tc^ ipol, aUein mir fel^It ber (Slaubc' 




360. Qet^e HXagtfier, l\t\%e 2)octor ; similar titles to our Uni- 

versity dignities Master of Arts and Doctor of Letters, 
or Law, or Divinity. The academical title Doctor 
dates back to the thirteenth century. 

361. 5ei|en is the old form of the word 5et;n. 

366. £afen=* fops,' 'triflers.' 

367. Sc^retbec = * clerk,' meant in particular in the Middle 

Ages a theological student. Diintzer quotes the fif- 
teenth century couplet — 

,<Ein Sd^reiber ber lieber tonjt unb springt 
Denn (than) bof er in ber Kird^e singt/ 

368. Scrupel^ Lat. .jm(^/«w=*the smallest of weights'; but 

already in very early times the word scropulus was used 
of smsdl mental anxieties. 

370. The feeling of self-satisfaction which a small mind, such 

as Wagner's (cf. 1. 573), feels in its knowledge, Faust 
cannot have. 

371. voas Hcc^ts = * aught worth knowing. ' 

373. Here Schroer puts a note of exclamation and a dash — to 
show that the train of thought is broken. Faust has 
been giving expression to mournful regrets over the 
failure of his dreams for bettering mankind, but now 
he changes to rough bitter complaints over his own life. 

377. After having studied at Leipzig, and after having been 
much disheartened by the deadness and formality of the 
teaching there, Gothe, now living in Frankfurt, turned to 
the consideration of Mysticism and Magic. For months 
he shut himself up in a garret, poring over books of 
the alchemists, and trying to discover the Philosopher's 
Stone and make the Elixir Vitae by help of clumsy 
crucibles and retorts. Here, in these lines, he seems 
to write a parody of his own life at this period. 

382. Cf. this poem of Gothe to Merck — 

,&fenne jebes Dinges (Sefialt 
\XxCti fai)Ie n>ie bie ^anse tPelt 
Der droffe Qimmel 5nfammen I)dlt/ 

Der junge Gothe ^ 3, 156 f. 

384. lDir!ens!raft= * productive power.' 
Samen = here Keint; ue^ * germ.' 



385. framen=* search,* *poke about,' 'rummage.* 

386. (D fStjejl bu = * O that thou wert looking.' 

395. ber 2)Smmer = btc Dammcrung. Tieck has somewhere 

,2lm ^htnb hex Ddmmcr bcr Bdumc' 

c?eben=* hover.' 

396. IPijfensqualm = * pain of knowing, ' but tpt flcn, /.^. * know- 

ledge,* and getPtffen, /.^. * conscience,' are very closely 

403. IDiirme is the old form of the plural : Middle High Ger- 

man n^urme. The usual Modem German form is 
IDiirmcr. LI. 398-417 contain a description of the 
study of a student in the sixteenth century, and need 
little or no comment 

hebtdi, participle belonging to 3ii(^erljattf . 

404. ben, i.e. the Biic^erljauf . 

405. angeraiic^t= 'smoke-stained'; the an^etaudft Papier 

describes the labels or headings on the various shelves. 
umjlecFt, 3d sing. pres. ind. 

406. Goes back to describe further the ITlauerloc^, to which 

participles um^ettt, poKgepfropft, bretngeftopft apply. 

408. UrpSter ^axxsvaili = ' ancestral lumber.* 

415. Da (Sott bie IHenfc^ett fc^uf ljinetn = *for which God 
created man ' ; we must take bal{tnettt together and 
translate it as a relative adverb. 

420. Hoftrabamus. Michel de Notre Dame was bom at 
Saint Remy in Provence in 1503. He was a physician 
and an astrologer, and in 1555 he published a collec- 
tion of prophecies — Prophicies de Michel Nostradamus 
— in which he foretold, among other things, the death 
of Henry II. of France. 

418. He will up and out and away into the free open air; 
Nostradamus shall be his guide ((5elett), and there he 
will understand what he cannot grasp in his close con- 
fined room. But on a sudden he feels that spirits are 
near him — he pauses, and calls on them to answer 

430. He opens the book and sees the sign of the IHaftrofostnus. 
The term IlXafrofosmus was used by Pico di Miran- 
dola, by Paracelsus, and other mystical writers, to 



denote the universe. They imagined a mysterious 
connection between the Macrocosm, t.e.the universe, and 
the Microcosm, t,e. man. In the sign of the Macro- 
cosm we must imagine some symbol such as the astro- 
nomical signs of the heavenly bodies ; but it is unlikely 
that Gothe had before his mind's eye any particular 

443. From 1. 428 on, Faust speaks like one inspired, and 
believes, as he looks upon the mjrsterious sign, that he 
sees and hears what eye hath not seen nor ear heard. 
The verse quoted, 

,Dte ©etftertpelt ip nidjt oerfdjioffen/ etc., 

is perhaps a merely imaginary quotation from Nostrada- 
mus, or some other philosopher ; but Wilhelm Scherer 
thinks Gothe may have heard these or similar words 
fall from Herder's lips, and quotes from Herder : ,Pte 
urdltcjle, I^errlic^fie 0ffenbarung (Sottcs erfc^etnt btr 
jeben ITTorgen als tEljatfa<^c.' The earth is most beau- 
tiful at dawn, but very few people then see it, and the 
few that do are almost all of them rude labourers, whose 
eyes have no sight for that wonderful peace, and cool- 
ness, and unspeakable sense of rest and hope which 
lie like a blessing on the land. 

445. unperbroffcn=* cheerful,' 'unwearied.' 

449-453. A beautiful personification of the natural forces of 
life, which audibly and harmoniously work together, 
and while they ascend and descend, reaching golden 
pitchers from hand to hand — ^give life to living juices, 
which, like spells, penetrate and quicken all organisms. 
We must not forget Gothe's love for and knowledge of 
natural science. In these lines may we not see the 
first germs of his book, Die Metamorphose der Pflanzen 
und TTiiere? 

453- burc^fltngen= * to fill with harmony.' 

454. etn Sc^aufptel. A show only, an imaginary representa- 
tion he sees in the sign. The first cause, the source of 
life, which man from the first has longed and sought to 
know, remains unknown. 

458. bte loelfe Brufl. The breast, in which the heart beats, 
signifies the region of feeling and emotion. Feeling 



and emotion dry up and wither if the intellect and 
understanding only are exerted and used. 

459. He makes the sign of the Earth-Spirit, and this recalls to 
him a better known and more familiar world. He 
feels his powers quickened and enlarged. 

466. mid? Ijerum3ufc^f agen = * to battle with.' 

467. 311 ^CL^tn, 'to shrink.* Then follows a pause, as Schroer 

points out. From 1. 462 to 1. 468 Faust has been be- 
coming more and more passionate and excited ; and 
now he sees, or fancies he sees, before him the Earth- 

472, 473. €s n)el|t etn Sc^auer= 'there falls a horror.* 

475-477. Obs. the rhjrme in these lines. They are immedi- 
ately followed by some extremely irr^;ular lines, — the 
form here indicating Faust's extreme agitation. 

479. p(^ etvonl\Un=* to heave.* 

480. ijingcgcben = * drawn to.' 

4S1. (St fprtc^t has Setd^en bts (Setfles gef^etmnt^olt ans, 

i.e. he uses some form of conjuring. 

482. When Faust was performed for the first time in Weimar, 
Gothe caused the Earth- Spirit to be represented by a 
gigantic face rising out of a mist and filling the whole 
back of the stage. The words of the Earth-Spirit were 
sung to music of Eberweins. 

<0e{lc^t= 'apparition.* One feels about the appearing of 
the Earth-Spirit that probably no one but Faust would 
have been able to see it. 

484. gefogen, lit. 'sucked*; here with the sense of ,gefuc^t/ 
< thou hast sought food for thy intellect.' 

486. fel^jl eratf|mcnb=*aspirest after'; the particle er has 
here the same force as in crretc^ett = * to attain.* Cf. 
,tx' in ,Z)cm eratl^menben Sc^rttt miiljfam Berg Iiln* 
auf,' and in ,Ketne Kiil^Iung ipar ba 3U txa^mznJ 

490. Ubemtenfc^en^ ace sing., in apposition with bi(^. It 
signifies 'superhuman,' and is a fine word invented by 
Gothe to describe a Titan like Faust, who, in morsd 
greatness, stretches far beyond man's common measure. 

bcr Seele Huf = * the inner voice,' * self-knowledge.' 
493- €rfc^tPeUen, intr. = * to expand. ' 



494. bes 5ttmme= * whose voice.* 

495. fic^ brang. Obs. Gothe uses fiA brang here for jjc^ 

brdngte. Luther also uses ftd^ brattgen for {tc^ 
brdngen ; but it is wrong all the same. 

496. pon meinem ^auc^ nmmittert = * who my presence 

breathing, seeing * is B. Taylor's translation. In sport- 
ing language tPtttettt means to recc^ise that the game 
is near at hand by the scent which the wind carries. 
So Faust becomes conscious of the presence of the 
Earth-Spirit by his breath. Again, the word uttt' 
tPtttert is used of an approaching thunderstorm. 
498. * A trembling, fleeing, writhing worm.* 

500. beines (5Iet(^en=*of thykind,* i.e. *a spirit like thee.' 

501. The chant of the Earth- Spirit recalls what is said in the 

* Prologue in Heaven ' of the creative power, which 
eternally works and moves. Cf. Shelley's lines — 

' Nature's vast frame, the web of human things, 
Birth and the Grave. ' 

503. VOzht l(\n ViXi^ tjer. Because of IPeBfhiljf = * loom,' and 
lPeben = ' to weave.' VOtht in this line has been 
changed into XDt\\t, but wrongly changed, since tPeben 
means the spontaneous movement of a living being, 
while n>et{en is not rightly used of a personal con- 
scious being. 

512, 513. For Faust, crushing, heart-breaking words. 
5 1 4. 3ufaTnmenfHir3enb = * overwhelmed, ' lit. * collapsing. ' 
518. The ,;JamuIus/ who is still to be found in certain Ger- 
man universities, was a student appointed as assistant 
to a professor. He was at once his secretary and his 
pupil. He was the go-between (IHittcIspcrfon) be- 
tween the professor and the other students. He usually 
lived in the professor's house, as Wagner did. 

520. (5ejtc^te=* visions.' 

521. trocfne Sc^Ictc^er; perhaps *dull wretch' will do as a 

translation, but ' hanger-on ' is nearer the literal mean- 
ing of the German. 

Wagner is the representative of dead pedantry, of 
knowledge mechanically acquired, without living 
thought or poetry. A man hopelessly material, prosaic, 
and commonplace, an irreclaimable Philistine. 



527. Kotnobiant means in German an ' actor ' simply. 

530. mufenm. The learned men of the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centories, in their love of Latin and all things 
Latin, used to call their study a museum {i,e, a place 
where the Muses dwell). 

533* Wagner cares only for rhetorical means of persuasion, 
and does not care a straw for the overpowering con- 
viction which drives a man to speak and teach, whether 
he will or no. 

536. 3e!ia9en = * serenity.' Bayard Taylor translates — 

' Serene in primal strength. ' 

538-545. A picture of the laborious patchwork of the pedant in 
contrast to the creative spirit. 

539. * You cook the scraps from others* fare.' 

540. bie fiintTnerlic^en ^lammen = * starveling flames.' 

542. ' The admiration of children and apes.' 

543. * If such be your taste.' 

544» 545- Cf. the old German proverb — ,VOas nic^t VOn ^er« 
3en fommt bas geljt nid^t 3U ^crjen/ 

546. * But it is declamation makes the success of the speaker.' 
To learn to speak or to write without thought or 
regard for the contents of a speech or of what is written 
— that is, to care for form only — is the error which 
Gothe satirises here. 

548, 549. ' Then let him seek some honest gains, and let him 
be no tinkling fool 1 ' Such is the advice Faust gives. 
Far better for a narrow-brained man, such as Wagner, 
to earn his living by some honest trade ; he is not 
fitted for higher tasks. — The clothes of court fools had 
bells attached to them. Such a fool announced his 
presence by the tinkling of bells. 

555- f3n benen iljr bcr UTenfc^^eit Sc^mfeel ftrSufelt '— ber 
irtenfc^tjeit may be dative : * In which ye twist (dress 
up) paper shreds {i.e. rubbish) for mankind ' (B. Taylor 
says shredded thoughts) ; or bet Utenfd^t^eit may be 
genitive, and the line may mean, * In which ye dress up 
the flimsy records of mankind (i.e. of the past).' 

557. faufeIt=*rusUes.' 



558. This is the first aphorism of Hippocrates. Abready in 
Middle High German we have, ,btu fnnfi ijl lattc has 
lehtn fletn.' Mephistopheles says the same later on, 
Scene iv. L 1787. 

561. han^ um= * fearful about,' * anxious about.' 

562. ertPerben = ' compass. ' Wagner means parchments, books, 

and knowledge all cost a great deal, all are difficult to 
get at. 

566-569. One of the sayings in Fausty which has become 
proverbial in Germany. 

570. (Ergefeen not (ErgS^en appears in the Faust Fragment of 
1790. (5cfecn in erge^en is the causal of geffen in 
oergeffen, and meant originally =* to make forget.* 
So fi(^ erge^en should mean ' self-forgetfulness ; ' but 
Wagner uses it in an ignoble sense, and means *■ self- 

576. A phrase taken from chap. v. ver. i of the Book of Revela- 
tion — • And I saw in the right hand of him who sat upon 
the throne a book written within and without, and 
sealed with seven seals.' 

578. ber^rren etgner <5etji=* the spirit of you all.' 

582. lCeIjrt(^tfag = * a rubbish barrel.' 
Humpcl!ammer = * a lumber garret.' 

583. etne ^aupt* unb Siaaisacixon, perhaps *a first-class 

political performance.' Such pieces were named heroi- 
cal and historical dramas. They were later on laughed 
to scorn, and driven from the stage by Holberg and 
Tieck. They had been first introduced at Dresden by 
Velthin at the banning of the seventeenth century. 
They offered, as the moralities had earlier done, a con- 
trast to the popular farces and burlesque pieces of the 
day. However, here Faust does not refer to regular 
^aupt* Vin\> Staats 2Icttonen, since these belonged to 
a later period than his time, but to earlier didactic 
and historic compositions, which resembled them in 
style and contents. And, no doubt, Gothe had in his 
mind, too, the Puppet Stage, and the Punch and Judy 
Show, which was sometimes called in jest ,ctne Qaupt* 
viVi^ Staats miction.' 

590. bat)on = /.^. ber IPafjrljett. 



591-593. Cf. a sentence in a letter of Gothe's to Sophie von 
Laroche, written 22d December 1774: — * To-day I 
received back a copy of Werther^ which I had lent to 
some one; at the beginning on the blank page was 
written ; "Tais toi, Jean Jacques, ils ne te comprendront 
pas ; " — it affected me strangely, because that passage 
in Entile {i.e. one of J. J. Rousseau's greatest books) 
had always appeared to me very remarkable.' 

593. In Gothe*s conversations with Eckermann we read — 
* There is need of a second Redeemer coming, to 
deliver us from the austerity, the discomfort, and the 
tremendous pressure of circumstances under which we 
live.* — Eckermann. * If He should come, the people 
would crucify Him a second time.* — Gothe. 

600. mtc^ bef[tffen= 'bestowed diligence upon,* past participle 

of bcfetgen. 

601. ,gipar njctg ic^ mcl, boc^ moc^t' ic^ o^ts iPtffen.' 

There is no type of human character which Gbthe 
describes with more force and truth than Wagner*s. 
He never exaggerates, and never seems to ridicule him. 

603. fc^alem §euge= * shallow trash.* 

605. Hegentpiirmer. At 1. 403 we have had the old form of 

the pi. XPiirme. 

606. With line 606 begins Faust's second monologue. This is 

not found in the Faust Fragment of 1790. Yet this 
does not prove that it had not been written at that 
date. The whole character and spirit of it belong to 
Gothe*s Sturm* ViV^ Drang period — to the time when 
Werther was written. 

615. gebiinft, from biinfen, another form of 'bzv^zxi, our Eng. 

think. Understand l^atte. 

616. fetn felbji geno§=fl(^ ipoljl geflel= *took delight in.* 

617. abgejlrctft = * laid aside. ' Understand f^atte. 

620. fc^aff enb, etc., *in creating to enjoy divine life.' 

621. The construction is, 3c^/ €benbilb bcr (Sotttjeit, bas pc^ 

fc^on ... fid? atjnungsooE permag ♦ . . burd? bic 
ilbcrn bcr Hatur 3U fltegen unb fc^affenb (SStterlcbcn 
3tt gente^en. 

ft(^ t>ermaf =«had ventured on,' * aspired to,* * dared.' 



622. (Ein PonneriDort, ue. the words of the Earth Spirit : 
*■ Thou art like the spirit, which thou comprehendest, 
not me.' We are made to feel the tremendous impres- 
sion produced on Faust by this saying. 

627. Small in the presence of the great apparition ; great in the 
consciousness of knowing his own littleness. 

635. fremb ViX(b frember are adverbs in form, but they are here 

used in an adjectival sense — 

' To all the noblest that the mind conceives, 
Some alien substance ever cleaves. ' 

636. Good is the enemy of best ; we content ourselves easily 

with earthly satisfaction, and throw away all that is 
ideal as unreal, or delusive. 

638. Ijcrrltc^e <ScfiiF|Ie, in apposition with bte, the subject of 

640-643. We are hemmed in by the narrow bounds of reality ; 
Philistinism and the narrow opinions of the majority 
rule us. 

fonft=* formerly* (1. 640), and nutt = *now' (1. 642), 
are opposed to each other. 

643. When many a fortune makes shipwreck in the rough 
waves of time. 

650, 651* *^ Although you are not struck, you tremble before 
everything, and you must ever be weeping and anxious 
lest you should lose what you have. ' 

652-655. In some verses in a letter from Gothe to Riese, 
written 28th April 1766, we read: ,irtetn 5tol3 — 
glttuBt' es, \>a% fo tief 3U mtr t|erab fid^ (Setter nteber- 
lie^en I — \>a fat^ tc^ erfi, ^a% metn crtjabner ^Ing 
— ntd^ts wax a\s bas iSemiil^'n bes VOwxms im 

657- 5dc^ertt=* shelves.* 

658. (ErobeI=* rubbish.* 
^anh — * frippery. ' 

659. brdngen= * to narrow in.* 

663. * And here and there one happy man is found.' Gothe*s 
pessimism. The subjective character of the early 
scenes of Faust would be clear to us without Gothe*s 
own testimony : * in Faust and Wert her ^ he writes to 




Eckermann in 1826, * I was obliged to delve, into my 
own breast, for the source of that which I related lay 
near at hand.* 

666. * Searched in the clear day, searched in the dull twilight.' 
F. Meyer von Waldeck (in the Gbthejahrbuch^ I. 
s. 384) has pointed out that we must here read ,ben 
Itd^ten Q^ag,' and not ,ben Icid/ten Cag.' £etc^t is 
meaningless here, and is, of course, a printer's error. 
Loeper is the only editor who had heretofore given the 
line correctly. 

676. * You old tools, whose use I never knew. ' 

678, 679. * You old scroll, the smoke has stained you black, 
since ever by this desk the dim lamp has smouldered.' 
Sc^maudjen is Dutch 'smoken,' and English * smoke.' 

680. Tjcrpraffen = * to waste.* 

683. * Earn it anew, then it is thine own.' 3efi^en is a strong 
word, meaning * to have as one's very own, after having 
earned. * There is a line in Gothe*s Prometheus (written 
1773) which serves as an excellent commentary on this 
passage in Faust — 

^Brubcr.— IDie old Ifl bemt betn ? 
,Protnet!jeus.— Dcr Kreis bet meine IDhrffamWt crfflUt/ 

686. It is here that, in intense mental excitement, his thoughts 
turn to self-murder, and the hope of release from the 
narrowness and restlessness of life brings him moment- 
ary comfort and calm. Gothe himself in his youth — 
in his storm and stress period — had thought of suicide. 

693. ^nbegrtff = * essence. * 

694. ^1155119 = * outcome,* * expression.' 
698. ;JIutl|ftrom = * high tide,' ^ flood.' 

699-702. Before his spirit lies the picture of the state after 
death, as if a sea were spread before him, as if a new 
day were breaking, summoning him to new shores. 

702-705. It is a favourite fancy of Gothe's to fly with the sun 
across the waves. 

707. crp noc^ tt)urm = * but now a worm. ' The words of the 
Earth-Spirit are rankling still in Faust's thoughts. 

710. r^ermeffc bic^ = *dare.' r>ermeffe, the weak form of the 



imperative for permt§. Gothe also uses mlfrn, ^t\f, 
mt%f betrete for ntmm, fjtif, mi§, betritt. 

hit Pfortcn= * the gates of death.* 

715. *The fancy of men,* says Faust, *has turned the fear of 
death into the pains of hell.* 

718. btefem 5(^rttt, i»e. 'self-murder.* 

719. ' And even at the risk of changing into nothingness.* 

726. ' The art, the richness, the pride of the many figures, and 
the drinker's task to explain them in verse.* 

733» 734' *01d cup, now fill thee with the dark-brown flood.* 
— Anster. 

735> 73^' ;X)er le^te Crunf fet . . . bem UTorgen jugebrac^t I ' 
* My last draught be drunk to the Morning !* As he 
speaks Faust raises the cup aloft, — ^he puts it to his 
lips — and at that moment come the sound of the bells 
and the song of the Choristers. 

737. (Et^rtfl tfl er^lttitbcn. It is founded upon the old Easter 
song of the Christian Church, beginning — 

,€t|rifl ifi crjtanben 
Von bcr Vflattet ^cm!ben,' 

The first of the three angelic choruses rejoices over 
Christ's release from mortality ; the second exalts Him 
as the loving One ; the third celebrates His restoration 
to divine creative activity. Gothe heard a similar 
chant sung by the common people in Rome in the year 
1788, but his true model was undoubtedly the German 
Easter hymn of the Middle Ages, which begins 

,CI)ri|l i^ etflanben 
Don bet niarter Sanben/ 

739. t)crbcrbltc^ = * destructive,' 'hurtful.* 

740. fc^Ictc^cnb=* clinging.* 
erbltc^ = * inherited.* 

74 1 . irt&ngel = * failings,* or * Imperfections. * 

The comforting, trustful, solemn words of the Angels 
cannot fail to make an impression on Faust ; they tell 
him of a world firom which he is separated, in which 
he has been happy, which seems to him now like a 
lost Paradise. 



748. The words of the angel at the grave of our Lord : * He is 

risen,' proclaimed that the redemption of men was 
fulfilled; this Gothe calls ,(5eiPt§Ijeit ctnem Tteuen 
3nnbe,' i.e. * Certainty to a New Covenant.* 

749. Cljor ber IDciBer. See St Mark xvi. i — *And when 

the sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, Mary the 
mother of James, and Salome, had bought sweet spices 
. . .'; and compare St. Luke xxiv. 10. 

760. Ijetlfam unb Vihzxthz, for Ijetlfame unb fibenbe. 

768. Ijolbe ttac^rtc^t = * good tidings.* English, * Gospel'; 
Greek, WniyyOaw. 

774. In Wilhelm Meister Gothe writes: *Once I prayed out 
of the depth of my heart — ** Now, Almighty One, give 
me faith.** I was then in the condition in which one 
must be, but seldom is, when one's prayers may be 
accepted by God. Who could paint what I then felt ! 
. . . My soul was near to Him ! . . . " This is 
faith," I cried, and sprang up almost in terror. For 
such emotions as these all words fail us.' 

785-788. By changing the order of the words the meaning 
becomes clearer: ,HJat bcr Begrabettc, fc^on lebenb 
(Erfjabcnc, Jtc^ nad^ oben I^errltc^ crtjoben/ ue, « The 
buried One, the exalted One even when in life, has risen 

The (£I|or ber 3*1*^9^1^ are the disciples, — according to St. 
John XX. 3 St. Peter and St. John were the disciples 
who came early to the sepulchre. 
789-792. The Risen One is conceived of as going on, so to 
speak, to higher development ; as near to unearthly 
happiness, near to the creative source of joy. 

7 94. Sc^mac^tcnb =- * in sorrow. ' 

uns is accus. case. 

79S» 796. * Ah, we are weeping, Master, over Thy happiness * 
(and we should not weep). 

799. As Christ tore Himself free from literal bonds, namely 
the grave-clothes, and at the same time from figurative 
bonds, namely the bonds of care and sorrow which 
bound Him to life and this world, so do ye break loose 
from the fetters of evil. The old German Easter 
hymn contained this verse — 

SCENE 11. NOTES. 245 


^<Ci)rifhis ift erftanben 

geioaerltdfe Don bem tdt^ 

von alien ftnen ^nben 

ijl er eriebigdt' 

801-805. * To you praising Him by your works, to you who are 
loving, to you who feed the hungry, to you who preach 
and bring joy to others — to you Christ is near.* 


Faust*s lonely studies had brought him into a state of morbid 
despair, whence he could iind no way back to life and activity. 
The Easter songs have awakened him and summoned him back 
to reality. We know from the * Prologue in Heaven * that it is 
Mephistopheles' purpose ,^auji fetne Stragc fac^t 3tt fiiliren/ 
and now we feel full of curiosity and anxiety to know whether 
the change to cheerfulness and hopefulness that has taken 
place in Faust will stand the test of Mephistopheles' temptations. 

As to the places here mentioned or described: the place 
itself is Frankfurt-on-the-Main (where the Scene was written) ; 
the '^Hqtxlians is a spot in the neighbourhood, to which the 
Frankfurt people often walk ; the ,lPajferljof' is a well-known 
locality near Frankfurt ; the Itliiljle is Miihlberg, not far 
distant from Frankfurt. The people who assemble before the 
gate and t^k represent all kinds of happy, heedless, holiday- 


817. iil>erlu JH9 = * swaggering. ' 

824. plan mean^ in the Frankfurt dialect dancing-green, and 

here a particular dancing-green near Dorf kirchweihen. 
Gothe*s house in Weimar stands near the dancing-green 
(I write dancing -green, although the Can5pla^ in 
German towns and villages is by no means necessarily 
of grass). 

825. Notice that the verb angeljen= * to concern,' always takes 

the ace. case after it. 

82 7. Der Kraus!opf = * curly head. ' 

828. Dirnen= * girls,' now used in a bad sense, like Yx, filU. 

fd?retten=*step out.* 



829. fjerr Bruber, an expression formerly in use among German 

students. Obs. that Sc^filer means 'student' (our 
' undergraduate ') as well as * schoolboy.' 

830. CobacF; cf. Eng. * tobacco ' ; the more usual form ^ahad 

is from the French iadac. 

832. The BnrgermSbc^cn {i.e. the citizen's, shopkeeper's 

daughter) looks down on the other girls. 

mtr, the dativus ethicus^ and often, as here, difficult to 
translate: * Just look (for me) at . . .' 

833. etne Sc^tnac^ = * a shame.' 
839. getoogen = * devoted to. ' 

841. * But they'll take us with them in the end.' 

842. gemrt=* embarrassed,* *put out* — from French ghu 

(orig. from gehenna = * torment '). 

845. farefflren, from French caresser ; very noticeable is the 

number of French words that have been adopted in 
Southern Germany. 

846. The form Burgetnetftcr for Biirgermeiftcr was most prob- 

ably taken from the living spoken dialect. 

852. The Bettler sings to a little * lyre '5 cf. 1. 856— ,£agt 

^ier mt^ ntc^t pergebens leiern.' 

853. bacfenrotlj, in this compound hadzxK is dative plural. 
86 1. Krteg unb Kriegsgefc^ret = * war and rumours of war.' 
864. That is, * in a tavern by the river.' 

871. bleib'; 3d. sing. pres. subj. * If only at home all remains 

as of old. ' 

872. * Ah ! but you're nicely dressed ! pretty young things !' 

873. * Who would not lose his heart for you ?' 

874. es tft fc^on gut = • that's right !' 

875. bos tPU^t' tc^= *that I could know ' (or should know). 

878. Sanft 2Inbreas' ttac^t. In North Germany the 30th 
of November — St Andrew's Night — ^is held to be the 
most favourable night for what is called the ;BrSu* 
ttgamf(^au/ that is, the night on which a girl may see 
her future husband. In the south of Germany it is the 
night either of St. Andrew's or of St. Thomas' Day. 
The girl places two cups on the table and then stands 



on her bed and repeats this verse, or some similar 

one — 

,Bettfj>onb, idj tretc Did?, 

5anft Uvlbveas, Ic^ bitte T>idt, 

tci% bodf erfc^einen 

Den ^er3a0erliel)ften meinen. 

Son er mir n>erben reid?, 

5d?enft er eine 'Kannt Wein ; 

SoQt er mir n>erben arm. 

So fc^enfe mir eine "Hanrn XOa^et/ 

Thereupon the form of the future bridegroom is sup- 
posed to enter by the door of the room, and drink out 
of one of the two cups set upon the table. 

880. tm tiVY^aU* In a crystal it used to be believed that the 
future, or what was unknown, could be read (see 
Grimm, Wdrterbuchf 5, 2482, 2, c.) 

885. ginncn =* pinnacles,* * turrets.' 

889. Kiit^n ift has iniil|en = ' Bold is the venture.' 

902. gteljen baron =* go marching away.' 

903. Faust and Wagner enter on another part of the stage. 

The latter part of the Scene was most probably written 
about the same time as the first part ; but the change 
in metre, in tone, and in spirit is notable. 

905-910. The growing green of trees and plants is full of 
promise — it promises flowers and fruit, it fills men with 
hope. Winter is given personality ; the sun has over- 
come him ; he has been driven back to the mountain 
heights, and now he sends only impotent showers of 
sleet across the green plain. 

Stretf en = ' belts,' or * stripes.' 

912. 33ilbung unb Streben=* growth and effort.' 

914. bcis HetJtcr means here the river -bank of the Main, cf. 
Itl. riviera^ and Middle Latin riparia. Because there 
are few bright trees and flowers here, the sun is content 
with the bright-coloured dresses of men and maidens. 

925. 2lus bem Drucf t?on (Stcbein unb DSi^crn. The high 
roofs, high gables of the houses in old German towns, 
which seem as if they might any day fall upon the 
passers-by, and which when we travel we think so 



picturesque and beautiful, deprive the inhabitants of all 

distant view, and allow only a narrow and contracted 

sight even of the sky. These lines describe the contrast 

between life in the North and life in the South. In 

the Second Part of Faust Homunculus says, ' If Faust, 

who is dreaming about Greek antiquity, were to waken 

here in the land of high-roofed gloomy houses, he would 

die at once.' 

926. quetfc^enb = * crushing. * 

929. bclj^nb, because it comes from bci )c(an)> or bei IjSnbcn. 

930. fic^ 3erfc^Iagen= * to sally out.' 

939, 940. Here we see Faust's true and best self, his brave, 
cheerful, hopeful spirit ; and here too we see Wagner's 
true self, his narrow, selfish, pedantic cheerlessness. 

945. Kegel fc^tebett = Kegel iperfen = * play at nine-pins.' 

949. Then we turn to another part of the stage, where peasants 
are dancing under the lime tree. The song here sung 
was hot printed until 1808, although Gothe had it 
already in his thoughts in 1795 when he wrote Wilhdm 
Mdster's Lehrjahre (see 2 Buch ii Kap.) This 
dancing and merry-making does not describe the German 
Spring Festival (^Jriitjltngsfejl), but only the gladness 
and merry-making of an Easter Sunday afternoon. 

965. Ijurtt9=* quick,* 'brisk,' * nimble.' 

973. * And do not make so free,' she said. 

976. <Er fc^tnetc^elte= *he coaxed.' 
bet 5ette=* aside,' * apart.' 

977. fd^oK, preterite of fc^ellen. 

984. ^oc^9eIal|rter is dialectic for Ijoc^gele^rt. 

987. ' I bring it to you and drink to ' (in German 3Utrtnfen) 
*your good health.' 

993. It is very rarely that the first and third lines of a quatrain 
are unrhymed in German poetry. Gothe no doubt 
intended to represent by a less musical verse the more 
prosaic nature and speech of the common people. The 
words he uses in the two addresses of the old peasant 
are the simplest and plainest ; the tone of the verses is 
entirely that of prose. 



1000. * When he set a limit to sickness.' Seuc^e is from the 
same root as the English word * sick.' Faust's father 
had been a physician. 

1007. beii)Sfjrt=* skilled and tried.' 

icx)9, 10 10. 'To Him above bow down, my friends, 

Who teaches help, and succom' sends. ' 

Bayard Taylor. 

1011-1021. The delight in praise and the self - exultation 
arising from praise are qualities especially character- 
istic of small minds. — Das Penerabtle is the conse- 
crated < Host ' which is sometimes solemnly carried 
through the streets in foreign {i.e, Roman Catholic) 

1034. bunfler (Hf^rentnaitTt; t.e, *a great man living in 

obscurity and retirement.' 

1035. ,bte IjetUgen Krctfe' ber ttatnr are the regions of 

growth and decay. Cf. in Gothe's poem, * Das 
Gottliche '— 

,7Xaii eirlgen, cljemen grojyen (Sefe^en mflffcn 
JPir alle unferes Dafcins Kreife voUtnben/ 

1036. 1037. 3^ Hcbltc^fcit = * with honest effort ' ; mit griHett* 

ijaf ter HTiitje = * with self- willed, not methodical, 
effort ' ; hence with fruitless, vain effort. 

1038. 2(bepten (Lat. cuieptus, from adipiscor)^ * those who have 

attained.' In the Middle Ages alchemists, philo- 
sophers, and physicians — all those whose end in life 
was the discovery of the Philosopher's Stone — were 
called adepts. 

1039. f(^tPar3e Kiic^e=* dusky workshop, where black arts 

were practised ' ; i,e, * a laboratory.' * The black art * 
is supposed to be the same as necromancy, which is a 
form of the word veKpo/iou^Tela (which means prophesy- 
ing by means of summoning up or back those who are 
dead). But in translating necromancy * black art* 
the Latin nt^ry * black,' has become confounded with 
the Greek vcKp^, * dead.' 

1 04 1 . Das IPtbrtge = * opposing substances. ' 

1 042- 1048. Gothe uses the technical language of the alche- 
mists. The so-called metallic seed produced by the 



melting of gold was called tin. rottjer Cett, the seed 
produced by the melting of silver was called bie £tlte ; 
both were mingled together^ and the product of the 
two was called bie jttnge Kont^tn. If that which 
was called ;bie junge KSnigin' appeared in the 
chemist's glass, then it was thought the Philosopher's 
Stone was found. 2Iit5 etnem Brautgetnac^ ins 
anbere gequdit means, 'driven by heat from one 
vessel into another.' 

1050. £attDergen, Lat. eUctuarium ; Itl. lattuario: I^oniff^eit 
fattpergen = ' hellish confections.' 

1053. ®'f^ — ^^ *^^ sense of * remedy ' — is here made masculine, 
whereas it is neuter when it means < poison.' In the 
Bavarian dialect ber (5ift means * anger J* 

1055. It is, I think, DUntzer who conjectures that Gothe took 
the idea of this helpful activity of Faust, upon which 
the episode with the peasants rests, from the history 
of Nostradamus. In the year 1525, when Nostra- 
damus was twenty -two years old, Provence was 
devastated by a pestilence. The young physician 
went boldly from house to house, through the villages, 
and saved the lives of many of the sick, himself 
escaping all infection. 

1064. Faust interrupts the chatter of Wagner, and proceeds 
vrith his own thoughts. 

1072. Ste riicft unb tpetd^t, i.e. the sun is setting ; Faust follows 
in imagination, and longs for wings to carry him on- 
ward towards the sun, over the infinite sea. 

1083. auf ttjun = * to open up.' 

1084. bic (Sottin, i.e. *the sea.' 

1084-1099. The impulse to follow after awakes anew in him. 
But no wings of the body can be like the wings of the 
soul. Yet the desire to soar away from earth is bom 
with every man (,Z)oc^ tft es jebem etngeborcn'). 
With these lines compare the passage in Werther 
beginning : ,lPte oft \\Qh^ tc^ TTltC^ mtt ^itttgen CtltCS 
tKrantd?s, ber iiber mtc^ I?tnfIog, 3U oem Ufer bes 
tingemeffenen HTeeres gefel^nt . . . ' (Cagebuc^ oom 
^8 2(uguft, Werther' s Leiden^ I Theil). In a letter 
written to Riese in April 1766, and in letters written 



from Switzerland in 1765, we find the same yearn- 
ing to escape firom earth. These lines — 1084- 1099 
— would seem to belong to this period of his life, 

1 108. pergamen(t) = * parchment* Wagner, pedantic, book- 
wormish, dry-as-dust as ever ! 

1 1 10. * You know only one impulse, one motive ; but you 
are happier than I am.* Faust, violent, Titan- 
like, strives to overstep the botmds that are set to 
human knowledge. Two souls dwell within him ; 
the one soul holds him down to earth and reality, the 
other would raise him upward into an ideal region of 
higher aspiration. Cf. in Wieland's Lyrical Drama 
Die Wahl des Herkules (1773) the verse — 
,<Q ®dttin I Cdfe mir 
Dos Hdifffel meines ^erjens anf I 
§»o Seeint — 5u gcwtf fflljl' idj's I — 
§n>o Scelen Mmpfen in meiner Bntfl.' 

1 1 16. Dttji, a rare Low German word for ,5taub' and ,Dunjl.' 

Gothe uses it again in Faust^ Part II., in the Bacca- 
laureus Scene (Act II.) 

1 1 17. ,gtt ^tti <5ef!Iben ^o\[tx 7X\\mnJ Such lines as 1. 1 1 17 

hint at the belief that there had been a higher, 
diviner origin of mankind, that man had lost a 

1 1 18- 1 125. In his conversations, Gothe more than once spoke 
of his youthful belief in spirits, even relating circum- 
stances when he fancied their presence was revealed 
to him. This passage is, I think, an expression of 
such belief. Wagner, however, who comprehends 
nothing but the dry learning with which he is 
crammed, sees in Faust*s words only a reference to 
the Weather Spirits, and takes the opportunity of 
displaying his own knowledge. 

1 1 27- 1 146. In old German superstitions there were spirits of 
the air — a spirit of the North Wind, of the South 
Wind, of the East Wind, of the West Wind. In the 
oldest Faust book (1587), the Devil describes them 
to Faust. 

1 1 30. There is a curious allusion in Burton's Anatomy of 



Melancholy y Part I., to tliis belief in the presence of 
invisible spirits : — * The air is not so full of flies in 
summer as it is at all times of invisible devils, — ^this 
Paracelsus stiffly maintains.* 

1 1 38. geipanbt = * prompt. ' 

1 141. Unb Itspein cnglifc^, loenn fie Iiigen = *They lisp like 

angels, and lead men astray.* I have seen an amus- 
ing translation of this line: *They lisp in English 
when they lie.* 

1 142. ergraut=* grown dark,* ue, the sun had set, and the 

evening red was gone. 

1 1 46. ergretf cn = * lay hold on. * 

1 147. fhreifcn = * to course.' 

1 1 47- 1 156. Faust's receptive (at|nungst>oU) nature sees far 
more than the sober conventional Wagner, who is 
afraid of spirits, but is unconscious of their presence 
when they come. Part of the old legend is, that 
Mephistopheles used to be seen following Faust in 
the shape of a dog. 

1 1 52. Sconce? enJreife = * spiral circles. ' 

'^54' ^euerprubel. Grimm {Wdrterbtuh) explains as vortex 
ignist ue, *a whirling, circling fire*; but we may 
translate it here < trail of fire.* 

1 1 58. Sc^Itn^en = * snares.* Observe Faust is quite regardless 

of Wagner here. 

1 1 59. §tt fiinfttgem Sanb, i.e. 'hereafter to entangle us.* 

1 1 64. fnttrrt=* growls.' 

1 1 65. tpebelt = * wags the tail. * 

1 169. Ijinauf fheben, here = * gambol up.' 

1 1 J^. Dreffur = ' training. * 

1 175. getPOgen (with dative). A wise man will even tolerate 
a dog. Wagner thinks it necessary to make excuses 
for Faust's noticing the dog. 

1 177. Scolar, Lat. scolaris; Itl. scolare. 



Faust's Study ; Faust refreshed, and more at rest than in the 
first Scene. 


1 1 83. tingeftum = * passionate. * 
C!jun=* action.* 

1 1 85. Die £tcbe (Sottcs (obj. genit), 1.^. Move to God.' One 

recalls here a passage in Dichtung u, Wahrhsit^ Book 
xiv. — ,3cnes ipunberltd^e IDort (Spinoza's) „lDer 
(5oit rec^t Itebt, mug ntc^i Derlangen, ha^ (9ott ii{n 
totebet Itebe, ' ' erfulltc metn ^axv^zs TXa^^znUn. lln« 
etgennit^tg vol fetn in 2U(em, am Unetgennii^tgften 
in £tcbe uno (^rcunbfc^aft, ipar metne lj3d^jie f uft 
. . .' Schroer bids us here compare Gothe's poem, 
*Weltseele.' Yet how far Gothe's imselfishness ex- 
tended, whether it really went beyond thought and in- 
tention, is perhaps uncertain. 

1 186. Observe the dog always howls when Faust speaks of 

holy things. 

1 187. fc^nopern is the English word 'snuffle.' The dog is 

smelling at the Pentagram on the door. 

1200, 1 20 1. Obscure lines such as these were surely written in 
the first passionate fit of inspiration, but they became 
so firmly fixed and grafted in the first version of the 
poem that Gothe left them untouched when he 
worked out the Faust Fragment in succeeding years. 
They would be hard lines to explain, yet we feel 
somehow what they mean. 

1 206. Some editors take this unrh3m[ied line into the following 
line : I follow Schroer's example, and leave it by 

12 10. Faust becomes restless through the near presence of 

I2I2-I223. Efibrt and work can refresh him and shield him 
from temptations from within. So he turns to the 
Gospel of St. John. This he will translate into 
German, his own mother -tongue, — the language 
of all that is natural and loveable. According to 
Widmann's Faust book Mephistopheles forbade Faust 
to read the Gospel of St. John. 



I220. inic^ brSn9ts = * I feel impelled.' 
1224. See St. John i. i. 

1237. ,3m 2lnfang wax bic ^}:iatJ Here, as elsewhere in 

Faust, Gothe exalts action above thought or word : 
,T>as tjl ber IDetsIjett lefttcr 5(^In§.' It is not so 
much fulfilment as fulfilling that is of worth in his 
eyes, it is the doing, the effort to do. 

1238. The words of St. John, to which the evil spirit present 

had a special antipathy, compel him grradually to 
betray his presence. Faust's activity, too, and joy in 
his work must gradually have withdrawn him out of 
Mephistopheles' power and reach. It is full time 
for him to become visible ; he howls and barks (l^eult 
ixnh beKt)) and increases in size, so that the room is 
filled with his presence. 

1256. * Now I am sure of thee ! ' 

1258. SalomontS Sc^Iiiffel {Clavicula Salomonis) seems to 
have been the name of a book which gave instruction 
in the conjuring of spirits. King Solomon had come 
to be regarded as the discoverer of the art of magic 

1 260. !^au§en = ,\(\z angen.' 

1262. §agi=' quakes.' 

1272. Spmc^ ber Dierc is the mode of invoking the four spirits 
of the elements. In Marlowe's Faust, also, the 
spirits of the elements are invoked. What Faust 
wishes to discover is whether any one of these four is 
lurking in the mysterious shape. 

1273-1276. Salamanbcr, the Fire-Spirit; UnbettC, the Water- 
Spirit ; Sylpt^e, the Air- Spirit ; Kobolb; the Earth- 
Spirit, — but not the great (Erbgetft, whom he has 
invoked before. At 1. 1290 Kobolb is translated by 
Incubus. The Romans understood by 'Incubus* a 
spirit that watches over treasure, or later, a spirit that 
oppresses men when sleeping ; and later still, a mis- 
chievous household sprite. Kobold is from the Gr. 
ic6/9a\o$, t,e. a rogue, a knave. Cf. Grimm's Deutsche 
Mythologie, Eng. translation, pp. 501, 502. 

1291. mac^c ben 5d?Iu§= *make an end.' 

1300. flet^ btes geict^en, *he makes the sign of the Cross,' or 



possibly a sign in which appear the letters I.H.S., 

— the three initial letters (Greek) of our Lord's name. 

1304. Periporfenes lDefcn=* outcast.' 

1306. Den nte entfpro^nen, Le, the name of Him who has 
been from eternity. 

1 307- 1 309. Unansgcfproc^cn, *the name which never shall 
be spoken ; the name which fills all the heaven ; the 
name of Him whom they pierced.* 

1 313. 'It will disperse as vapour.' 

1 31 7. 3c^ pcrfcngc btc^ mit Ijetltgcr £oI^e refers to the 
thrice -fold glowing light of 1. 13 19, and means a 
sign — the sign of the Trinity, which Faust holds up 
before Mephistopheles. 

1322. Mephistopheles, see above, note to 1. 271, 'Prologue in 
Heaven.' ^vx f aijrenber Sd^olafticus means * a (men- 
dicant) travelling scholar.' In 1. 1324 Scolafit stands 
for Sc^oIafitCUS* In the Faust book Mephistopheles 
appears in the form of a gray monk or abbot (see 
Dds dlteste Faustbtuh^ Wortgetreuer Abdruck von 
Kiihne). The historic Faust was himself a travelling 
scholar ; so too was Paracelsus. 

1324. Cafus = (German, ^all) 'event,' 'result.* He means 
the fact that the poodle has changed into a scholar. 

1326. tPctMic^ = * soundly,' 'bravely.* Mephistopheles speaks 
sarcastically, referring to Faust's labours at St. John 
i. I. 

1 334. ^Jlicgengott, (JItegcnfiirji, and jjltegcnmann were names 
given to the Devil. The ((Itegengott is Beelzebub ; 
Derberber = * destroyer ' — the angel of the abyss, 
Rev. ix. II \ji,e, Abaddon, Apollyon, Gr. diroXXiJwi') ; 
£iigner, — in St. John's Gospel, viii. 44, the Devil is 
called a murderer and a liar. 

1336. bas Bofe, *eviI,'/>. 'destruction.* 

bas (8nte, 'good,' ue. 'creation,* 'production.* 
1338. ' I am the spirit that denies. * 
1 340. 31^ IPertt^ = * deserves. ' 
1344. In the scholastic teaching of the Middle Ages the Devil 

was looked upon as the Executioner, the FulfiUer of 

the justice of God. 



1347. XVenn here has the force of tnbem; — bte fletne 
Xtarrenipclt = * the mikrocosmic fool.* 

1350. In the teaching of the Greeks as to the creation of the 
world, darkness came into being before light ; so too 
in the account given in Gen. i. 2, 3. Observe 
.Mephistopheles' enmity to light ; he understands 
clearly the spiritual and physical identity of light 
and life. One may compare here verse 4 of the 
first chapter of St. John's Gospel — * That was the true 
light ; and the light was the life of men.' 

1354. * Still fettered unto bodies cleaves.* 

1358. iptrb es, i.e. ,bas £tc^t' — 311 (5runbe geticn* 

1360, 1 36 1. *Thou canst not work general ruin, so thou 
beginnest with small things.* 

1 363- 1 366. *That which opposes itself to Nothingness — that 
Something of a clumsy world, however much I have 
tried, I could not get at it (I have not disturbed it). 
Spite of waves, storms, earthquakes, firte, sea and 
land remain undisturbed.' 

1 368. (5erut{tg means * perfectly quiet ' — 0e being a strengthen- 

ing particle. 

1369, 1370. bem tjcrbammten gcug . . . ift nic^ts ansu^aben 

= * there is nothing to be made of this damned stuff, 
this beastly human brood.' 

i374> 1 375' X)er £uft, bcm IDaffcr i»te ber €rben €ntwxnbtn 
tanfenb Ketme ftc^ = ' In air, in water, and on earth 
a thousand germs break forth and grow.' Gothe once 
said to Eckermann : ' Let men continue to worship 
Him who gives the ox his pasture, and to man food 
and drink according to his need. But I worship Him 
who has filled the world with such a prodigious 
energy, that if only the millionth part became em- 
bodied in living existences, the globe would so swarm 
with them that war, pestilence, flood, and fire would 
be powerless to diminish them. That is my God. ' 

1377- btc ^lamme, flames in which nothing living can exist. 

1379* tege, adj., * moving,' * in motion.' 

1382. tiicftfc^ bant= *is wickedly clenched.' 

1384. Mephistopheles has called himself above (1. 1350) ,(Etn 



(El^ctl ber ^injierni§, bie bas £tc^t gcbar/ so here 
Faust names him a son of Chaos, and a httle later on 
a son of Hell. 

1392. (Ettt Hauc^f ang, etc, * there is a chimney for you too.' 

1395- Drubenfu§. The Drube is in German mythology a 
female demon that oppresses men when asleep. 
Drubc has nothing to say to the Keltic word Druid. 
There is an Old High German word trfit, and in Old 
Norse a XVaUivLXt is called Thnidhr, In Middle 
High German the word trutenfu03 is 
used for a protecting sign as early as the 
fourteenth century. The sign has the 
well-known five-sided form. Faust uses 
for Drubenfu^, the learned expression 
Pentagramma (also called Pentalpha, 
because five A's can be made out of it). Compare in 
Tennyson's * Brook ' — 

' But Katie snatched her eyes at once from mine, 
And sketching with her slender pointed foot 
Some figure like a wizard's pentagram 
On garden gravel, let my query pass. ' 

It is here supposed that spirits cannot enter a room if 
there is a Prubenfuf over the threshold, and if the 
comers of the Dmbcnfu^ are well closed and met 
together. On the side towards the outside they were 
not securely closed, hence Mephistopheles could get 
in; but on the inner side the. comers of the figure 
were well closed, hence he could not get out again. 

1403. * What a happy chance.' 

1417. ab9e3iDarft = * cut off. ' 

1420. Ijod? VixCo Ijoc^jl, both adverbs (tjoc^ft for dm l|3d?ften). 

1423. gutc tnSr* is an expression for *good news,' *good 

tidings,' — in Middle High German 0UOttU maere. 

In Luther's Weihnachtlied we find gutc neue HTdr. 

1426. nac^flellen (with the dative) = * to set snares around or 

for any one.' 

1427. (5arn, literally * thread,' here * meshes.' 

1 430- 1 433. Mephistopheles has bethought him of a way of 
escape, — he will have Faust lulled and charmed to 



1438. (Einerlet = * monotony.* In the Faust book of 1587 

Mephistopheles devises a spirit-play and spirit-song 
for Faust's entertainment: ,Z)em ^auji 9^ft^I ^^s 
(Saufelfptel WoL' The song now sung tells the 
dreams which pass before Faust as he sleeps : — The 
arched ceiling opens, the starry heaven is covered 
with clouds, the clouds vanish and the stars appear ; ♦ 
the children of heaven float past, they awaken a 
longing to follow after them, the folds of their gar- 
ments cover over what is earthly, — lands, bowers 
where lovers linger. Mephistopheles* purpose in 
this spirit-play is to awaken in Faust the longing for 
earthly pleasures of every kind, and to draw him 
away from the wish for real earnest work, which 
must have brought him peace at the last. 

1 453- scrronnen = * scattered. ' 

1467. fic^ depends on q^i^vx in 1. 1469. 

1 47 1 . Sproffenbe 'B,OXi^tXi = * budding tendrils. ' 

1472. *The weight of the grapes is crushed down into the vats 

of the wine-press. ' 

1476. * Foaming wine flows in streams, pours through jewelled 
cups and vessels ' ; perhaps this is the meaning of 
* through clear precious stones,' — but the whole poem 
is most fanciful. 

1482. urns (Seniigen = um has (Seniigcn = um bic (Jiille bcr 
^tiinenbcr ^ii^cl = * round the crowd of green hills. ' 

1 484. has OefTiigel = * birds. ' 

1490. ftc^ gauMnb beipegen = * they mirror themselves in the 


1 49 1. From the islands we hear the people merry-making and 


1 502. 3um £cben = * lifeward.' 

1503. * All towards the distant stars of rapture and love.' 

1509. Cf. 11. 1428, 1429. 

1 5 16. In all mythologies certain animals are sacred to the gods, 
but in German Mythology certain animals {e.g-, cats, 
ravens, mountain-cocks, snakes, adders, toads, spiders, 
caterpillars, gnats), likewise, are sacred to the spirit of 
evil — a notion which is foreign to classical mythology. 



1520. When some spot or some thing is reverently anointed 
with oil, it is thereby dedicated to God ; when, on 
the contrary, it is Mephistopheles who anoints, then 
the anointing must have a contrary effect, and the 
spot or thing become sacred to him. 

'525» iJaufte, voc. case of Faustus (in Latin, *the fortunate 
one '). Faustus was the name of the ' famous doctor ' 
—^famous in l^end and story. 

1527. geifterretc^c Prang = * spiritual sway.' 


As to the characters of Faust and Mephistopheles, Gothe, 
talking to Eckermann, once said : * Faust is so singular a being 
that only a few persons can reproduce his spiritual condition in 
their own minds. The character of Mephistopheles, too, through 
his irony and as the living result of a vast observation of the 
world, is very difficult to comprehend. He is too negative to 
be demoniac' 


1535. ebler ^nnht=*3i squire of high degree.' Mephis- 
topheles' dress on the Puppet Stage was a red tunic 
under a long mantle of black silk, and a cock's feather 
in his hat. Gothe retains this costume, and this 
was the dress worn by Mephistopheles when I saw 
the Play acted in Germany in 1879. In the very 
remarkable representation of Faust at the Lyceum 
Theatre (1885-86), Mr. Irving wears a similar dress, 
except that his long cloak is scarlet, not black. 

1 540. fur3 unb gut ratl^cn = to counsel briefly and appositely — 
(fur5 unb gut is the same as the English phrase 
* short and sweet '). 

1545-1561. These are amongst the saddest, bitterest lines in the 
poem, ,Unfer ptjyfi[c^es foujol als gefclltgcs £ebcn, 
Sttten, (gcipotjnijetten, IDeltflugljett, J[)l|iIofopf^tCr 
Heltgion — Allies ruft uns 3U : ba% wiv entfagcn 

foKen.' — Dicktung und Wahrheit, 16 Buch. But 
Faust's whole nature revolts against this ; he has 
reached mature and perfect manhood ; he is between 
forty and fifty years old ; he is too young to be with- 



out desires. And after all, the question of renuncia- 
tion is the most difficult of all problems. It buys for 
us the peace which passeth all understanding ? yes, 
but at what price ? 

I553-I5S7' Cf. Job vii. 13, 14, 15 — *When I say, My bed 
shall comfort me, my couch shall ease my complaint ; 
then thou scarest me with dreams, and terrifiest me 
through visions : so that my soul chooseth strangling, 
and death rather than life.' 

1558. Der, ue, ber Cag. 
1559- Kr ittcl = * cavilling. ' 

1 56 1 . febensf ra^en = * grinning masks of life.' 

1562, 1563. The spirit -song and spirit -play called up by 

Mephistopheles have banished all the peace and feel- 
ing of restfulness which the hymns had brought him. 

1569. * He cannot move external forces.* 

1572. The scornful words of Mephistopheles (here and in 11. 
1579, 1580) refer to Faust's resolve as to self-murder 
in Scene iii., and are meant to goad him on to the 
outburst of passion and despair which follows. 

1577. i*e. *0h, had I perished before the power and might of 
the Earth-Spirit'; cf. 1. 517. 

1 58 1. * 'Tis then your practice to play the spy's part.' 

1 583. bent fc^retf lichen (Semiil^re refers to the storm of thoughts 

in Faust's breast. 

1584. €in fiig befannter for etn fii§er befannter is quite per- 

missible and regular. 

1586. ^Inflang froljcr gctt, 'echoes of happier times.' 

1 589. Crauerljol^Ie = 3ammertt|al = vale of sorrow. 

1 587- 1 606. Faust's curse, which includes even the sentiment of 
childish faith that returned to him on the Easter 
morning, places him unconsciously in the power of 
Mephistopheles. The Chorus of Spirits points out his 
rupture with the order of life and of goodness. The 
pure spirits, who direct the harmonies of existence, 
lament over Faust's conduct, and warn him ; but 
Mephistopheles calls these voices altflug, and brings 
forward the conditions of his compact, promising 



delights, which in anticipation appear worthless to 
Faust. The lament of the spirits is certainly not 
ironical, as some have thought, nor are the spirits evil 
spirits, as Mephistopheles asserts. Evil spirits would 
not cry out Wel\ I IDelj I as these do. On the con- 
trary, the course of the drama, as it is afterwards 
developed, is here shadowed forth by the spirits, and 
Mephistopheles no more comprehends them than 
Faust does. He is deceived, as in the Fifth Act of the 
Second Part. [The substance of this note is taken 
from an excellent note of Bayard Taylor's.] 

1607. In the Puppet Play there is, too, an invisible choir of 
warning spirits. In Marlowe's Fausi^ likewise, appear 
a good and a bad angel, who, in decisive moments, 
after their manner, give good or bad counsel. 

1 6 14. bie Criimmern bcr fc^onen IDelt, ue. 'the ruins of Faust's 
fair ideal world.' In the Austro-Bavarian dialect the 
singular bas (Erumm is found. By a blunder the 
plural of (Erumm, btc Criimmer, came to be looked 
on as a feminine singular (cf. bie 3eere out of 
'bfXS Beer), and hence arose the plural form bie 
Crrimmern. Der Criimmer and bas Criimmer are 
also found. 

1616. Sc^one for Sc^onljett. 

1 6 1 7. inSd^ttger, ' Thou, who hast shown Thyself to be mighty. ' 

1 6 19. prac^ttger is comparative, and an adverb. 

1626. It is quite impossible for me to believe that this chant is 
sung by evil spirits. It is an echo of the words 
spoken by the Good Angel in Marlowe's Play, who 
lingers near Faust and mourns over his fall. 

1 627-1634. Mephistopheles tries to prove that they are his 
children, and not the children of light, who are 
singing. Observe how he mimics and caricatures 
their measure and manner. 

1635-1638. Before these lines we must imagine Mephistopheles 
to have paused. Then he speaks words, simple, 
kind, human, and to the point, which any one might 
have spoken to Faust in his then condition. 

1 639- 1 648. He then goes on to suggest remedies for Faust's 
griefs and misery. 



1640. pacf meant originally (5epdcf, and gradually came to 
mean the people who carry bas (SepScf (luggage). 
Mephistopheles uses it contemptuously, and means 
common, low people. 

1646. (Sefelle means here a Kamerabe (i.e. *one who inhabits 
the same Kammcr'), Eng. 'comrade.* (Sefelle is in 
Old High German fafaljo, *one who occupies the 
same Saal as another person.' 

1649. At first Mephistopheles evades Faust's question, ,VOas 
foil tc^ ba^ZQtn bir erf iillen ? ' and then he clothes 
his demands in the most harmless dress. 

1 661 -1 670. Sc^ISgft bvL erfl biefc IDelt 3U Criimmcrn . . ., 
the meaning is, * If you take this world from me, 
what then follows is indifferent to me, for I was 
created for this world ; our feelings, our desires, our 
loves, and our hates were meant for this world, — ^what 
do I care for a world where there is no scope, no 
need for them ?' 

1663. qutllen for qucllen. The intransitive verb quellen, 
quelle, qutUft, qutUt, quoll, gequollen (with the 
stem -vowel i) — to be distinguished from the causal 
verb quellen, quelle, quellft, quellt, quellte, gequellt 
(with the stem -vowel a) — is found occasionally in 
Gothe spelt qutllen not quellen. (Qutllen is the 
Low German form. Cf. brtngen for brSngen, 1. 

1670. (Etn (Dhm ober Unten gtbt; cf. in Wilhelm MHster, 

in the Confessions of a Beautiful Soul : * Oh, why 
must we, in order to speak of such things, use images, 
which only represent external conditions ? Where is 
there anything high or low, obscure or enlightened, 
in His sight ? We only have an above and below, a 
night and a day. And just therein did Christ resemble 
us, because we should otherwise have no share in 
Him.' Cf. also Mephistopheles' words after the com- 
pact has been signed : * And you He dowers with day 
and night,' 1. 1784. 

1675. From the very first the superiority of Faust to Mephis- 
topheles is evident. The narrow limits of Mephis- 
topheles' nature can comprehend nothing ideal ; his 



pettiness and heartlessness have only to do with what 
is finite. This Faust perceives and asserts. 

1686, 1687. Faust has gone over all the pleasures, the worth- 
lessness of which he knows, and now breaks off, 
impatient, with the words — 

* Show me the fruits, that ere they're gathered rot, 
And trees that dailytwith new leafage clothe them. ' 

Thus scornfully describing the cheating, disappointing, 
inadequate character of all the desires of men to a 
human soul in its supreme endeavour. 

1 688- 1 692. Mephistopheles only half understands Faust, and 
takes his words quite literally. 

1 692- 1 698. Faust, in his despair, agrees to what Mephistopheles 
offers, but yet declares that what is offered is worth- 
less. If the day should ever come when common 
joys and low aims satisfy him, when he shall give up 
his ideal strivings, may it be his last day. Low 
aims can as little satisfy him as low pleasures can 
delight him. 

1693. fei CS um mic^ gctf^an, *may it be all over with me.' 

1698. (Eop = *done.* French, toper =* to agree'; Italian, 

topare ; Spanish, topar. 

Utlb Sdc^aq, auf Sd^Iag refers to hand-clasping ; Mephis- 
topheles has first laid his hand on Faust's and said, * I 
agree ' ; Faust now lays his hand on Mephistopheles' 
and says, ,Sc^Ia9 auf Sc^Ia^' = * my hand on it !' 

1699. The wager is this : If Faust can find the peace for 

which he longs for one moment's time, if Mephis- 
topheles can satisfy him with enjoyment for one 
moment, then all is one to him, then he surrenders 
himself to Mephistopheles. The one moment of 
supreme contentment is for Faust a symbol of 
endless capacity for happiness. The wager with 
Mephistopheles rests upon this couplet, which we 
must bear in mind, until we meet it again at the close 
of Part II.— 

,lDcrbe id? sum ^lugenbltrfe fagen 

Pcrtpeile bodj, bu btjt fo fdjon/ 

1 707. * Weigh thy words well : I shall not forget them. ' 



1 709. freoentltc^ = * wantonly. ' 
©ermcffen = * boasted.' 

1 7 10. XVxe xdi bcfjarre=*so long as I remain here,' t.e, *so 

long as I live. ' 

171 1. 0b betn, etc., bctn gen. sing., i.e. *of thee, or of whom, 

what care I?' 

1 712. Poctorfc^maus, i.e. tMe banquet given on the taking 

of a Doctor's degree. "When writing these lines 
Gothe must have meditated a scene describing such a 
banquet, and must have afterwards forgotten all about 
it, as, so far as we know, no such scene ever formed 
part of the poem. 

1 7 14. Hm £ebens ober Sterbens it>inen=*in case of either 
life or death,' i.e. *as life or death is uncertain.' 

1 7 16. We feel how useless and ludicrous such a written agree- 
ment is. If Faust is ever satisfied with himself, ever 
lajrs himself down upon a bed of idleness, ever bids 
time pause because he is happy, t^n he shall have 
attained his heart's desire, and will care nothing for 
what follows. — Xbe deeper meaning that Mephis- 
topheles has not the power to draw Faust's spirit 
away from its ideal hopes and aims, Faust himself 
does not clearly see. He sees only that man as a 
mortal being is bound and limited by this life, and 
he hopes for no satisfaction from earthly enjo3nnent. 
The ideal life in the midst of earthly things shall 
become clearer to Faust as time goes on, but not 
through Mephistopheles, — rather in spite of Mephis- 
topheles. Peace and content are hindrances to 
Mephistopheles, — but in his conception they cannot 
really exist at all, because they are part of the ideal 

1 719. fc^aIten=*to rule,' * dispose'; fc^alten mtt means here 
*to guide,' * control.' 

1 722- 1 723. *Yet this delusion (that such things as truth and 
steadfastness exist) is rooted in our hearts, and is 
there any one that would be undeceived?' 

1727- ein (Sefpenft, etc., i.e. *a spectre, before which all 

1728. The meaning is, *the pen robs words of all their life.' 

SCfiNE IV. NOTES. 265 


1729. Ceber Gothe here uses for pergament=* parchment.* 
Old MSS. were often written on skins. The mean- 
ing is, * sealing-wax and parchment are our masters.' 

1737. The sentence, * Non Sacramentum sine sanguine,' may 
lie at the bottom of this requirement, for the Devil 
is the imitator of God. The signature with blood 
comes in the Theophilus legend, in the Faustbuch 
of 1587, in Marlowe's Dr, Faustus (?I590), and 
in the German Puppet Play, where Gothe had 
become familiar with it. The idea was borrowed 
from ancient German Mythology, where we find, if 
two persons wished to make a covenant together for 
life and for ever, they let some drops of their blood 
flow together, and then drank it. 

1739* iwfec = Poffe= 'Joke,''* so let the joke stand.' 

1 741 -1 759. A speech full of despair; the great spirit (ber <Erb» 
getft) has despised him ; the thread of thought is 
broken ; he will strive no more and search no more, 
but will seek forgetfulness in stultifying pleasure. 

1752, 1753. *In the impenetrable cloak of magic, let every 
wonder be at once prepared.' 

1754. \i<XS Haufc^en bcr 5ctt= * the rush and hurry of time '; 
bas Hollen ber 3e9ebcn{jett=*the rush and roll of 
circumstance. ' 

1757. t)erbru§ = ' vexation '; but here perhaps * failure.' 

1759. * Restlessness is man's best activity.' 

1762. 3^ ^lieljen =* while upon the wing.' 

1763. Sefomm' = 3d sing. pres. subj. = *may it agree with 


1764. bIobe= 'bashful.' 

1765. Dtt tjoreft ia= * listen now ' (as I told you before, I tell 

you again). 

1 766. X)em Cauntel = * to rapturous excitement I dedicate 

myself.' Love, the only passion in which selfishness 
changes into renunciation, becomes degenerate in him 
who heartlessly seeks only his own enjo3niient. In 
such love, where there is not even reverence for the 
loved one, there is no peace, it is only agonising 
pleasure, idolising hatred, inspiring anguish. 


1 768, 1 769. From here on there is a change of tone. Behind 

the passionate sensual desires awakened by Mephis- 

topheles we dimly see and feel the theories of the 

idealist. Because other men have loved and suffered 

through love, Faust will go and do likewise. 

* My bosom, which is healed from greed of knowledge, 
shall henceforth close itself against no sorrows.* A 
few moments before Faust had in despair expressed 
his resolve to cast himself into the wild rapture of 
sensual pleasure, thus giving himself wholly into the 
power of the Evil One ; but here his better self rises 
up, and once more he eludes Mephistopheles* grasp. 
The craving for completeness of knowledge is stilled; 
he is now filled with longing for completeness of life. 
The weal and woe of* men he will share, its heights 
and its depths, — *and they and I at last together 
perish. * 

1770. In the Faust Fragment the Scene * Faust and Mephis- 
topheles* begins here. Every earlier mention of 
Mephistopheles is wanting, that is — everything be- 
tween the lines 605 and 1770. 

1775. 3crfc^eitern = *to make shipwreck.* 

1 776- 1 784. No man can enjoy and comprehend complete ful- 
ness of life, — this ,3ft Tiur fiir etnen (Sott gemacf^t.' 
Gothe himself often speaks through the mouth of 

1 782-1 784. * God dwells Himself in eternal light ; us devils He 
has banished into darkness ; to you belong day and 

1785. FausL *But I will!' Mephistopheles. *A brave reply. 
To me there seems to be only one obstacle, ars longa^ 
vita brevis,^ 

1 788-1802. Suppose you let yourself be taught. You can do all 
this in imagination, not in reality ; go make a friend 
of some poet, let him wander in the fields of thought, 
and then endow you with every conceivable human 
quality. A man so endowed I should call Sir 
Microcosmus. — Again Mephistopheles misunderstands 
the idealism of Faust, and makes his aspirations 
appear ludicrous. 



The Macrocosmus is the universe, material, intellectual, 
spiritual, — the Microcosmus is man, the universe in 
miniature. Man, whose nature is tripartite, — material, 
intellectual, spiritual. 

1805. brtngcn for brdngcn. Cf. notes on 11. 142, 121 1, 
and 1663. 

1808. Socfen = lit. * socks,* here 'stilts.' 

1 8 1 1 . Ijerbetgeraff t = * heaped up. ' 

1 81 7. * As men view things.* 

1 818. * We must be wiser.' 

1 82 1, ^enfer is an oath — a German * Hang it !' 

1822. Here again Mephistopheles does not understand, or wil- 

fully misunderstands, Faust*s meaning. Cf. with 
these lines once more the following two lines from 
Gothe*s Prometheus: — 

,3ruber.— tDic oieles ijl \>^xw. bein? 
,PrometI)eus.— Der Kreis ber mcine ttJirffamfcit crfflUt." 

1 824- 1 826. *If I can pay for six horses, is not their strength 
mine ? I race along, and am as good a man as if I 
had four-and-twenty legs.* 

1830. Herder had earlier written (Frankf. gel. Anzeige 

20, 23 October, 1772) : ,5pecuIation als ^auptgc» 
fd?Sfte bcs £ebens, weld? elenbes (Scfc^Sftel' 

1 83 1, auf biirrer ^cibe= *on a barren moor.* 

1837. btc 'yxxKq^tXiS for ,bte '\!iXi(3iiZW.^ is Low German (Saxon), 

and is still in use ; cf. 1. 3019. B. Taylor translates 
it by 'students.* 

1838. IPanfl =* paunch, ' here used as descriptive of comfort- 

able self-satisfaction. XLd'icfdQX IDanfl accordingly 
means 'a first-rate commonplace Philistine.* 

1839. Here translate: *Why plague thyself with threshing 

straw for ever?* Straw has been already threshed, 
and no grain remains in it. 'In Klinger's Faust 
{Fausfs Lebetiy Thaien und HoUenfahrt, Petersburg, 
1 79 1) come the lines : ^UTan \(6xi bir noc^ tmmer an, 
\iOi% \iw. \>\&( mtt 53iid?ern abgegebcn unb auf leerem 
Strolj gebrofc^en t|aft.' 

1842. (Sletc^ = foeben. 



1847. * The disguise will become me well.' 

1849. * I only need a quarter of an hour's time ' to settle matters 
with him. 

1 85 1 - 1 855. * Go, despise reason and knowledge — man's highest 
powers ! By means of jii^ling and magic let thyself 
be strengthened by the spirit of lies, — then I have 
thee beyond question.' It has been said that these 
words are inconsistent with the character of Mephis- 
topheles ; I do not, however, think so. Surely one 
who knew as much as he must have been conscious 
how weary, stale, flat, and unprofitable would be all 
the pleasures he had to offer to Faust. And therefore 
he has made the covenant with Faust. Faust is to 
give up all, and the payment he is to receive will 
turn to dust and ashes in his grasp. [It is told of 
Lord Byron, who, if any man ever did, possessed all 
the things which make life desirable — rank, beauty, 
genius, fame, — that when asked, did he indeed find 
life delightful? he answered, *I enjoy nothing.'] 

1 858. iiberctit = * precipitate. ' 

i860. fc^Ieppen= * trail and drag.' 

1 86 1 . UnSebeutenl^eit for Unbebeutenbljett = ' insignificance. ' 

1862. 3appeln = * struggle. ' 
jlarren = * grow chill.' 
!Ieben=* stick,' * cling.' 

1863. 1864. This was the punishment of Tantalus. 

1865, 1866. ' And though he had not sold him to the devil, 

A soul like his could not escape from ruin. ' 

1 869. (Ergebcnljett = * devotion. ' 

In the conversation that follows Gothe is speaking 
through the mouth of Mephistopheles, and satirising 
German Universities, especially the teaching he had 
himself received at Leipzig. The Student we meet 
again in Part II., where he is called Baccalaureus. 

1874. * Have you perchance elsewhere begun ?' 

1875. * I pray you, accept me as a pupil.' 

1877. £etbad^em, that is, *a tolerable amount of money.' 


1878. * My mother would scarcely let me away from her.' 

1 88 1. * To tell you the truth, already I should like to be gone.' 

1884. befc^rdnher Haum = * a cramped, confined place.' 

1892. xDxxb es tudi geliiflcn = * will it delight you ?' geliiftcn, 
impers., with dat., lit. 'to long for anything.' 

1894. ii^rem, «*.<?. wisdom* s neck. 

1 895. Ijtngelangen = * attain to. ' 

'897. ^acultat. In German Universities there had been in early 
times three Faculties — (Sottesgelaljrttjcit, Hcd?ts« 
gclal^rtljett, and ^etlfunbe or VOtltwexslitii, — that 
is, Theology, Law, and -Philosophy (which included 
Medicine), the last a most comprehensive term. For 
some time Medicine and Philosophy had been 
separated, so that there were now four instead of three 

1 898- 1 90 1. The Student wishes to study Science and Nature, — 
the things which are in earth and heaven ; but 
practically, not theoretically. 

1 9 10. Mephistopheles advises him to begin with Logic, which 
was at the time the chief subject studied at German 
Universities by students in their first year. The art 
of arguing was so highly esteemed at the time that it 
had come by pedants to be confounded with thought 
itself. * Through rules of logic,' said Mephistopheles, 
'men learn to think, the mind is trained, drilled, 
screwed up in Spanish boots. Logic teaches us to do 
everything according to rule, in orderly fashion ; what 
you have heretofore done automatically, as, for 
example, to eat or to drink, you must henceforth do 
methodically, with a first place, and a second place, 
and a third place.' 

191 3« Stiefein is put for the more usual plural Stiefel. 
Spantfd^e Stiefel was a form of torture used during 
the Spanish Inquisition. 

1 9 1 4. bebdc^ttger = * more reflective. ' 

1 9 1 5. l^infc^Ieic^en = * i)lod along. ' 

1916. Kreu3 unb (23uer= *here and there,' *at random,' *zig 




19 1 7. 3^^^^^^^^^=*^^ shoot like a Will -o'-the- Wisp' {i,e. 

1 922- 1 927. *True it is, the machinery of thought is far too 
refined to be reduced to rules,' — in this interposed 
sentence Mephistopheles, soliloquising, speaks to him- 
self, and jeers at his own reasoning. 

1923. IDcbcrTnetjicrfiiicf = *a masterpiece of weaving'; cf. 
Gothe's Antepirrhenta^ Gedichte^ iii. 90 (Sammtliche 
Werke in 40 Bdn., 1827-42). 

1925. Sc^tffletn=* shuttle,' so called because a shuttle is the 
shape of a little ship. Cf. the French navette, 

1934. This line he speaks aloud : * Scholars everywhere speak 
in praise of this' ; and then adds to himself : * but they 
are no thinkers (IPeber) for all that.' 

1 936- 1 939. And now follow the lines, so crushing and anni- 
hilating for all pedants : * For he, who seeks to learn 
or give descriptions of a thing that lives, begins with 
driving out the spirit ; the limbs are there in his 
grasp, and all but that which gave them life !' 

1940, 1 94 1. Chemistry names this Encheiresin natura, — sneer- 
ing at itself, though this it knows not. Encheiresis 
(Gr. iyx^ifnjo'is) fiatura means literally *a treatment 
of nature ' ; here, however, Gothe seems rather to 
mean the mysterious, elusive fqrce by which nature 

1942. * I haven't a notion what you mean.' 

1 944. rcbuctren = * to reduce. ' 

1945- 9^^<>*^i9 clafftfictren = * appropriately to classify.' 

1949. The name Metaphysics from Aristotle's time on has been 
used to describe what is supersensual. The name 
arose from the order iij which Aristotle's writings 
were arranged. His book on immaterial things came 
/A€rA tA ^vaiKdf t.e, followed his book on rA ^v<r(,Kd {ue. 
his writings on natural science). 

1 950- 1 960. The humour of these lines needs no further com- 
ment, save that the Student takes it all in sober, solemn 
earnest. ,Da jctjt \>a% \\(c tief jtntttg fagt XOas in 
hts trtenfd?en ^irtt nt^t pagt.' Tr. * There see, or 
think that you see plain, what does not pass within 

the brain.' 


1955. *^^ order rigidly adhere. ' 

1959. pardgrapl^os, the accusative case plural of the Latin 
form, — i.e. according to paragraphs. 

1963. ber I^cilig (Sctft for bcr l^ciligc (Sctft. Gothe is fond of 
imitating the German of Hans Sachs, as when he 
writes ,ber grog <5ott,' or ,ctn fc^Iiid^ttfd? irjeis.' 
Such are peculiarities of dialect rather than archaisms. 
Cf. also in Gothe, ,ein tiid^ttg UTann' ; ,etn tl^Sttg 

1 964- 1 967. These four lines have become proverbial as de- 
scriptive of contemptible copying down and swearing 
by a teacher's words, without ever thinking out their 
meaning or reasoning as to their truth. 

1970. cuc^ is dat. or loc. case = * in you*; es is ace, governed 

by ncl^tnen ; fo fcl|r iibel = * so very ill ' ; iibel is an 
adverb. We have exactly the same phrase in English, 
i.e. *to take a thing ill.* 

1 97 1. um = * with,* i.e. * with this study.* 

1 972- 1979. * Laws and rights are transmitted like a sickness.' 
The legal decisions of past times are not in harmony 
with our present circumstances. Through privilege 
and through misuse of power wrong has taken the 
place of right in history and in tradition ; even our 
manner of viewing things is influenced by them. 
That which was wisdom originally is now become 
absurd, that which was once beneficent has become 

1986-2000. Mephistopheles has a horror of theology, and hence 
seeks by all and any means to repel the Student from 
studying it : * There is poison in it ; it is not very 
different from physic ; it is best for you to hear one 
teacher only, and to swear by his words.* And then 
(1994-2000) with truly devilish delight he praises the 
prevalent false manner of teaching of learned pedants, 
— above all things impressing on the Student the value 
of words — ,3m (5an3en, I^altet eud? an VOoxit I ' 

2001-2008. The perfect simplicity and innocence of the Sc^iiler 
are admirably described. 

2009-2010. The fashion in which Mephistopheles has been 

instructing the poor boy was devilish enough, althougJi__ 



he has been wearing the mask of a pedantic Professor. 

Up to this he has acted the part of a teacher, now 

the teacher shall act the part of the Devil. From 

this on he speaks as a cool, heartless man of the world. 

201 5. rtngsum miffcnfc^aftHc^ fc^weift = * that you drift round 
in the fields of science. ' 

2019. * You are fairly well made, you will not be wanting in 

2023. fiil^ren = * guide,* * influence.' 

2024, 2026. ' Their eternal complaining, manifold as it is, can 

all be cured in one way.* 

2029, 2030. 'A title .must first of all make them trust you, and 
show that your skill surpasses the skill of many.* 

2031. Literally, *you are welcome to touch all the bag and 
baggage * (Sicbenfac^en). 

2038, 2039. <5rau is the colour of ashes, neither hot nor cold ; 
griin is the colour of the plant's life. The tree of 
life is called golden, because from the earliest times 
gold has been esteemed as most precious, most beauti- 
ful of created things (cf. the phrase * Age of Gold '). 
These two lines have become a German proverb. 

204 1 . befc^iperen = * to trouble. * 

2042. auf belongs to I^dren. 
2045. Stammbuc^ = * album. ' 

2048. * Ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil.' 

2050. * One day thou shalt tremble at thy likeness to God.* 

2052. bie Flctne, bann bie gro§c VOtlt The substance of both 
Parts of Juiust is given in these two lines : the little 
world is Faust's individual experience of human 
desires and passions, — he issues forth from his seclusion 
to share in the ordinary history of men. — Here is the 
First Part of Faust, The great world is life on a 
wider stage of action ; intellectual forces are sub- 
stituted for sentiments and passions ; the narrow 
interests of the individual are merged in those of the 
race, and government, war, activity on a grand scale, 
take their place in order that Faust's knowledge of 
life and men shall be complete. — Here is the Second 
Part of Faust, 



2054. Curftim, Lat. ace. from cursus ; fc^ntaruftcn = * first to 

taste, then to experience.' It meant originally to be 
a guest at another's table. Schiller also uses the 

2055. *Just as my beard is too long for the fashion of to-day, 

so my manners are wanting in ease and knowledge 
of life.' 

2069, 2070. ^euerluft = * gas. ' About the year 1766 Caven- 
dish had discovered certain uses to which coal-gas 
might be applied, and in 1782 the Brothers Mont- 
golfier showed how gas could be used to raise a 
balloon from the earth. These discoveries had 
interested Gothe greatly, and in a letter to Lavater, 
written in 1783, he says: ,^x^o^tn Dtd^ ntc^t audf 
^ic £uftfaljrer? 3^ ^^9 ^^" ITtenfd^en gar ju 
gcrne fo etipas gcJnnen, 3etben, ben (2rpnbern 
unb ben gufc^auern.' 


The Scene is believed to have been written on 17th Septem- 
ber 1775. Gothe was well acquainted with Auerbach's cellar 
when he was a student in Leipzig. The tavern still exists. 
Two pictures hang on the walls : one represents Faust sitting 
at table drinking wine along with a number of students — under- 
neath is the inscription, * Vive, bibe, obgraecare, memor Fausti 
hujus, et hujus poense : aderat claudo haec, ast erat ampla, gradu 
(1525).' (Live, drink, carouse, remembering Faust and his 
punishment : it came with halting step, but was in ample 
measure.) The other represents Faust riding off out of the 
window upon a wine -cask. The inscription (in German 
doggerel) underneath has been thus translated by Professor 
Blackie — 

• Dr. Faustus on that tyde 
From Auerbach's cellar away did ryde. 
Upon a wine-cask speedilie, 
As many a mother's son did see. 
By subtle craft he did that deede, 
And he received the devil's meede. ' 

As to the appropriateness and use of this Scene see Introduc- 



tion, p. xl. Mephistopheles feels himself here quite at home 
and comfortable ; Faust, on the contrary, is silent and morose 
— ^revolted by all he sees. 

Of the four students present — Frosch is the youngest. In the 
Bavarian Palatine schoolboys are nicknamed frc^s. Brander is 
older and less coarse and rude than his companions. Siebel is 
already bald and somewhat stout, whence Altmayer calls him 
Schmerbauch. Altmayer is the shrewdest and sharpest of the 


2073. gec^e lufttger (5cfeIIen = *a wine-party of merry boon- 


2074. 3<^ n>itt ^u^ leljren ; cf. our English phrase, * I'll 

teach you to.' Frosch is angry at their grave faces. 

2076. Itc^terlot} = * all aflame. ' 

2078. Saueret = * beastliness. ' 

2079. Poppelt Sd{Wt\n = * twice a swine.' 

2081. en^n)eit=* quarrels.' 

2082. There is a German drinking-song called ,Hlinba,' from 

its refi-ain, ,Hunba, Huttba, Hunba, PincHa.' 
fattft=* drink.' 
fc^rett=* shout.' 
2084. * Bring cotton wool ! the fellow will split my ears I* 

2088-2089. In his edition of I*at(s^ Schroer makes the six 
syllables, ,21 iava lava ba ' form a line in themselves, 
and ,21 1 iava lata ba 1 Die Kel^Ien flnb gcfttmmt ' 
form an Alexandrine rhyming with 1. 208 7 > which 
also is an Alexandrine. I follow his arrangement in 
the text, geftimmt = * tuned. ' 

2090, 2091. The song which Frosch begins to sing was prob- 
ably some trifling popular song. Schroer compares 
with it the song of the * Kapuziner ' in Wallenstein's 
Lager — 

,\Xxif> 'bas romifdje Hetd;, bas (5ott erbarm^ 
SoUte jc^t Ijei^en romifdj 2Xrm/ 

2092. ,Pfut I ein poltttfc^ Jtteb.' Brander thinks this a stupid 
dull song, and so protests against it. This line has 
been often quoted as evidence that Gothe would ex- 
clude all political aspirations from literature. His 



silence during the great national movement of 18 13- 

14 has been set down to indifference to the fortunes 
of his country. In 18 13, in a conversation with 
Soret, he said : * How could I have taken up arms 
without hate ? and how could I have hated without 
youth ? If these events had found me a young man 
of twenty I should certainly not have been the last, 
but I was already well over, sixty years when they 
came. . . . There is a stage when national hatred 
disappears ; when one stands to some extent above 
the nations, and sympathises with the weal or woe of 
a neighbour people as with that of one's own. This 
latter stage of culture suited my nature, and I had 
confined myself in it long before reaching my sixtieth 

2093. letbt^ = * offensive.' 

2098. At a Commerce in a German university (that is, a con- 

vivial meeting of students held at the end of a Semester 
or Term) the student who can drink the most is elected 

2099, 2100. * You know what quality it is decides the choice 

and elevates the man.' 

2101, 2102. These lines are taken from a popular song of the 
sixteenth century. 

2 1 04. peripel|ren = * to hinder. ' 

2 1 10. angefiitirt = * led by the nose. ' 

21 12. Cross-roads were supposed to be the favourite resort of 

witches. Grimm {^Deutsche Mythologies Eng. Trans- 
lation, ed. 1880, p. 11 15) says: * They listened also 
at crossways, where boundaries touched i the part- 
ings of roads were accounted meeting-places of sprites 
and witches.' 

fc^Sfern = * to play,' * wanton,' * sport. ' 

21 13. In Germany the Devil was believed often to appear as 

a bleating goat, and in Switzerland always as goat- 
footed. He seems to have been thought of as a kind 
of satyr -like Kobold. 

2 1 1 4. mecf em = * to bleat. ' 

21 18. \\(c (dat. case) with btC = Eng. 'her.' 



21 18. etngcfc^mtffen, past participle of fc^metffen = * to smash 

2122. nac^ Stanbesgebiiljr = * as befits their dignity.' 

2 124. 00m ncucjien Sc^nitt = * of the newest cut' (ue, * fashion '). 

2125. Hunbretm = ' chorus,' * refrain.' 

2 1 26-2 1 49. * There was a rat in the cellar nest.' This song 
and this Scene were written in September 1775, 
during the height of Gothe's passion for Lili ; it is not 
only Brander that satirises Siebel, but also Gothe 
satirising himself, in order to escape from the unrest 
of the strongest attachment of his life. Writing to 
the Countess Augusta von Stolberg, he says : * I felt 
all the time like a rat that has eaten poison ; it 
scampers into all holes, drinks every kind of moisture, 
swallows everything that comes in its way, and its 
entrails burn with unquenchable fire.' See Bayard 
Taylor's note. 

2128. Der Han3en, bas HSn3eI, and the diminutives has 

HSn3lcin, has HSnjc^en, are all different forms of 
the same word. anmSften =* to fatten.' The 
students have as little respect for Dr. Luther as they 
have for the Pope (cf. 1. 2098). 

2129. This line rh)anes with 1. 2127, £utf)er being pronounced 

£uiter, though the name is said to be derived from 

2135. foff, preterite of fauffen= * to drink,' * gulp down.' 
bte pfu^e, (pi. pfn^en or pfiifeen) = * puddle.' 

1236. gernagt' = 'gnawed away.' 
3er!ragt* = 'scratched away.' 

2137. * Nothing would help its madness.' 

2138. tl|5t is not imperfect conjunctive, but an old form of the 

imperfect indicative ; it is more correctly written tet, 
which is the Middle High German form. I have heard 
South Germans say: ,3d? tct CS gern' = *I did it 
willingly.' The line means : * It jumped and sprang, 
mad with torment.' 

2144. * Fell down on the hearth and lay convulsed.' 

2145. tf^at, see 1. 2138. The use of tf^St with the infinitive 



is the same construction as the English * did ' with 
the infinitive. 

2145. fc^nanf en = * to wheeze, * * breathe. * 

2147. fte pfetft auf bem Iet3ten £o(^ = * it is at the last gasp ' ; 
lit. * it is piping on the last hole.' 

2150. plattcn = *dull.' 

2 1 51. €s tfl tntr eine recite Kunfl, etc., * it is a fitting art to 

strew poison for such poor rats. ' mir, the dat. of a 
pers. pron., is often used in German expletively, for 
liveliness of expression ; for example, ,\a% tntr t|eretn 
ben 2IIten/ * let the old man in here ' {/or me), 

2154. 5c^meer=*fat.' Altmayer means Siebel when he says 

2163, 2164. *As the kitten plays with "her tail in a narrow 
circle, so, in a continuous round,* says Mephistopheles, 
* without any wish to advance beyond it, these merry 
fellows, with very little wit, lead a happy life, — satis- 
fied if they escape headache, and if the host w^ill give 
them credit.' 

2168. Die, t\e. Faust and Mephistopheles. 

2169. munberltc^e lDei[e = * odd manners.' 

21 7 1, 2172. In a description of Leipzig written in 1768, 
Leipzig is called parts tm Kleinen. Gothe had 
studied in Leipzig from 1 765 to 1 768. 

2175, 2176. The meaning is, *I can draw out their secrets as 
easily as a child's tooth.' 

2179. Their dress is peculiar (see above, 11. 1536- 1539), and 

hence Brander takes them for UTarftfc^reter. The 
UTarftfc^reter (i,e, * mountebank ') belongs to a past 
age ; he was a man who offered quack medicines for 
sale at fairs, and was at the same time a conjurer and 
a strolling actor. 

2180. fc^rauben= * to screw,' here *to make fools of,' * to drive 

into a corner. ' 

2 181. * Even if he had them by the nape of the neck.' 

2184. Mephistopheles was lame (cf. below, 11. 2499, 2500). 
According to Christian tradition the Devil limps, 
because of his fall from heaven into the abyss of hell. 



In Pagan Mythology Vulcan limps, Wieland the 
smith limps, and Thor threatens to make Loki lame. 

2 1 86-2 1 88. Tr. * And for good wine, which cannot be had here, 
give us the pleasure of good company. ' * You seem 
a very fastidious gentleman.' 

2189, 2190. Htppac^, a village between Naumburg and Leipzig, 
^ans von Htppad; meant * a country bumpkin,' * an 
ignorant country squire of good family. ' 

2195. * A sharp knave.' ppfftg = * sly,' * cunning,' * sharp.' 

2196. ic^ fricg xiin fc^on=*ril have him yet.' Krtcgctt is 

colloquial for befomtnen ; it comes from frteg = * war,' 
and means literally * to grab,' rather than * to get.' 

2204. nagelneu, answering to the English * brand-new.' 

2214. Soljn. Schroer says in the Oberrhein dialect the n in 
Solvit is scarcely heard, hence Sol^n is made to rhyme 
with ^loll* Der Floh is here, so to speak, a caricature 
of the Haus-Geist or Kobold. When the Kobold 
entered into the service of any man or any family, 
according to German Sagas and Legends, new clothes 
used to be ordered for him, as here for the Floh. 

2219. bem Sc^netber etnsufc^arf en = * to impress upon the 

222J. fo lieb fein Kopf tl^m tft=*as he sets a value on his 

2226. cin lCreU3 = * an order. ' 

2233. bte Sofe= * the maid.' 

2234. * Stung and bitten.' 

2248. ber JJOixi befc^meret fic^ = * the host would be vexed.' 
2251. * Out with it then, I'll take the blame on me.' 

2254. jubictren = urtctletl. The students were taught in Latin, 
and hence got into the way of using Latin words. 

2256. Altmayer takes them for dealers in wine from the Rhine- 


2257. In the Faust legend and Faust book, it is Faust who con- 

jures ; in Gothe's poem he only speaks twice during 
the whole Scene (see 1. 2183 and 1. 2296) ; he remains 
silent through disgust and reserve. 

22 69. mu jf irenb = * sparkling. ' 

2270. bas ;Jrembc, here *what is foreign,' 'outlandish.' 



2272. Dcr (Jran3C for ber ^ranjofc is found occasionally in 
German poetry ; for example, in the Xeniou of Gothe 
(first /n>f/f^ in 1836 — vol. Ivi. p. 98, ed. 1827-42 of 
Gothe's Works)— 

,yoit fonnt mir inimer ungefd^ent 
IDic Biadjer'n J)enfmal feften ; 
X>mi ^ranjen \[0X er tvi^ befreit 
3d? pon pi?tHflcr»neften/ 

The tone of almost exaggerated patriotism, chiefly 
directed against anything and everything French, is 
heard among Gothe's contemporaries most loudly in 
the writings of the Gottinger Dichterbund. 

2276. Cofaier = * Tokay,' i.e. 'best Hungarian.* 

2278. etnen 3um Beficn \(0^>t\[, (or l^alten) = * to make game of. ' 

2279. (Et (Et I is an exclamation one hears Germans use every 


2281. Hur gerab tjeraus gefagt= * speak out * ! 

2284-2287. These four lines make a spell when Mephistopheles 
speaks them. When the Scene is acted they are ac- 
companied by movements of the hands, which keep 
time to the rhythm of the lines spoken, but are also 
meant to caricatijre the motions of a priest during the 
performance of divine service. — *The vine tree bears 
grapes, the goat puts forth horns ; the grapes are 
juicy, the vines are of wood ; the wooden table like- 
wise can give wine.' 

2289. Cf. 1. 766, ^<xs IPunber tji bcs (SlauSens Itebjies 


2290. The bored holes have meanwhile been stopped with 

sealed corks. 

2292. oer9te§t=* spill.' 

2293, 2294. These two lines sound like a fragment of some 

drinking song. SauiPOl = * happy as a sow * ; the 
expression sautpolfettt is found in Hegel {^sthetiky 
iii. 566) ; ,ot^ne tl^n (Aristophanes) gelefen 3U l|aben, 
lajft ftd^ faum ipijfen, ipte bcm ITtenfc^en fau xo<A 

fein fann'; and in Widmann's Faustbuch (* Wahr- 
hafte historien von dr. Joh. Faust,* etc., 1599), i. 47> 
Kap., come the lines — 



,Sie tun toie fdu vmb wilbe Her, 

Wtnn man il^nen gibt nnt> trdget fur, etc. 

Cf., too, above 1. 2078. 

2295. * Such are men,' says Mephistopheles, *when they are 
free ; when in a drunken revel they show what they 
really are. * 

2296-2298. Faust says, * I should like to leave them and go ' ; 
Mephistopheles, on the contrary, feels himself at home, 
and rejoices in their ;BefitaUtSt.' 

2298. Mephistopheles has warned them not to spill the wine ; 
the Devil's gifts are imreal mockeries, — the gold he 
gives men turns to dust and ashes, the wine he gives 
burns like fire. 

2300. bie ^lamme bcfprec^enb = * charming away the flame.' 

2301. ^e9Cfeuer=* cleansing fire,' * a bit of purgatory.' 

2303. * It seems you don't know who we are !' 

2304. * Let him try that game a second time !' 

2305. * I think we had better send him off quietly !' 

2306. 2307. Siebel addresses Mephistopheles in the 3d person, 

which is by no means respectful : * What, sir, you 
dare to make so free and play your ^ofuspofus on 
us?' £^ofuspofus is a phrase used for magic, sleight 
of hand (see Grimm's Worterbuchy 2, 2, 173 1) : it is 
said to be derived from the words — Hoc est corpus 
tneum — used by the priest when consecrating the 
sacred elements. 

2308. altes lDetnfa5= *old wine-tub.' Siebel is very stout. 

Befenfttcl= * broomstick.' Mephistopheles is very lean 
and thin. 

2310. * Wait now, there'll be blows !' 

2312. DOgelfrct means 'outlawed'; it used to be said of a 

person found guilty of using magic, and hence no 
longer under the protection of the law. The English 
equivalent is * fair-game. ' 

2313. Mephistopheles makes motions with his hands and 

speaks a spell-^ 

' False word and form of air, 
Change place and sense ensnare, 
Be here and there ! ' 


23 1 6-23 1 9. In the Fausibuch of 1587 the heading of one of 

the chapters is : ,Z). ;Jauftt gS[te iPoUeit inn (it^nen, 
i,e, pc^) felb bie nafen abfc^nciben.' 

2321. fpa§c, 3d.* sing. pres. conj. 

2324, 2325. * It was a stroke that went through all my limbs ! 
Fetch a chair ! I'm falling ! * 

2329. felbfl, i.e, * with my own eyes.' Altmayer speaks. In 
the legend and in the picture it is Faust not Mephis- 
topheles who rides out of the tavern on a wine-cask. 

2332. irtcin (originally metn <5ott I) is a vulgar expression of 

astonishment. It is found again in a poem of Gothe, 
called Schneider- Courage {Gedichte^ ii. 263, ed. 1827- 

42): ,(Es tjl etn 5(^ug gefaUcnl ITtetnl Sagt, 
iDcr fd^o§ babraug ?' 

2333. Gothe uses here the old form £u9 for tii^e, to make 

a rhyme with 23ctrug. 

2334. ITttr baud^tc sometimes used for mtc^ bduc^te. 


Mephistopheles brings Faust into the "Witches' Kitchen in 
order to procure for him a drink which shall take thirty years 
from his age. The Witches' Scene in Macbeth should be com- 
pared with this, and was no doubt in Gothe's thoughts when he 
wrote. Duntzer, Loeper, and Schroer bid us remember here 
the witch pictures of Breughel and Teniers. In the judgment 
of the Middle Ages monkeys and apes stood midway between 
human beings and the lower animals ; but while man was 
regarded as the creature of God, the ape was regarded as the 
creature of the Devil. 


2337. 'This senseless witchcraft sickens and disgusts me.' 

2338. 9enefen= * recover,' 'recruit life's powers.' 

2339. 2340. The whole scene appears to Faust like the dis- 

order and chaos of a bad dream. In general, Faust 
looks on Mephistopheles' magic as a mere swindle. 

2341. Subelf oc^eret = * the brew in that pot.' Subel is con- 
nected with ficben= *to seethe,' also with the English 
* suds. ' 


2347-2361. * Yes,' Mephistopheles says, * there is another way. 

Abandon all effort and aspiration ; live by hard work 

and on the simplest fare ; and thou shalt keep thyself 

young till eighty.* 

2358. ^a!t es nidft fiir ^anh, Le, qx\, bir felbfl, olm bcincr gctt. 
We have the same expression in the Bible, Phil. ii. 6 
— *Who . . . thought it not robbery to be equal 
with God.' 

2366, 2367. These lines are not found in the edition of 1790. 

2368. §citpertrctb = * pastime.' 

2369. * Why, a thousand bridges might be built meanwhile ' — 

an allusion to the many so-called Devil's bridges. 

2372. ' In silence the spirit is busied with it for years.' 

2373. * Time only clears and strengthens the fermentation.' 
2376* ft^^r ^'^^ ft^ ts ; obs. Iel)ren followed by two accusatives. 
2378. 3tcrUd^ = * fine,' * delicate.' 

2381-2383. • Gone from home 

To the rout — 
Through the chimney she went out.' 

2384. * How long will she stay away rioting?' 

2385-2389. The absurd meaningless answers of the animals 
please Mephistopheles as much as they disgust Faust. 

2390. Mephistopheles means ,per|luc^tc Puppen ' to be a term 

of endearment. 

2391. * Why are ye stirring the broth so ?' 

2392. ^ettelfuppe, a kind of soup, made out of water and all 

sorts of scraps and leavings, given without pa3rment 
to beggars at monastery doors. A satiric allusion to 
the worthless nature of the literature popular at the 
time. This is the first time that such satire appears 
in the Faust poem, but in the Walpurgis Night Scene 
later on many more of such allusions are found. 
They have, of course, nothing whatever to say to the 
Faust poem itself. In a letter written to Schiller in 
July 1797 concerning a volume which he sends, 
Gothe says : * Herewith goes the again murdered, or 
rather putrefied, Gustavus III. It is really just such 
a beggar's soup as the German public loves.' 

2397. <Sar fd?Ied?t tjis hz'^zVA, ue. urn mid?, * Things are going 
badly with me.' 



2398, 2399. * And had I but gold, so had I my reason.' Hay- 
ward translates, * Had I money, I should not want 
for consideration.' In one of the Zahme Xenien 
Gothe writes — 

,<5efunbpr menfd; ofine <SrR> 
y^ tjafi) franf/ 

Cf. the old proverb, ,(S>t{b regtcrt btc IVzW 

2401. ins £otto, an allusion to public lotteries so popular then, 
and still so popular in Germany. 

2402-2415. Der irtecrfater (from Indian Merkata)^ *a long- 
tailed ape.' The little apes come up rolling a ball, 
which the Meerkater likens to the world ; he bids 
the ITteerfd^c^en not to trust it — it is breakable, as 
the world is perishable. ' It says to you, I am alive ! 
But, dear son, shun it ; thou must die ! It is of 
earth ; it will break in fragments !' The whole is an 
ironical parody of a sermon on life and death. With 
11. 2406, 2407, cf. the German proverb, ,<SIucf unb 
<SIas, XPie balb bric^t bas I ' 

2416-2421. In the Middle Ages the looking through sieves 
(called KWTKivoLi yjo.VT^<)t<jBa.C)^ or crystals, or mirrors, 
was a favourite magic process, especially used for the 
discovery of a criminal. In earlier times, too, there 
was supposed to be virtue in looking through a sieve. 
TheokrituSy i. 31, and Vv 31, speaks of a KwrKwdfiajfTiSy 
i.e. * a sieve-interpreter.' 

2427. VOtbtl means here ^JHegenmebel, *a brush for beating 
off the flies.' Mephistopheles, as god of flies (Beel- 
zebub), was to hold it as a sceptre. 

2430-2440. What Faust sees in the mirror is of course the 
creation of Mephistopheles. It is not Margaret, and 
it is not Helen, but the perfect, ideal beauty of the 
human form — ,3fts m5glic^, tft bas VOexb fo fc^Sn ? ' 
The image seen in the mirror is not a sensual, but a 
purely aesthetic sjrmbol, the significance of which is 
not further developed in the First Part of Faust. 
The coarser element, by means of which Mephisto- 
pheles achieves a temporary triumph over Faust, is 
represented by the potion prepared by the Witch. 

284 " FAUST. PART I. 


2442. See Gen. i. 31 — * And God saw everything that he had 
made, and, behold, it was very good.' 

2448-2464. We are meant to note the contrast between the 
growing passion of Faust and the ludicrous acting of 
Mephistopheles, seated on a throne with a brush for 
a sceptre and surrounded by monkeys. These bring 
the crown to Mephistopheles, and drop it on the way 
and break it. With blood and sweat he will glue it 
together for them, like a true kingly autocrat who 
makes fast and firm his power with the blood and 
sweat of his people; 11. 2458-2460 refer to the 
dreary jingle of certain poets who now and then, 
through good luck, get hold of a thought. 

2466. The Witch addresses the Meerkater. 

2474. The Witch*s soup, like Mephistopheles' wine, turns to 
flame when spilt. 

2478. * This is just a joke in return for your greeting.' 

2479. Der Cact= * time' (in music). 
2(as= * carrion.' 

2481. (5enppe= * bag of bones ' (lit. * skeleton '). 
2486. Cf. 1536 and the lines following. 

2490. Pferbefu§. All notions of the Devil having a horse's 

hoof or a goat's foot are traceable to the tradition 
that he was lame, and limped in consequence of his 
original fall from heaven. See note to 1. 2184. 

2491. eurc betben Haben* In Northern Mythology ravens are 

the messengers and companions of Odin ; only in 
later times did they come to be regarded as birds of 
ill omen. Cf. in Macbeth, I. v. — 

' The Raven himself is hoarse 
That croaks the fatal entrance of Duncan 
Under my battlements.' 

Here, as in Part II. Act II., they are assigned to and 
associated with the Devil. Grimm {Deutsche My thoL, 
Eng. Translation, ed. 1880, p. 997) says in German 
Mythology the Devil often appears as a raven. 

2495-2502. Euphemistic names for the Devil were early in use ; 
he was called der Familiar' Geist (the Familiar Spirit), 
or Lucifer (name of the morning star), or again, 



das Meisterlein (the little master), or Magisterlein, 

Grimm (in his Wbrterbuch) tells how the Devil was 
called — Junker Hans (young Hans), Schon Hans, 
Junker Stopf, Feder Hans (because of the feather 
he wore in his hat). Klinger, in his version of 
the Faustbuchy represents the Devil as saying to 
Faust: ,Permut!^Hc^ I^aft bu htn Ceufel mit htxi 
fjornern Vix(i> hzxi Borfsfiigen cncartet.' That 
the Devil of our days is no longer represented with 
horns, tail, and claws, as in the Middle Ages, is 
characteristic of the times we live in. Crime, mean- 
ness, every sort of evil it is our custom to be reserved 
about, we seldom paint them in their true colours, or 
call them by their true names. 

2507. No one believes in Satan any more. 

2509. * They are quit of the Evil One, but Evil still remains.* 

251 6, 2517. One notices and is conscious of the silence of Faust 
during Mephistopheles' disgusting talk with the hag. 

2518. fd^afft, from (d^affcrt, which in Schwabian, Austrian, 
and Bavarian dialects means *to desire,* * command.' 
It is not the strong form, fc^affcTt, fc^uf, gef(^affen, 
but a weak form, f(^affen, fc^afftc, gefc^aflft. 

2531. Again follows a caricaturing imitation of the movements 
of the priest and his attendants during the perform- 
ance of the sacred offices. 

2536-2539. It is excellent how Mephistopheles evades answer- 
ing Faust's doubts : * As a physician it is needful and 
necessary that she goes through this rigmarole ; don't 

• you be so stern and unbending.' 

2540-2552. With the senseless arithmetic of the Witch compare 
the words of the Witches in Macbeth^ I. i. 3 — 

' Thrice to thine, and thrice to mine, 
And thrice again to make up nine ! ' 

Cf. also Macbeth^ IV. i. This playing with the num- 
bers 3x3 comes also in the Freimauer Lieder, and 
hence it has been thought that Gothe there and here 
is mocking at the customs and rites of freemasons. 
However, Gothe was for many years an active mem- 
ber of the brotherhood. When in Strasburg in his 
youth he had made a special study of number """ 



their significance, — beginning with the teaching of 


2558. Bodin {Ditnoftomanie^ ou Traite des Sorciers) says it was 
one of the principles of magic that incomprehensible 
words or terms have more power than comprehensible. 
Pliny had written : * Minorem fidem homines adhibent 
lis, quae intelligunt.* 

2561, 2562. Mephistopheles irreverently refers to the Christian 
doctrine of the Trinity. 

2564. befajfen = * to concern oneself with.* 
2567-2572. It was part of Gothe's poetic creed that the truest 
and deepest insight into things is not the result of 
conscious labour, but falls upon the mind as a free, 
pure, unsuspected gift His distaste for metaphysics 
arose from the fact that it forced him to think about 
his thinking. Thus here the Witch gives expression 
to his own thoughts ; cf. one of the axioms in the 
Zahme Xenien — 

,^a, has ifl has redjte (Sleis^ 

Z)a§ man nic^t tDei^, 

VOas man benft^ 

IDenn man benft ; 

2tIIes ifl als n>ie gefd^enft/ 

Gedichte^ iii. 246 (ed. 1827-42). 

2577. Sibylle, the name given to an inspired prophetess by the 
Romans, and a term also used in the Middle Ages by 
Christians of an inspired singer. 

2582. Sc^Iucf=* draught.' 

2585. Btft mit bem (Eeufcl bu unb bu, ue. *on terms of in- 
timacy.* Faust calls the Devil ^yx from the beginning 
on ; Mephistopheles begins to call Faust bu from 
1. 1346. The use of tl^r and er, as well as ^yx, marks 
the varying mood of the speaker. 

2588. * Much good may the draught do thee.* 

2590. auf IPalpur^is, i.e, *on the Blocksberg on Walpurgis 

2592. IDtr!ung = * effect.* 

2596. iniijtggang =* indolence. ' Mephistopheles understands 
well that an indolent, unr^ulated course of life con- . 
tributes to the growth of all forms of sensual desire. 



2598. (Euptbo, ue, * desire ' ; the name of the god of love among 

the Romans. 

2599. When Gothe, in 1829, read the First Part of Faust aloud 

to his friends, after Faust had drunk the Witches' 
potion, instead of his former deep bass Voice, he 
made him speak with the clear tenor voice of a youth. 

2603, 2604. Mephistopheles' purpose in giving Faust the love- 

potion was to bring him into a state of mad intoxica- 
tion, in which every woman's form which he saw 
should appear beautiful to him. Mephistopheles fails 
of his purpose, because Faust is not overcome by 
wild, unrestrained passion, but loves Margaret with 
a deep and enduring love. 

2604. The pronunciation of ^clcrte varies considerably in 

Faust ; here we have ^elett^Tl, elsewhere ^elene 
(in Greek the accent is on the penult — ^EX^i'iy). 


Here we take leave of the old Faust legend, which we do not 
find again until the appearance of Helen in Part II. For the 
episode of Margaret, Gothe 'delved in his own breast.' 
Margaret is drawn partly from her namesake Gretchen, a girl 
in Frankfurt in a somewhat humble walk in life, whom Gothe 
as a boy of sixteen imagined he loved, and partly from his 
betrothed Lili — Anna Elizabeth Schonemann — the daughter of 
a banker in Frankfurt, for whom Gothe felt the strongest 
affection of his life. AH the Gretchen Scenes were written 
during the spring of 1775, ^^^ Gothe's engagement to Lili was 
not broken off until August 1775. The town described is 


2606. tljr an3Utragen. To use the 3d per. sing, in addressing 

another was, in Gothe's youth, not unusual ; more- 
over, it was old-fashioned, and Gothe was glad, if 
possible, to introduce antiquated words and forms 
into his Faust, It is now very seldom used, and 
only to inferiors by superioi-s. 

2607. ^rSuIein meant at the time only a lady of high birth. 



261 1. Ste tft fo Sitt' unb ^n^enb reic^ ; so Schroer prints the 

line, while in general the editions have Sitt* Uttb 
Cugenb retc^. But, as Schroer well points out, 
although you can have ^u^enbretc^, you cannot have 
* Sittreic^, as Sitt is compounded with fam, and there- 
fore it is better to read Sitt' nnb (Eugcnb reic^. 

2612. fc^nippifc^ = Eng. 'snappish,' lit. used of closing the lips 


2614. Die Cage ber IPelt, an accus. of time. 

2617. Wit fie fur3 angebunben mar = • how short and sharp 

of speech was she.* Grimm, in his Worterbuch, 
explains the word by ,xo\\b, ipeil man tpilbe, unbSn* 
bige (Ef^iere fur3 anbinbet.' The phrase has been 
very amusingly misunderstood by both French and 
English translators ; one French translator has 

* Et la jupe courte ! 
D'honneur ! c'est k ravir ! ' 

And Lord Leveson Gower — 

' As with her gown held up she fled, 
That well-turned ankle well might turn one's head ! ' 

2628. f^ans Cieberlic^ Bayard Taylor translates *Jack Rake.' 
Hans is short for Johannes. Luther writes of ,pie(e 
^anfen' much as he would write of ,t>iele Kerle.' 
Cf. also in Giitz von Berlichingen ,^ans Kiid^ett* 

2630. ViVib biinfelt t!|m, i.e. unb biinfelt es if^m = unb es 
biinfelt il^m = * he fancies ' ; the verb biinfeltt is formed 
out of the substantive biiTlfe(=*a fancy,' 'a conceit.' 

2632. * But the thing does not always succeed.* 

2633. ^err IHagifter £obefan, — tr. *Mr. Pedagogue.' The ex- 

pression appears first in 1624 in a satiric poem by 
Neumeister: ,2)as becrSnte XH., auf Cieutfc^ IHagijier 

2634. (Sefe§ stands here for * prejudice and custom ' : * Just leave 

prejudice and custom in peace.' 

2650. Srimboriutn, from the French brimborion; it signifies 

* meaningless preambles. ' 

2651. piij)pc^en=*doll.' 
gefnetet = * kneaded. ' 



2651. gert(^tet — 'shaped,' * moulded.* 

2652. |pelfc^c = * French,' or 'Italian,' or simply 'foreign.* 

Probably Gothe here alludes to love stones such as are 
found in the Decameron of Boccaccio, or in books like 
the Heptamiron (attributed to Marguerite of Navarre, 
b. 1492, d. 1558). 

2654. ' Without scolding and without jesting.' 

2657. ' We cannot capture here by storm.' 

2659-2662. Cf. Gothe's poem Lebendiges Andenken (Ged. i. 
46, ed. 1827-42), where we have — 

,€in Sdflcicr, ^alstn^, Strumpfbanb, Hinge 
Sinb ioaI|rHdj feine fletnen Dinge/ 

267 1. ' The place where you can breathe the same atmosphere.' 


Margaret's home : a small, neatly-kept room. — One cannot 
fail to notice the entire change in Faust since the preceding 
Scene, although only a few hours have elapsed. At the 
first meeting with Margaret it is the Witch's potion that speaks 
through him ; here better, though obscure, aspirations re- 
possess him, under the new, blissful, disquieting form of love. 
Mephistopheles is incapable of understanding the transforma- 
tion in Faust's feelings, because the strongest negation of his 
denying nature is that of love. Gothe was not only keenly 
sensitive to the operation of atmospheric influences upon the 
mind, but he also believed in the existence of a spiritual air, 
through which impressions — ^independent of any known sense 
^might be communicated. It is the atmosphere of peace, 
and order, and contentment, and chastity, which unconsciously 
touches Faust in Margaret's room, and it is the sultry breath 
of evil, of impending temptation and ruin, which oppresses 
Margaret on her return. 


2689. Cf. Rastlose Liebe, and Wonne der Wehmuth [Gedichtey i. 
85, 98, ed. 1827-42). 

2695* 2696. ' Receive me then, thou who, in thine open arms, 
hast welcomed year by year, in joy and grief, the 
generations gone.' 





2699. ben t^eiligen <£l|nft= 'her Christmas gift.' 

2703. fdufeln=* to whisper around.' 

2704. untcrii)etfen= * to teach.' 

2705. Ijet6en=*to bid.' 

2706. The custom of strewing sand on the floor still survives 

in out-of-the-way parts of Germany and England. 

2709. lDonnegratts=* blissful fear.' 

2712. cingebornen €ngel, i.e, the angel Gretchen; perhaps 
* angelic child ' would do as a translation. 

2715. VO^ZM means here the movement of a living being ; cf. 

1. 503- 

2716. €ntlt>trfte ftc^= * was developed,' * unfolded.' 

2722. ITttc^ brang cs = es brangte tnic^ ; cf. 1. 495. 

2727. £Jans, tr. *lout'; but cf. 1. 2628. 

2731. leiblic^ = * tolerably. ' 

2734. * She will lose her senses with delight.' Sitinen for 
Stnne ; the form is found in Middle High German, 
and at present, too, in some German dialects. 

2736. cine anbre. Mephistopheles means Faust, or some one 
else, might have charmed a better, nobler girl (eine 
anbre) with such jewels as these. 

2739. Mephistopheles speaks as if angrily indignant. 

2744. The meaning is, * I think so hard, I work so hard, 
• for you.' Mephistopheles purposely misunderstands 
Faust ; and observe, it is Mephistopheles who actually 
puts the casket into Margaret's press. 

2752. Hur fort I A broken line, without rhyme, implying the 

haste with which Faust and Mephistopheles retreat. 

2753, 2754. I^te; brau§. Observe Margaret speaks in dialect, 

and uses only the simplest words. 

2759. The ballad of the King of Thule was written in 1774. 
Like the songs sung in Auerbach's cellar, it may 
or may not have been originally intended for Faust. 
An earlier version was published in 1782, in a collec- 
tion of Volkslieder by S. von Seckendorf. The pre- 
sent version appeared for the first time in 1790, in 
the Faust Fragment. Thule was supposed by the 
ancients to be the most remote of all lands. Tacitus, 



in his Germania, speaks of * Ultima Thule. ' The 
name is now commonly believed to refer to the 
Shetland Islands, which lie off the north-east coast of 

2761. 23ul^Ie =* lover,' but used here of a woman, as we find 

* lover * likewise in English poetry. 23utjle is now 
only used with a bad sense. 

2765. Die 2tugen gingen tl|m fiber =* his eyes overflowed 
with tears.' 

2767. Unb als er fam 3U fterben; cf. the Eng. phrase, 

* when he came to die,' and the Fr. * il vint k mourir.' 

2773, 2774. Note the prepositions used here, — auf where we 
use in English *in'; att where we use *by':^ — auf is 
the English *up.' 

2775. In New High German ,gec^er' means ,^rtnfer' = *a 

drinker,' but in Old High German it means the 
(Drbner einer (Sefellfc^aft, ue, *the master of a 
feast,* so that, when used here, there is nothing con- 
temptuous in the name. 

2776. £ebensglutlj = * life glow.' 

2781. tliSten = tl|aten; the forms tijdt, tf^Ste, tl^Sten are 

poetical, formed after the analogy of the conjunctive ; 
cf. 1. 2138. 

2782. Schubert and Zelter have both written music to this 

ballad ; Schubert's setting is dramatic and beautiful. 

2790. Sc^au for flel^ \>(i I is peculiar to South German dialect. 

2791. metn Cage = * my life long.' Cage for £ebetage: metn 

is uninflected, and originally the old gen. sing, of the 
1st pers. pron. 

2798. euc^; she means, *all you girls, who like me are poor, 
what does beauty, what does youth, avail you?' 

2802-2804. These three line.s have become almost proverbial in 
Germafay. By them one already sees that a sort of 
vague dissatisfaction and yearning has been aroused 
in Gretchen by Mephistopheles' gift. 



A street in Frankfurt : Faust walking thoughtfully up 

and down. 


2805. * By all love ever rejected !* 

2807. fnetpen; Eng. *knip*; here tr. *ails.' 

2808. So fetn Oejtc^t falj tc^ for So ein (Seftc^t falj tc^ nte. 

281 1, ©erfd^obcn, past participle of oerfc^ieben = * to derange.' 

2812. Pic^ fletbct5 = * it is becoming.* 

2814. ein Pfaff=*a priest' (now, however, only used as a 
term of contempt). 

IjtniDegraffen= * to grab.' 

2816. 'Something began secretly to haunt her,' — 'some secret 

fear began to haunt her.' 

28 1 7. (5ent(^ = * sense of smell. ' 

2818. Sc^nuf elt. In Low German Me S(^nuffe=btenafe; in 

High German fc^nauben = *to smell' ; ((^nuffeln is of 
course the Eng. 'snuffle.' Cf. fc^nopem in 1. 1187. 

2824. 3ef Sngt = * ensnares. ' 

auf 5ei{ren = * waste, ' * consume. ' 

2825. rDoIIens, ue. xoxx iDotten es. 

2826. VOxtb, ue, fie iPtrb. 

fjtmmelsmanna= 'heavenly food.* See Exod. ii. 

2827. The mother sometimes calls her ^inar^retletn' ; Valentine 

calls her Gretel ; Faust always calls her Gretchen. 
In the Faust Fragment the name Gretchen is found, 
I think, for the first time at the beginning of the song, 
,Hteine Hut| ip l|tn.' 
etn fc^iefes IlTauI= *a wry face.' 

2828. (Es is understood before 3ft» 

i{a(t is an adverb, much in use in South Germany 
and in Austria, meaning 'indeed,' or some such 

,€tnem gef(^enften (Saul fietjt man ntc^t ins ITtauI/ i.e, 

' We do not look a gift horse in the mouth.' 

2832. Dernommen, past participle of t)erneljmen='to under- 



2834, 2835. He said, * You think rightly,' or * that is the 
proper view*; — *He that overcometh gaineth the 

2836-2838 contain Mephistopheles* own reflections. 

2838. 9e{fen=9e'effen, and is the true past participle of ejfen. 
(Se^e^en is found for the first time in the seventeenth 
century; cf. the past participle iibereffen (from 
iibereffen, * to over-eat '), where the g has dropped out 
and been lost. 

2840. Cf. the proverb, ,Kirc^engut l\ai etferne gSljne.' 

2841. etn oUgemetner 53rauc^= *a common enough practice.' 

2843. Strtc^, t\e. er jhrt(^ (from flretc^cn) = * he swept away.' 

2844. Pf ff^if Jtng = * toadstool. ' 
2851. <5cfc^metbe = * the jewels. ' 
2857. moc^ = * make haste.' 

2859. 53rei = * gruel,' or something equally tasteless. 
2862. perpufft = * blows away. ' 


A room in Martha's house. — In this Scene the characters of 
Margaret, Martha, and Mephistopheles are set before us in the 
clearest manner by a few simple realistic touches. 

2867. jiracfs = * straight out,' — an adverb in the genitive case 

from the adjective ftradP =* straight outstretched.' 

2869. (Et{St, ue, */ did nothing to sadden him.' Ct{dt = 
,ttjat'; see on L 2781. 

2872. (Eobtenfc^ein. There is in Germany an official registra- 
tion of all marriages, births, and deaths, which is pub- 
lished at stated intervals. It is plain that Martha 
cannot have cared much for her husband, because, if 
she only Aad had the certificate ((Eobtcnfc^ettl) of his 
death, she was ready to marry again. 

2876. €bentiol3 = * ebony.' 



2879. ftc. In this line and in 1. 2881 the 3d pers. sing, is used 

as a pronoun of address ; even in Gothe's time this 
was unusual and antiquated ; cf. I. 2606. 

2880. ^(}St is here conjunctive not indicative ; * she would 

have it carried at once to Confession.' 

2882. Stage direction, UTarttjc pu^t fte auf, t.€, * Martha puts 
the jewels on Margaret'; aufpu^en=*to trim up,' 
*to adorn.' 

2884. mit for bamit. 

2887. Spte^el^Ias. It was not unusual in Germany, as well 
as elsewhere, to join the foreign name of a thing to 
the familiar name in the mother-tongue — thus the 
foreign name was brought nearer, and made more 
familiar. Spiegel is the Latin speculum, 

2889. 2lnla§ = * occasion.' 

2896. Porl|CingeI. The little window in the door had a 
curtain, this Martha draws aside. Port^dn^el, popular 
diminutive of Portjang. 

2898. erbeten is used for erbitten for the rhyme's sake. 

2901-2904. *I know you now — that is sufficient. You have a 
visitor of high rank. Pardon the liberty I have 
taken! I will come back in the afternoon.' Obs. 
Ste l(ai (3d sing.) used for ,\fyc liaht,' t.e, 'you 

2906. ^rSuIein. Cf. 1. 2607. 

2907. 33Iut means here 'thing,' or *girl.' 

2913. Pcrlange. Obs. how often the pronoun is left out by 

the uneducated people. 

2914. ITtclI^r. In Middle High German lTtSl|re means (and 

can also mean in New High German) Hac^rtc^t. 

2921. metn (Eag, t.e, *my life long'; cf. 1. 2791. 

2922. t)erl»p is subject of Wnxbe* 

2923. Cf. the proverb, ,Ketn freub ol^ne leib.' 

2926. St. Anthony is buried in the Chiesa di Sant' Antonio in 
Padua. In the oldest Fattst "book we read that in his 
third journey Faust reached Padua, and there is the 
church of St. Anthony — ,Dag tt|rcs gletc^eti in gan3 
3talta ntt gefmibcn iptrb.' 



2933' Sc^aujiiicf , i.e. * a piece of money to remember him by' ; 

*a keepsake.' 
2934. Secfel; Eng. 'satchel.' 

2936. *■ And would rather hunger, rather beg, than part with.' 
2938. ccr3ettcln = * waste. ' 
2942. Hequtem. The prayer for the departed begins thus — 

* Requiem setemam dona eis domine ' ; hence the 

prayer came to be called a requiem. 

2946. * Well, if it isn't to be a husband, let there be meantime 
(beriPetl) a lover.' (5alan is a Spanish word. 
Mephistopheles seems purposely in this Scene to use 
somewhat high-flown, absurd language. 

2952. vDQs beffer=etiDas, cin mcnig beflfcr. 

2954. auf bcr gcc^c = tm Sd^ulbbu(^, auf bcr Hed^nung. The 
line means, * He should have had a still worse fate.' 

2958. PergSb' fie mtr = * If she would only forgive me.' 

2962. * He was, I am sure, delirious in his last agony.' 

2963. * I had no need to kill time by gaping.' Mephistopheles 

takes great pleasure in exciting the old woman, and 
making her speak out all her meanness. 

2969. By piacferei she means *my work and worry.' 

2972. briinfttg = * fervently.' 

2977. n>ie (td^ es gcbiit|rte = * as it was fitting.' The verb 
9ebiit|ren is impersonal and reflexive. 

2982. Hapel; from Itl. Napoli ; the more common, ,HcapeI,' 
is from the Gr. and Lat. form of the word . 

2990. cin 3iic^ttg 3al|r = * a decent year.' 

2991. * Meantime I should look around.' Dijtren is formed 

from the Fr. visih'e, Eng. * visor.' 

2995.2997. tPanbern, VOtxhtt, VOtxn, IDiirf elfptel ; cf. the 
proverbs : ,Dret VO. bringen pein : VOtxh, IDiirf cl 
unb ber IPetn.' ,Dret VO. jtnb groffc Hdubcr, VOtm, 
XPiirfcIfpicI unb IDetbcr.' ,lDetbcr, IDein unb 
IDiirfcIfpicI perberbcn ITtenfc^en, mer's merfen will.' 
IDiirf elfptel, * gambling with dice. ' 

2998-3000. * Well, if on his side he had only made allowance 
so just and generous, your quarrel had been easily 


3002. The interchange of rings means betrothal. 

3009. Cf. 1. 2872. 

3012. * I should like to read his death in the newspaper.' This 
is such a delightful touch that one willingly overlooks 
the anachronism contained in the line. In the six- 
teenth century there could scarcely have been a 
,VOoditnhlatt' in Frankfurt. 

3014. Mephistopheles alludes here to our Lord's words, St. 

John viii. 17. 

3015. Qdbe gar etnen fetnett for ,diaht etnen gar feincn/ a 

misplacement peculiar to certain German dialects. 

3016. * For your sake I will bring him before the judges.* 

3020. * He shows great courtesy to young ladies.' ^t&nUxns ; 
ci, Jungms^ 1. 1837. 

A street : Faust and Mephistopheles meet. 

3025. fiirbcrn for f orbem = cortDarts gel^en; cf. Middle 

High German piirbem from Durbcr, and English 
— \.o further hom further, 

3026. brODo; a cry of applause borrowed from the Italian 


3028. Hac^bar for Had^bartn is still heard in the Volkssprache, 
3030. gtgeuner is used here in the sense of a fortune-teller. 

3037. Sancta Simplicitas ; said to have been the y^ords uttered 

by Huss when he saw a wretched old woman carrying 
out some of the wood for his burning. 

3038. 33e3eugt nur= * only bring your testimony.' 

3039. Faust angrily addresses Mephistopheles in the 3d per. 

sing. ; usually he addresses him as bu. 

3040. I^etltgcr Hlannl Da ipar't ttirs nun = *On this 

occasion you want to play the saint ' ; lit. * You would 
be one on this point.' 

3044. * Of man, of what is found in his head and heart.' 

3050. Of course there is a wide difference between con- 



jectures, even though false, made in good faith, and 
statements made with intention to mislead. 

3051. What Mephistopheles means is that Faust's love of truth 
would not stand much searching out Faust was 
about to swear unchanging love to Margaret, — love 
which to Mephistopheles appeared wholly incredible. 

3056. T>ann w'xxb — the predicate ,gcfproc^en' is wanting — 
* then words will be spoken about eternal faith and 
love . . .* 

3059-3061. XOmn id^ empf[nbe=* If so I feel,* *If I seek for 
a name for this feeling, for this yearning . . .' 

3067. 3<^ ^^^' ^^^ He(^t, t.e. *You will deceive her.* 
Mephistopheles here, as often, cannot understand 
Faust, — hence Faust's anger : ,^8r 1 merF bit I ' 

3069, 3070. * He who will be right (if he only have a tongue) 
will be right.' 

3072. * For you are in the right, — especially since I must give 


We are to imagine the certificate of death to have been 
brought and accepted. Faust and Margaret, and Mephis- 
topheles and Martha, walk tc^ether in the garden. 


308 1 . ^^C^^^^^t'^^* Margaret uses the foreign word as being, 
she thinks, suitable in speaking to a grand and learned 
person like Faust. 

3083. * What is there I have not had to do ?' 

3084. genau, tr. * stingy.' 

3086. (5eit>erb = * trade,' here translate * business.* 

3092. jtc^ fcblctfen is the weak form of the strong verb ,fc^Ieifen, 
f(^ltff , gcfc^Itffen : ' the verb more usually used is 
,fi(^ fc^Ieppen/ — it means, • to go wearily.' 

3096. aus ben TlnQtn, ans bent Sinn = * out of sight, out of 


3098. I^fiuffg, an adverb standing for f|aufentt)etfe, i.e. *in 
crowds. ' 



310 1. Kur3Jtnn = * shallowness.' 

3104. Demut!;, Htebrigfett; it is curious how here Faust 
mentions the essentially Christian virtues — humility^ 
lowliness. Margaret interrupts him, not having un- 
derstood his meaning. 

Htebrtgf ett = * lowliness. ' 

3107. gctt gcnug means here langc §eit. 

31 16. * We might do things far more easily than other people ' ; 
there is a great charm about Margaret's chatter and 
innocent boastfulness. 

3125. 3^ 3<>9 ^5 auf = * I brought it up.' 
3135' 3appclte= * it kicked,* * it played.' 

3 14 1, trinfen, intr. = *to drink'; trSttfeit; tr. = *to give to 

3143. ian^tn, neut. verb = * to dance '; tSn3Cln, tr. = * to dance 
(a child).' 

3149-31 52. These lines are wanting in the Faus^ Fragment. 

3 15 1. * It rests with such as you.' 

3i55» 3^56. *ctgncr fjcrb tft (Solbes tpertV is a well-known 
German proverb. 

3160. man foil jlc^ nie unterftct|n = *one should never allow 
oneself. * 

3173. * It seemed just at once to strike him.' 

3175. (Scj^elj' ic^'s boc^ = * still, I must own.' 

3176. be^onnte. This form of the preterite is also found in 

Lessing, Wieland, Riickert ; it was in common use in 
the first half of the eighteenth century, but it is essen- 
tially incorrect. 

3179. SternMumc, * a Michaelmas daisy'; also called in Ger- 
many, (SSnfebliimc^en and IHartenbliimc^en. 

3 1 85-3 1 94. These lines are unrhymed iambics, 

3187. HTtc^ iiberIduft*S, tr. *I am trembling for fear !' 

3196. 3^ ^St euc^ = *I would pray you'; the preterite con- 
junctive used for the conditional. 

3201. man Fomtnt ins t8ereb= *one is talked about.' 
3203. * The wilful summer birds ! ' In the German dialects 
the Sommeroogel = * the butterfly.' 



3215, 3216. Margaret speaks South German, and pronounces 
,-Kinb' Kint, and ,ftnb't' flnt. 


The Forest and Cavern Scene (the first thirty -four lines 
unrhymed iambics) was written in Rome, 1787, or ia Weimar 
immediately after Gothe's return from Rome. — Faust's words 
express the moral resistance of his higher to the tempting of his 
lower instincts. We have here Faust's almost inspired enjoyment 
of nature. We have felt before, in his first monologue, this long- 
ing for the * broad, free land ' — for release from the bondage of 
unsatisfying studies. His impatience is not with nature, but 
with the inadequacy of the physical sciences, which endeavour 
to wrench from her with levers and screws and hammers the 
secrets which she does not willingly disclose. Faust now looks 
on nature with the eyes of a lover, and she is transformed in his 
eyes. It is no longer a cold, amazed acquaintance ; her heart 
is open to him like the heart of a friend, and all living creatures 
become his kindred. 


3217. <ErI|ab'ner (Seip, *the spirit of nature,' the ,(5etfi ber 
(Erbe' of Scene I. — i.e. a manifestation of God. 

3219. Cf. 1. 499, where he called Him ^^lammenbilbuttg.' 

3222. tttc^t fait jiaunenbcn 3efud^=*no cold, amazed ac- 
quaintance,' lit. *cold, wondering visit.' 

3225. bic Hetl^e bcr £ebenbtgen = * all living creatures ' — that 
is, the life that exists in trees, in the air, and in water. 

* What is called the Darwinian theory,' says Schroer, 

* was clear to Gothe from his youth ! ' 

3228. brauji unb Fnarrt = * roars and howls.' 

3229, 3230. Had/barajie, Hac^bar jlSmmc = * neighbouring 

boughs and tree-trunks.* 

3231. ifycem ^aU, i.e. 3U il^rem ^aU; bumpf and l^ol^I are 
both adverbs. 

3236. Then after storm, wind, and tempest * rises the pure, 
tranquil moon.' 

3238. *The pale, bright shadows of the ancient times' — an 
allusion to the dream forms he had read of in Ossian. 



3240. ,(D ha% betn Utenfc^en ntc^ts I^oKfommnes voxtb €mp* 

f!nb tc^ nun*' In these last weeks and da3rs Faust has 
learned more, and understands better what life is. 

3245. ' Even when he humbles me in mine oPm eyes. * 

3250. It is because Faust resists, and never wholly yields to 
Mephistopheles, that he in the end conquers. 

3251-3254. Faust has jtHsfsaid, — ^by one word of Mephistopheles* 
mouth the divine gifts are changed to nothingness : — 
how true this is we now feel when we see every noble 
impulse of Faust dragged down by Mephistopheles' 
mean conception of it. 

3254. Here, as Schroer well points out, we must read ,^u was 
ZCmen,' not ,^u was Ztenem,' because TXzutn is 
here the weak genitive. 

3256. am guten Cag=3ur gnten Sinxibt, ie. 'at every hour.' 

3257. Observe when Mephistopheles is courteous (ironically 

courteous) he addresses Faust as ,xl\x'^ when he is 
out of temper he addresses him as ,bn/ or ^er.' 

3261. bte ^dnbe t?oI( = * I have my hands full.* 

3263. an bet Hafe fpiiren, i,e. * tell by your face.' 

3265. * You will have thanks, forsooth, that you weary me.' 

3268. KriBsfraBs ber 3"^^3^^^tton means something like 
* perverseness of thy imagination.' The older form 
of the word is KrtbbeS'Krabbes, a word formed from 
frabben, or frctbbein, which signifies * to move awk- 
wardly, like a crab (Krabbe).' 

3273. 5c^ut|U = *an owl.* 
perft^en = * to mope.' 

3274. fc^Iiirfft = * suckest. ' 
trtef enb = * dripping.' 

3277. *The student (lit. teacher) is still lurking within you.' 

3279. IPanbel here means * sojourn ' ; it meant originally 

ibec^fel, Perfctjr; then (Sang, IPec^fel; then, as 
here, * abiding,' or some such word. 

3280. at|nen = *feel,' * imagine,' 'surmise.' 

3285. aufft^ioenen = * expand into. ' 

3286. * To pierce into the earth's core with impulsive foreboding. ' 



3287. ^Ke fec^s (Ea^etPerf = ' the work of the six days of crea- 

3289. * To overflow with love of everything that is. * 

3291. bie i)ol{e 3n^^tion, i.e, 'the glorious hour of intuition.* 

3294. * You're a nice fellow to say pfui.' 

3296. feuf<^= * modest,* lit. * chaste.* 

3298. * Of now and then deceiving yourself.' 

3299. < But you will not hold out long.' 

3300. That is, 'You are where you were before, weary of 

thought, weary of effort * ; ab^ettteben means, ' hunted 
down,' * wearied out,' * over-driven.' 

3303. babrtnne=tn bet Stabt. 

3309. {ie, ue, betne £tebesu)utl). 

3313. Das affenjnnge Bint; just as one calls a little child, 
* little monkey, ' so here <x{fen jtttt^ means, ' young as 
a child.' 

3318. ,lPenn id/ etn Ddgletn n>dre.' The song is found in 

Herder's SHmmen 'der Vblker (1779), 5 Buck 12, 
where he calls it Flug der Liebe* Mr. Brooks (as 
quoted by Bayard Taylor) thus translates it — 

• Were I a little bird, 
Had I two wings of mine 
I'd fly to my dear ; 

But that can never be, 
So I stay here. 

• Though I am far from thee, 
Dreaming I'm near to thee, 
Talk with my dear ; 
When I awake again 

I am alone. 

• Scarce there's an hour in the night 
When sleep does not take its flight. 
And I think of thee, 

How many thousand times 
Thou gav'st thy heart to me. ' 

3321. ausgetDetnt=*wept beyond her tears.' Cf. the line of 
Dante — 

' Lo pianto stesso li pianger non lascia. ' 

InfernOt Canto xxxiii. 94. 



3325. (Scit is a South German exclamation =:ntd^t IPal^r?. 

3326. * Get thee hence, Satan,* St. Matt. iv. 10. 
3335. tnbe§=* meantime.* 

3349- "DtV Unmenfc^ = * the monster.' 

3352-3355. He likens himself to a stream rushing down from 
Alpine heights, and threatening to ingulf and ruin 
the small cottage built on the mountain -side as it 
hurries by. The cottage is the little world in which 
Margaret lives, unconscious (mi.t^ finblid^ bumpfeit 
Stnnen) as a child. • 

335^> 3357» were printed as one line in the edition of 1790- 
3358. Faust still likens himself to the nishing torrent-: *,Was 
it not enough that I seized the rocks and hurled them 
down, but I must undermine her peace likewise?* 

3364, 3365. ' Let fall on me her fate and crush me, 

One ruin whelm both her and me 1 ' 

3369. er, i.e. Faust. 

3370. * Long live the brave man.' 

3371. * Thou art in most things devilish enough.' 


Here for the first time in the heading of the Scenes Margaret 
is called Gretchen. This and the preceding Scene seem to be 
identical in time. The lovers are separated ; Faust struggles 
with all the force of his nobler instincts to resist his passion, 
while Margaret is wholly possessed by an intense, unreasoning 
yearning for his ptesence. In representing her as seated at 
the spinning-wheel, Gothe is thinking of the Margaret of his 
boyhood. Visiting at her house. on one occasion, he says: 
* Only one of. the young people was at home. Margaret sat 
at the window- and span ; the mother went back and forth . . .* 


3381. uerg5Kt= * embittered.' PergStten is formed from gaUc, 
Eng. 'g:all.* 

3385. * My senses mazed.* 

3413. * And on his kisses at last expire.* Franz Schubert and 
Lowe have both set this loveliest of love songs to 



In the Faust Fragment, and in the edition of 1 808, * Mar- 
garet' is again found in the heading of the Scene. Faust 
and Margaret are alone together in Martha's Garden. Mephisto- 
pheles does not appear until Margaret has gone. 


3414. The Faust of history is called Georg, the Faust of the 

legend Johann ; perhaps Gothe cared particularly for 
the name Heinrich, and therefore gave it to his hero. 

3415. ipie Ijaft bu's mtt ber Heligton for ,w\t I^SItft bu cs 


3422. *If I had any power over thee'! Of auf bic^ so used 
I know no other example ; it stands for ii ber btc^. 

3431-3458. HTigt^or' for mi§oerjielj. The versification here 
resembles the irregular metre of an ode. 

There is sufficient evidence that Gothe meant here 
to give his own imperfect (as he admitted it to be) 
conception of God. He believed in the immanence 
of God in all things : the sun, the stars, the earth, 
the human heart and all its emotions, are simply 
invisible — visible manifestations of His existence ; he 
recognised Him in His infinite aspects ; he would not 
define or describe Him. * The nature of God,' Gothe 
elsewhere writes, * immortality, the. being of the soul 
and its connection with the body, are eternal problems, 
wherein the philosophers are unable to give us any 
further knowledge. ' 

Whether Faust's explanation is Pantheism in either 
a spiritual or a materialistic form ; whether it is an 
undoctrinal view permitted to a Christian, or, as 
Margaret fears, there is no Christianity in it, are 
questions which each reader will best decide for 

3446. Sc^au tc^ nic^t; understand ,bics 2IIIes/ that is, *Do I 
not see all this in thee?' 

3466. IetbHc^=* bearable,' 'reasonable.' 

3474. So ntc^ts = ntc^ts. 

3478. bin fonft atten IHenfc^en 9ut='I usually like,' *feel 

kindly towards every one. ' 

304 .FAUST. PART I. 


3483. K&U5e means here 'odd people/ lit. 'a species of owls.' 
B. Taylor translates 'queer birds.* 

3486. fp3tttfc^ = * mocking.* 

3487. ergrtinmt=*grim.' 

3488. Obs. the double negative; Margaret does not always 

speak correct German. 

3493. fc^niirt mix bas 3nnre = * my heart shrinks.' 

3512. ^n xfycen (Eranf (one would have expected ,iljrem 
(Eranf '), with it^ren, the accus. case, we must under- 
stand some word such as ,gemtfc^t/ gegoffen. 

3521, (Stasaff, t.e, 'little monkey.* Gothe elsewhere uses 

this word as an ironical term of endearment. 

3522. Mephistopheles always knows what has happened in his 


3524. In this line Mephistopheles, speaking contemptuously 
and obsequiously, uses the 3d pers. pi. in addressing 

3530-3532. ' Full of her faith, which alone means happiness to 

3534. iiberfinnUc^ = ' supersensual. * 


At the spring : Gretchen and Lieschen with pitchers. 


3546. Sibytte. Mephistopheles has called the Witch above a 
Sibyl, and here by StbyUe is meant a witch, an old 

3550. I follow Schroer in letting this 2lc^ I form 

a line for itself. 

3556. (£urteprcn = * to court,* * to pay court to.* 

3 560. <5ef ofe = * fondling. * 

(Sefc^Iecf for <5efiiffe = * kissing.* 

3564. Uns . . . ntc^t litnunterlie§ = *did not let us out.* 

3569. The ancient custom was for the sinner to confess his or 
her sin to the priest in the presence of the congrega- 




tion, dressed only in a shirt or shift. Cf. the punish- 
ment of the Duchess of Gloucester in Henry VI, y 
Part II. 

3572. bte £uft means here bte ^reif^ctt. 

gcnung is used in Frankfurt and in parts of Middle and 
South Germany for 9011119. 

3575. rei§cn means here either abrei§en=*to tear down,* or 

3Crrei^cn = * to tear in pieces.' Similarly Gothe 

uses fc^metfcn for I^crumjc^ioeifen, l)alten for aus* 
- l^alten, ^olger for ttac^folgcr. 

3576. ^Scfcrltng, /.<?. * chaff' — instead of flowers. 

3577' fc^mSI^Icn = * put down with rebuke.' 

3578. tIjSt-=,tI^at'; cf. 1. 2781 note ; in 1. 3583 we have tf^at. 
Schroer points out that Gothe originally wrote : ,Sa\[ 
tc^ ein armes HTSgbletn fcl^Ien.' 

3581. fd/tDSrjts noc^ gar = fc^ipdr3te ic^ cs auc^ noc^ oben» 

3584. * And I, who thus could feel, I am the same. ' — ^Anster. 


We must suppose a long interval of lime to have elapsed 
between the last Scene and this. giDtliger means literally 
'stronghold,' but here it signifies a way or walk within the 
town walls, along which, in niches, sacred pictures and images 
were placed. Gothe here has Frankfurt in his thoughts, 
where, round the town, within the walls, was the favourite walk 

of his childhood : ,(Sarten, fjofe, fjintcrgebaube 3tct^en fic^ 
bis an 'i>t\i goinger Ijeran/ Dichtung und Wahrheit^ i, 15. 


3588-3595. With the opening words of Gretchen's prayer 
compare the old Latin hymn — 

' Stabat Mater dolorosa 
Juxta crucem lacrimosa 
Dum pendebat filius ; 
Cujus animam gementem, 
Contristatam et dolentem, 
Pertransivit gladius. ' 

Cf. St. Luke ii. 35. 




3595. fetn' unb bctne ttotl^. Gothe and other writers often 
elide the termination of an adjective or pronoun, 
when an adjective or pronoun follows with the same 

3597- n)iit|Iet=* wrings.* 

3608. Sd^evhtn, t.e, 23Iumenf(^erben=* flower-pots.* 

3616. von Sd^madf unb (Eob. Margaret is thinking of self- 
murder when she thus speaks. She is not thinking 
of her mother's death, nor of Faust*s absence. 


In the Royal Library in Berlin there is an autograph manu- 
script of this Scene, bearing -the date 1800. It was published, 
however, for the first time in the edition of 1808. Schroer 
thinks the appearance of Faust and Mephistopheles at Gretchen's 
door in this Scene remains unexplained and unnatural, for must 
not Faust have been absent and away from the town during the 
Scene at the well and the Scene where Gretchen prays before 
the little shrine ? I do not, however, think that this necessarily 
follows, and Faust seems to me to come on this evening to pay 
a customary visit. Duntzer thinks that the unity of the plot is 
disturbed by the introduction of Valentine ; we should, he con- 
siders, have had a gradual, uninterrupted heightening of tragic 
interest: first the Scene am Bruttnett, then the Scene tm 
§XDxn^et, tlien the Scene tm Dome. But DUntzer forgets it 
is the guilt of murder that obliges Faust to fly from the town. 
He is thus prevented from heanng of the misery which swiftly 
comes upon Margaret. Without such a motive his flight would 
be a heartless desertion. I think, moreover, that we would not 
willingly lose the picture of Valentine, the brave soldier, the 
honest man, whose death is another link in the fatal chain of 
Margaret*s destiny. 


3620. bet *em (Selag for bei etttem (Selag. In South Germany 

one hears frequently such abbreviations. (StlaQ 
meant originally a feast where each guest brought his 
o¥m contribution ; here it means * a carouse, * * a drink- 

3621. jic^ beriit^men = * to boast.* 



3622, 3623. tntr btn ^lor bcr XTIS^bletit laut geprtefen por= 
*they praised aloud in my hearing each his flower 
among maidens.' 

3624, 3625. *With full glass they washed down the toast.* 
Perfc^ipemmt refers to bte (SefeHen, auf^efiemmt to 
Valentine. The meaning of 1. 3625 is, * On my elbow 
I would rest. * * 

3627. SdfWQbxonmn = * swagger. * 

3628. I&c^Ienb for Idc^elnb ; with reference to the spelling cf. 

,befonbrem/ for ,befonbenn/ 1. 4027 ; and 'waribUn' 
for ,voanbtln,' 1. 4032. All three are examples of 
the Frankfurt dialect. 

3632. traut ; a very beautiful word, for which I know no good 

English equivalent ; perhaps * true-hearted * is the 
best rendering here. As to the word (5rete(, cf. note 
to 1. 2827. 

3633. (Einem bas IDaffer retc^en=Tnit xfyn ftc^ pcrglctc^en 

f(^nnen, ue, <to bear comparison with.* 

3634. (Eop = *done.* 

KItng I Klan^ I describes the clinking of their glasses. 

3638, 3639. ' I could tear out my hair, and dash my brains out 
against the wall.* 

3640. Stic^clreben = * words that sting. * 

Ztaferiimpf en = * nose upturned. * 

3648. beim ^elle pa(fcn=fejit^altcn. At this moment Faust 
and Mephistopheles enter, Mephistopheles foreseeing 
that the misery and shame and sin of Margaret must 
now be made publicly known, and secretly rejoicing in 
the thought. 

3650-3652. Margaret's home was near to the city wall, and so 
probably was the cathedral where Margaret used to 
pray ; from the window of the sacristy came the light 
of the ever-burning lamp. The more usual form, 
instead of ffSinmem, is ffimmern ; cf. flappern and 

3653. * The darkness of night presses on us.* 

365 5 . fc^tnSc^ttg = * sleek * or * languishing. * Originally fc^mSc^* 
tt^ meant * desiring,* * longing *; later it came to mean 
•slender,* *slim.* 



3659. Hamntelet = * frolic' 

3660. fpnfen = * to'lurk.' 

3661. IDalpurgtsnad^t, i.e. *the night between 30th April and 

1st May.' 

3664, 3665. * Meanwhile will the treasure rise upwards, which 
I Saw glittering down there?' This remark of Faust 
refers to some treasure which Mephistopheles has 
promised him. There used to be a common super- 
stition that somewhere in the earth there was a 
treasure hidden ; it lay in a kettle, and once in seven 
years it rose to the earth's surface ; cf. the proverb : 

,Der 5c^at3 I^cbt fid? alle 3aljre um einen Baljnen* 

3669. In Joachimsthal in Bohemia, in the fifteenth century, 
the first thalers were coined ; hence the term tt^al^et 
On one side was the lion (loipe) of Bohemia, on the 
other a likeness of St. Joachim. 

3673. A line from Lessing's Play, Emilia Galotti^ was perhaps 
in Gothe's thoughts when he wrote — 

,pcrlen aber, meine ITtutter, perlen bebeuten Ctjrdnen/ 

Act II. Scene vii. 

3677. Umfonjl = * without payment. ' 

3682-3697. The old English song from which the first verse 
of this song is taken is to be found in Hamlet. 
Ophelia sings it, Act IV. Scene v. The second verse 
is Gothe's own. In Schlegel's translation of the third 
verse of Ophelia's song Saint Charity is rendered by 
Saint Katherine ; hence, perhaps, Gothe writes, 

3699. Hattenfdnger. A German legend tells of a rat-catcher 
in Hameln who enticed all the children forth from 
the town, and then locked them up for ever in a 
mountain-side. Gothe made a poem of this story 
(see Gedithtey i. 185, ed. 1827-42), and Mr. Browning 
has made it familiar to us all in the * Pied Piper of 
Hamelin. ' Cf. also in Romeo andjuliety Act III. Scene 
i., the line where Mercutio calls Tybalt a rat-catcher — 

• Tybalt, you rat-catcher, will you walk ? ' 

3701. Valentine seizes hold of the singer, who is Mephistopheles. 

SCENE Xrx. NOTES. 309 


Mephistopheles begins the fight, but in such a way 
that he only parries the blows, while Faust strikes. 

3706. ^IebertPif(^ is a goose's wing used for dusting; it is a 
slang word for sword. 

3 7 1 1 . Faust strikes Valentine through with his sword. Ciimmel 
= * clown.* 

37 1 3. mSrberlic^ (Sefc^rct = * cry of murder. ' 

3714, 3715. *I can grapple with the police, but not with the 

death sentence.* The police is an institution made 
by man, but the punishment of assassination and 
murder is by God Himself, and with God's punish- 
ment the Devil had no power to grapple. Faust and 
Mephistopheles hurry away. 

3717. * They swear and storm, they yell and fight.* 

3727. Note ,genun9,' Frankfurtish for ,genug.' There is 
something most touching in the mingling of love and 
wrath in Valentine's dying words. 

3732. Was fott mir bas ? = * What shall that mean [for me] ?' 

3733. * Leave God's name out of the matter.* 

3756-3759. * You'll never more stand near the altar with your 
golden chain on ; you'll never more be led to the 
dance wearing your fine lace collar.' 

5760. ^ammtteden ; €cfen is often found for (Ecf e in* the 

German dialects. 

3761. bic^ perflecfen, i.e. bn foHft (from 1. 3756) btc^ cerftccfen. 

3763. * On earth thou shalt be cursed.* Permalabeit — from 

Lat. maledicere; ItL maledire; Fr. maudire ; M. H. G. 

malebien. Cf. 1. 3699, Dermalebetter Hattenfdnger. 

3764. Bcfel^It =' commend ' ; 2d pers. pi. imper. 

3769. reic^e lYIa^ ; properly an accus. used absolutely, but it 
is here used adverbially ; tr. * in full measure.' 


Gothe at first intended the requiem which Gretchen now hears 
to have been sung for her own mother, but he afterwards 
changed his mind, and allowed some time to have elapsed be- 
tween the mother's death and the Scene in the cathedral. 


Gretchen's first meeting with Faust had been at the cathedral, 
when Mephistopheles had said of her — 

* So innocent is she indeed 
That to confess she had no need. ' 

Now all is changed. Throughout this Scene the lines are ir- 
regular and unrhymed. 


3776. The words spoken by the Evil Spirit reveal the thoughts 
and feeUngs that rise up in Gretchen as she hears the 
tones of the organ. 

3779. pcrgrtff net! = * worn and fingered.* 

3788. Because she had died without confession and absolution, 

— like Hamlet's father, who, because he -was 

'Unhousel'd. disappointed, unanel'd,' 

had to suffer long, and to wander without rest on earth 
as a ghost. 

3789. This line is not in the Faust Fragment, because the 

Scene describing Valentine's murder was not written 
till later — after 1790. 

3791. qutKenb for que0enb. 

3798, 3799. The hymn Dies irae was written in the thirteenth 
century by Thomas of Celano ; the first verse has been 
thus translated : 

* Day of wrath without a morrow, 
Earth shall end in flame and sorrow, 
As from saint and seer we borrow.' 

380 1 . * The trumpet sounds. ' 

381 1, 3812, *The singing moves my heart to its depths.' 

381 3-38 1 5. * When the Judge then shall sit, whatever is hidden 
shall appear ; nothing shall remain unavenged.' 

3817-3820. 'The pillars of the wall imprison me, the vaulted 
ceiling is crushing me.' 

3825-3827. *What shall I, wretched man, then say? What 
helper shall I appeal to ? when scarcely the just man 
is safe.' 

3834. ^ISfc^c^cn = ' phial,' * flask.' Here the Faust Fragment 
comes to an end, — the remaining Scenes of Part I. 
were not published until 1808. 



This Scene was written in iSoo, some twenty-five years after 
its first conception. It is alluded to prospectively by Mephis- 
topheles in the Scene in the Witches' Kitchen : * Thy wish be on 
Walpurgis Night expressed.' On one occasion, talking to 
Eckermann, Gothe said : *■ I employed myself but once with the 
Devil and Witch material ; I was then glad to have consumed 
my northern inheritance, and turned again to the banquets of 
the Greeks.* It was, I think, only in his youth that Gothe 
could have written a Scene so purely Gothic. After his feeling 
for the repose and symmetry of classic art had been awakened 
during^his sojourn in Italy — after he had written Iphigenie^ TassOy 
Hermann und Dorothea — it would have been difficult, perhaps 
impossible, for him to have conceived and planned the Walpurgis 
Night Scene. The ist of May was the ancient festival day of the 
Druids, when they made sacrifices upon their sacred mountains 
and kindled their May fkres. Their gods were looked on as 
devils by their Christian descendants, and hence arose the 
superstition that on the night between 30th April and ist May 
a conclave of wizards, witches, and fiends met together on the 
Brocken or Blocksberg, the highest mountain in the Harz range. 
But in the eighth century there lived an English saint, named 
Walpui^a, who emigrated from England to Germany, and after 
her death the 1st May was the day dedicated to her in the 
Christian calendar. Thus the name of Walpurga or Walpurgis 
became connected with the night on which witches and fiends 
met together on the Brocken. 

The reason for introducing this strange Scene here is plain : 
Mephistopheles leads Faust over the Blocksberg in order to 
stupefy him, and make him forget Gretchen. He fails in this ; 
love is stronger in Faust than Mephistopheles can conceive. 

The Scene begins two days after Valentine's death. Schierke 
and Elend are two villages at the foot of the Brocken in a 
barren, rocky country. 


3838. There is something jarring and discordant here in Faust's 
vigour and cheerfulness when one remembers the 
Scene that has gone just before. — In the lines which 
describe the Brocken Gothe writes from memory : 
he had visited the Hartz Mountains in 1777. 



3851. Sc^etbe=*disk.' 

3855. (Eriaub; imper., that is, * allow that I leave you a 

3rrlt(^ter (Will-o'-the-Wisps) are superstitiously believed 
to be demoniac beings, who mislead travellers. 

3857. fobcrn (sometimes used for forbern) = * summon.* 

3861. ttaturcH = * nature, ' * temper. ' 

3864. ins Ceufels ttamen I As used by Mephistopheles this 

curse is amusing. 

3865. ^lacf erieben = * flickering life.' 

3871. The Berlin MS. of the *"Walpurgis Night* begins with 
this part-song, and bears the date 5th November 
1800 ; it is thought that the beginning of the Scene 
was written later. There is some doubt as to how 
the different verses of the song are to be assigned to 
the three singers ; probably Mephistopheles sings the 
first and fourth, the Will-o*-the-Wisp the second, and 
Faust the third and fifth. 

3876. Sell' = tc^ felje. 

3879, 3880. ' The giant-snouted crags, ho ! ho ! 

How they snort and how they blow 1 ' 

Shelley, Translation of the 
* Walpurgisnacht ' 

Two huge granite rocks near Schierke are called ,bte 

3881-3888. In this stanza all Faust's deep -rooted love of 
nature comes out, spite of spells, and witches, and 

3890. * Jay and screech-owl and the plover. * 

3892. inoIc^e=* lizards,* * salamanders. ' 

3896. 3anbc=* coils.* 

3898. UTafcr, ue. * knots and gnarls.* 

3899. poIypenfafern=* polypus-feelers.' 

3900. In Northern Mythology mice are associated with witches ; 

a little farther on Faust sees a red mouse come out of 
the young Witch*s mouth. 

3903' (Junfcnipiirmer = * glow-worms. ' 

3904. gebrdngten 5c^ipSrmer3iigcn = * crowded swarms.* 



3905- §iim ocripirrcnben <SeIettc = * as a wildering escort.' 
3909. bie, rel. pron., referring to ^efs UTtb BSutne. 
3912. §ipfel=* skirt.' 

3915. lUammon, a Hebrew word signifying *wealtli*; cf. St. 

Matt. vi. 24, and St.. Luke xvi. 9, 11, 13; cf. also 
Paradise Losty Book ii., where the name is given to 
one of the fallen angels. 

3916. glimmcrt, same as Eng. * glimmer.' On Walpurgis 

Night it was supposed hidden treasures could be seen 
gleaming through the mountain-side. 

3919. ipittcrn for gctPittcrtt. Faust speaks here of summer 

lightning, not real lightning. 

3920. Sc^lPabcn mean here either ttebclfiretfett, i.e. * rolling 

vapours,* or giftige (Srubcnbunft, i.e. * poisonous 

3935' bie ungeftiimcn (Sajie, i.e. *the Witches,' who are 
approaching. According to Grimm {Deutsche Mytho- 
logiey Eng. Translation, p. 996), when Witches travel 
. abroad they rouse the winds and storms, — so, too, the 
Weird Women in the Edda — when they ride forth by 

3936. The Greek word for * tempestuous wind ' in Acts xxvii. 
14 (*a tempestuous wind, called Euroclydon') has 
been translated by Luther ,lDinbbrdut.' 

3943> 3944- ^t^ SSuIen etotg griiner paldfie, i.e. the trees 
of the forest. 

3945. (5irren, commonly written firren, describes the groaning 
of the branches ; lit. = * to creak,' * to squeak.' 

3955. The ^aubcrgcfang is sung by the Witches in chorus — 11. 
3956-3967 ; at 1. 3974 they begin again. 

3959. Urtan is used by Biirger, and Claudius also, for the chief 
of the devils. Like *Grobjan' and * Schmierjan,' it 
is formed from Jan {i.e. Ur-jan), which had come to 
be a common nickname. Jan is short for Johann. 
^crr Urtan is identical with the devil Auerhahn, to 
whom, in the Faust legend, Wagner sells his soul. 
The Auerhahn is one of the animals sacred to the 
Devil. The spirit Auerhahn is found also in the 
Faust Puppet Play, 



3962. 3aubo was the name of Demeter's nurse. Gothe makes 
her symbolise gross, shameless sensuality, which, 
according to popular belief, characterised the congre- 
gating of devils, wizards, and witches. 

3965. angefufjrt= * leading on,* * taking the lead.' 

3968. 3Ifcnjietn, in the Ilsethal, north of the Brocken. 

3969-3973. The different voices are descriptive of the crowd of 
Witches hurrying by, — they ride against one another, 
and crush one another, and wound one another. 

3971. According to Bodin {Dhnonomanie, ou Trcdti des Sor- 
ciers), witches were believed to ride sometimes on a 
goat, sometimes on a broom, sometimes on a stick, 
sometimes on nothing ; cf. 1. 4000, etc. 

3989. The voices are the voices of those who know all the rules 
by which to avoid faults, but beyond this negative 
talent their virtue does not reach : {o be free from 
faults is both the highest and the lowest degree of 
excellence, for it springs from either impotence or 

3990-3993. Moon and stars are hidden by clouds, and then in 
the darkness it is seen how the Wizards and Witches 
emit fire sparks. Shelley thus translates the verse, 
most poetically, though not literally — 

• The wind is still, the stars are fled, 
The melancholy moon is dead ; 
The magic notes, like spark on spark, 
Drizzle, whistling through the dark.' 

3995* 'This verse can only refer to science, which cannot 
properly advance, because it is hindered by pedantry 
and the restrictions of the schools ' (ue, * the rocky 

cleft '). — DUNTZER. 

4000-4003. The Chorus of Wizards and of Witches answer the 
Voices that have just spoken : there are brooms, 
sticks, forks, and goats, — he who cannot rise by 
means of these is lost. 

4004-4007. The ^alblje^e signifies * Mediocrity. * 

4008-401 1. Witches are supposed to anoint themselves with a 
particular magic ointment, and then to seat themselves 
m a trough, and with a ragged sail to sail up to the 



4015. Qeienl^ett means ' assemblage of witches ' ; cf. Ct^nflett' 

f{ett; t^ett is the Gothic haidus and English hoody 
which means *way,* 'manner.* 

4016. * They crowd and push, they roar and clatter 1 

They whirl and whistle, pidl and chatter ! 
They shine, and spirt, and stink, and bum.' 

Bayard Taylor. 
4023. 3tttt^^'f=* squire.* 

In the Middle High German poets of the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries the Devil is named Valant, Foland, 
and VoUand. Polanb is identical with the limping 
god Loki. 

P$bel is used for Volk, — it is the Fr. peuple^ derived 
from the Lat. populus. 

4028-4033. 5tr&nc^en=' bushes.' Mephistopheles finds him- 
self in congenial society here, and wishes to amuse 
himself after his own fashion ; Faust, on the contrary, 
wishes to isolate himself, and only to look on from a 

4036. 3»tt Kletnen = ' in small circles. * 

4039. bcm 33fcn= * the Evil One.* 

4041. fnupft jtc^ = * is knotted.* 

4042. bte groge lPcIt= * the multitude.* 
faufen=*to riot* 

4044. * It is transmitted from the past.* 

4051. Perfl[uc^t (5efd^narr=* cursed din !' cf. M. H. G. Snar 

= ' the string of a musical instrument.' 

4052. (Es fann nic^t ccv^zxs fein, ue, * It is inevitable ; you 

must come.' 

4064. Kntebanb = * the Order of the Garter.* 

4065. Cf. 1. 2184. The foot on which the Devil limped was 

supposed, Grimm tells us, to be a horse's hoof. 

4067. tajlenben = * feeling.* Die Cajien are the feelers or 
horns of a snail. 

4071. * I am the wooer, and thou art the lover.* 

4072. am ^xC^Z^^ at the outskirts.* 
4074. Saus = * revel.* 

3ugenbbraus = * youthful riot. ' 


4075. * At home every one is enough alone/ 

4076-4095. "Whether the four characters now introduced are so 
many individual satires is a doubtful question ; all 
four are discontented with the present time and the 
rising generation. It has been thought that the 
Author typifies the romantic school headed by Tieck 
and the Schlegels. It is plain that the episode is a 
general satire on the conventional and therefore reac- 
tionary element in politics and literature. The words 
of Mephistopheles, and his sudden assumption of old 
age, is a grotesque parody of the tone of the four 
speakers, — he takes up the strain and exaggerates it 
' to the point of absurdity. Anster thus translates — 

' The wine of life 
Is low with me, and therefore 'tis that I, 
An old man, think the world is on the lees.' 

4096. It has been suggested that in the CrobelljCje {i.e. 
* huckster witch*) Gothe means to satirise Hofrat 
Beireis, an eccentric collector of curiosities in Helm- 
stadt. Cf. the description of the witches' wares in 
*Tam o' Shanter' (which was written ten years before 
the Walpurgis Night Scene) — . 

' Coffins stood round like open presses, 
That shaw'd the dead in their last dresses ; 
And by some devilish cantrip sleight, 
Each in his cauld hand held a light, ' — 

and so on. Gothe was well acquainted with Burns's 

41 10. Hluljme = * aunt or any female relation,' but in popular 
language any old woman, whether a relation or not, is 
called (Jrau XRul^me (similarly it is the custom among 
intimate friends for young people to call older people 
(DnM and (Eante). In the Second Part of Faust 
Mephistopheles calls the Lamia IHiifjmc^en (1. 
7756), and in German Mythology the Nixies are 

called lUiilimc^en. 

41 14, 41 15. *Let me not lose myself! am I to call this 'a 
fair?' Gothe had in remembrance the Frankfurt 
and Leipzig fairs. 

41 19. Loeper quotes two lines from a poem by Langbein, which 



appeared in the GotHnger Musenalmanach for 1783, 

p. 204, on Frau Lilith, Adam's first wife — 

, yXxCf> vo\^, fie reitet aHemal 
3^ ^^ tDoIpnrgisnad^t sum ^11/ 

The name Lilith is found in Isaiah xxxiv. 14, where 
Luther translates it * Kobold,' the Septuagint iiacovaa. 
(*Empusa'), the Vulgate * Lamia,* the English Bible 
'screech owl,' and the Swedish Bible *Elfvor' or 
'Alp.' One Legend tells that Lilith had beautiful 
golden hair, with which she used to attract and cap- 
tivate men ; but those who loved her always died 
young, and after death a single golden hair used to 
be found twisted round their heart. Mr. Rossetti has 
written a sonnet on the legend. 

4128. Diintzer and Schroer both quote here the following 
observations of Wieland to Bottiger (30th June 1808) : 
,lPie \(xi 3l^nctt bte IDalpurgisnac^t unfcres Konigs 
bcr (Scnten gef alien, ber, nid^t 3ufrtebcn ber VOzM 
ge3et9t 311 l^aben, "bcx^ er nad? Belicbcn lUtc^el 
Sngelo, ilapliacl, (Eorreggto unb Ctttan, Diircr unb 
Hembranbt fcin !ann, fid^ unb uns nun auc^ "i^zn 
5pQ| gcmad^t, 3U «tgen, \iCi% cr, fobalb er n)tU, auc^ 
ein ^SUenbreugl|el fein fonne.' 

4128-4135. Cf. Gothe'spoem, ^DerMiillerin VerraW {Gedkhte, 
i. 194-196, ed. 1827-36). 

4144. Friedrich Nicolai is here meant. He was bom in 1733, 
and died in 181 1. He was the literary associate of 
Lessing and of Moses Mendelssohn. He hated the 
Romantic School, especially in its Sturm und Drang 
Period, and soon after the appearance of Werther's 
Leiden, he published a malicious and rather stupid 
parody called * Freuden des jungen Werthei'.' Nicolai 
had long been an utter disbeliever in spirits, visions, 
or any kind of superstition, and unluckily it happened 
that about the year 1791 he himself b^an to see 
apparitions and to have visions. These were cured 
by the application of leeches to his back, and hence 
the name proftopljantasmtjl which Gothe here gives 

4147. * And now you even dance like one of us.* 



4150. * When others dance he weighs the matter.' 

4155. ,n?ie cr's in fetner alien ITtuliIe ifyitJ Nicolai*s many- 
volumed journal is alluded Xxy—Die aJlgenieine deutsche 
Bibliothek (1765-1798), and Die neue cUlgemeine 
deuUche Bibliothek (1798-1806). 

4160. ^es' is in apposition with ,Das CCeufelspacf^ (/.^. * the 

devil's pack '). 

41 6 1. Ce^el is the country residence of the Von Humboldts, 

near Berlin, one of the many so-called * haunted 
houses.' Nicolai, in 1799, wrote a paper on Appari- 
tions, which was read before the Berlin Academy of 
Sciences, and in it the apparition seen at Tegel by the 
Minister Wilhelm von Humboldt was described. 
This line, ,lPtr flnb fo Hug Vixsb bennoc^ fpufts in 
CCcgel,' has been strangely misunderstood by trans- 
lators. Shelley, confounding ,^ege(' with Ceic^, 
translated it by 'pond.' Stapfer and Gerard de 
Nerval thus translate : ' Nous sommes bien prudents 
et cependant le creuset est toujours aussi plein. Que 
de temps n'ai-je pas employ^ dans cette idee.' Here 
,(Eeaer was mistaken for ,5c^mel5tiegel,' and ,es 
fpuft' supposed to signify ,es fprubelt/ and the 
whole to mean : * We are so wise, and yet the cauldron 
is for ever full.' 

4 1 65-4 1 67. In these lines there is a play on the word ,(5eifi'; 
in the first line it means * spirit,' 'apparition'; in the 
second it means both 'apparition' and 'intellect'; in 
the third it means 'intellect.' 

4167. All the Witches and Spirits, etc., dance on without 
heeding him. 

4169. A satiric allusion to Nicolai's many-volumed description 
of a journey through Germany and Switzerland (1783- 

4172. pfiifte=' puddle.' 

4173. flc^ fouIagirt= French se soulager^ the g being pro- 

nounced as in French. 

4174. Nicolai had been cured of the tendency to see apparitions 

by the application of leeches to his back. Cf. note to 

4179- According to Grimm {.Deutsche Mythologies Eng. Trans- 



lation, p. 1082) red mice were wonfTto run out of the 

mouths of witches. Gothe probably intended the 

mouse as a symbol of the bestial element in the Witches* 

Sabbath day, by which Faust is disgusted and repelled. 

4 1 82. Sc^Sf erfhinbe = * love's hour. * 

4186. Faust sees a vision of Margaret, alone, and pale, her feet 
in irons, — ^and the very fact that he sees her in this 
hour shows that Mephistopheles has failed to drag Faust 
down to his level, — love in him is unconquerable. 

4190. In the sketch of a Scene which Gothe never completed, 
but which has been printed in the Paralipontena to 
Faust^ we find : ,<Ein anberer Cl^etl bes 53rocfcns. 
(Eief crc Hegton. Boc^gert^tserfd^cinung. (Scbrang. 
. . . Hacft bas 300L Die 2[^Viiiz auf bem Hiicfen.' 
Instead of ,tta(f t bas 3boI' Schroer suggests to read 
yttacfies 3^^^*' Gothe never completed this Scene ; 
instead we have the conversation between Faust and 

4194. The Medusa Gorgon, who, according to the Greek 
legend, turned every one who looked at her to stone. 

4208. petfeus killed Medusa in the wilderness, and out of her 
blood sprang snakes, and also the winged horse 
Pegasus. By this mythological talk Mephistopheles 
seeks to draw Faust's attention away from the 
prophetic vision he has seen. What Faust has seen 
is Margaret already tried, condemned, and put to 
death, — the trace of the axe upon her neck, the feet 
chained, the hands bound behind the back. 

42 1 1. The prater, from Lat. pratum^ * a meadow,' is a public 

park in Vienna ; the crowd of people to be seen there 
on feast-days and holidays, the gay booths, the round 
games, the swinging, the puppet theatre, make it 
resemble somewhat a Blocksberg scene. 

4212. Translate, 'And if they have not bewitched my senses.' 

4213. They now come to a theatre, of which Servibilis is stage- 

manager. Servibilis Loeper translates ,btenftbarer 
(Seift.' He resembles the supernumerary of our 
theatres, who is ready to do anything and everything 
when occasion requires. In Servibilis Gothe satirises 
all dilettantism and dilettanti ; in 1799 he had written 



an article on * Dilettantismus ' in Literature, of which 

the words spoken here by Servibilis are an echo. 

4220. Vftldl btlctttrt'S; from Italian mi diletta; tr. * As amateur, 
it's my part to draw up the curtain.' 


Considered in its relation to the Faust poem, this Scene can 
only be regarded as superfluous and unnecessary. What have 
fairy beings like Oberon and Titania to do with wizards or 
witches, the brood of devils, or the revelry of the Blocksberg ? 
Or, on the other hand, what have the inquisitive traveller, the 
orthodox divine, the northern artist, to do with Oberon and 
Titania? Apparently Gothe wanted to satirise certain of his 
contemporaries and certain tendencies of the age, and he took 
occasion to do so here, calling the setting he gave to his remarks 
and aphorisms the ,lt)alpurgtsnac^tstraum, obcr Oberons ViX(t> 
(Eitantas golbne ^od^3ett.' It would certainly have been more 
fitting if, as was originally intended, he had allowed the Scene 
to be a continuation of the Xenien in Schiller's Miisen- 
almanach. The * Golden Wedding * is called by Gothe an 
3ntenne330 — a name given to a particular form of Italian 


4224. * To-day for once we rest, we sons of Mieding,* that is, 
Mieding's successors. Johann Martin Mieding was 
the stage -manager and decorator of the Weimar 
theatre ; he died in 1782, when Gothe wrote a poem 
called *Auf Miedings Tod.' 

4229. Strctt. The quarrel was concerning a little Indian boy, 
whom Titania wished to keep for herself. Cf. Shake- 
speare's Midsummer Night* s Dream , Act II. Scene i. 
It has been thought that the Heralds' announcement 
foretells the final reconciliation of the conflicting 
elements in German literature — Oberon and Titania 
symbolising the Classical and Romantic Schools, or 
perhaps reason and imagination. 

4235. Pucf, Oberon's faithful attendant spirit ; Schlegel, in his 
translation of the Midsummer Night* s Dream, calls 



4235. breljt jtc^ qtter = * whirls around.* 

4236. fc^Ieift ben ^u§ tm Heif{en = * twirls the foot in measure. * 
4239. 2(rtel. See Shakespeare's Tempest. 

4241. X>tele ;5raften = * many an ugly face.* 

4244. ietnens, 3d pers. pi. pres. conj. with es added on, tr. 
Met them learn it.* 

4247. Sc^moIIt, from fc^moflen = * to be sulky.* 

(5rt0en is a verb coined by Gothe, and means * to have 
whims* ((SrtUen). 
4251. The Orchestra and Singers probably symbolise the crowd 
of literary aspirants, who, like insects ((Jliegen and 
UTiicFeTt), keep up a continual piping and humming. 

4255. DubelfacF =* bagpipe drone*; we must here imagine 
some droning gnat or fly to come in sight. 

4257. Sc^ne(fef(^ntcfcfc^narf; the word is meant to imitate the 
sound of the bagpipes. 

4259-4262. (5etfl, ber pc^ erfl btlbet=* embryo spirit.* Gothe 
means to satirise clumsy poetasters who tack and 
stitch rhymes together, and call this ,etn (Sebic^tc^ett.' 

4263. DUntzer believes the pdrc^ett to represent the union of 
bad music and commonplace poetry. 

4267. The ,tleu9tertger Hetfettber' is Nicolai again. Cf. notes 
to 11. 4144 and 4169. 

4271. By the ,0rt!)Oboj' is meant Count Friedrich Stolberg, 
who had written an attack upon Schiller's poem, * Die 
Gotter Griechenlands.* 

4274. cr, ue, Oberon. 

4275-4278. The northern artist longs for the home of art, and 
prepares for a journey to Italy (such as Gothe himself 
had made), — as yet his works are merely sketches. 

4279-4282. The purifl is not a speaker or writer who is strict 
and rigorous about language, but an aesthetic, artistic 
person, who is rigorous about costume and dress. 

4280. gelubert means here 'careless,' * free from restraint ' ; cf; 
the M. H. G. verb Inobem. 

4283. The young Witch is supposed to be beautiful, and to 
have no need of powder to enhance her beauty. 

4290. perfaulen= * to moulder.' 





4291. ;JItegenfc^na«3 = * fly's snout. ' 

Xttiicf ennos = * mosquito-sting ' (lit. * nose *). 

4293. <5nll = * cricket.' 

4295-4302. The same Weathercock speaks both times ; at first 
it is delighted at the society it meets on the Blocks- 
berg, but presently it expects the earth to open and 
swallow ever)rthing down. It is believed the Counts 
Stolberg are here satirised, who, in youthful enthu- 
siasm for all that was natural, bid defiance to all 
conventionality, and later became narrow, reaction- 
ary, and absurdly prudish. 

4303. The Xtnien, i.e, epigrams published by Gothe and 
Schiller in the Musenalmanach in 1797 — are here 
joined on as s3rmbolical insects to the real insects who 
were swarming on the Brocken. 

4307. Friedrich von Hennings had published in his Journal, 
Genius der Zeit, an indignant protest against the 

431 1. Dlufagei {i.e, * Guide of the Muses ') was the name of a 
Journal also conducted by Hennings (1798-99), 
which was the rival of Schiller's Musenalmanach^ 

43 1 5 -43 1 8. These verses, also, were aimed at Hennings. 

43 1 7-43 18. The meaning is, 'There is as much space on the 
Blocksberg as on Parnassus.* 

4319-4322. An epigram on Nicolai; see above note on 1. 4144. 
Nicolai. seems to have hated Jesuits as well as ghosts. 

4323. By the Crane Lavater is meant, whom Gothe here contrasts 
with Nicolai. Talking to Eckermann in 1829, Gothe 
said : *■ His gait was like that of a crane, for which 
reason he appears as the crane on the Blocksberg.' 

4327. The rDertFtnb ('Woridling') is Gothe himself; cf. 
Gedichtey ii. 269, where he calls himself a IPeltftnb — 
,propt|etc rcc^ts, propl^ete Ilnfs 
X)a$ XPeltfinb in ^er VX\\izxi' 

4331-4338. These verses are descriptive of the stage and what 
takes place there ; but the dancers S3nnbolise the 
philosophers. In the distance is heard the monotonous 
cry of the bitterns {ji,e, the Holjrbommcin), and to 
this music the dancers dance. At one time it was 



believed that these birds produced their strange cry 
by blowing through the reeds in a marsh, and hence 
their nanae — Hol^rbommeln. ,X)ommeIn' for ;HoIjr» 
bommein' is unusual. Hol^rbommel is from M. H. 
G. ,ljorotumbeI' ; in O. H. G. Ijoro = * marsh * ; and 
in M. H. G. tttmmel = * noise,* *din.* 

4335- Itipfen=* to raise a little*; Eng. * to lift.' 
4339-4342. Here I follow Schroer in reading ^tebler* Loeper 
has ^Jtebeler, which can only mean ;JtebIer. Diintzer 
reads ^ibcler, ue, ber ^tbfte, which reading Bayard 
Taylor approves and translates *good fellow.* The 
meaning of the verse is : * How the rabble of philo- 
sophers hate one another, and would willingly put an 
end to one another* (Unb gSb' flc^ gem bas Heji« 
^tVi)\ but the music of the bagpipes unites them, 
as Orpheus* lyre tamed the wild beasts (23eftjen, i.e. 

4343. Next appears the Do^mattll, he does not doubt the 
existence of the Devil in the least, and therefore the 
Devil must be something. 

4347-4350. The ^bealiji is Fichte, who believed that everything 
external - to himself was only a product of his own 
imagination. Once a company of riotous students 
smashed all his windows ; when Gothe heard of it he 
remarked that Fichte might now convince himself, in 
the most disagreeable way, that it was possible * for a 
Not Me to exist externally to the Me.* Anster thus 
translates 11. 4349, 4350 — 

' If I be all that meets my sight, 
Then surely I have lost my senses.' 

4351. Then comes the Healtfl, who infers that all he sees on 

the Blocksberg must be a mere figment of the 
imagination, and is infinitely disgusted. 

4352. ha^ means ,fet{r' here ; obs. it is the positive of beffer. 

4357, 4358. The believer in the supernatural sees in the 
appearing and presence of Devils evidence of the 
existence of spirits, and hence of good spirits. 

4359, 4360. The sceptic or doubter says of the supematuralists : 
'How those treasure -seekers pursue after a little 
flame, after the Will-o*-the-Wisps of superstition. * 



4363-4366. Derffuc^te Ptlettanten. Part of the Orchestra 
have got out of time through the general noise and 
confusion. Cf. 11. 4291-4294 above. 

4367-4370. Die (Seipanbten are the people who go with the 
times, and always accommodate themselves to circum- 
stances, — these Gothe describes as standing now on 
their head, now on their feet. 

4371-4374' X)te Unbei^iilfltc^n are awkward, helpless people, 
the exact opposite to the ,^ewanbtmJ * Once many 
a bit we sponged, — ^but now, God help us ! our shoes 
are worn out, and we run about with bare feet.' 

erfc^ran3en = * gain by flattery*; in the sixteenth century 
and ever since a fawning courtier has been called a 

4375-4382. The Will-o*-the- Wisps and Shooting-Stars (Stem- 
fc^nuppe) represent two exactly opposite classes : the 
former are Parvenus, people who have suddenly 
risen ; the latter are people who have been great, and 
who, through some change of fortune, have fallen. 

4383. Die IHaf jtoen. The heavy clumsy nature of these people 
is such, that even as spirits they trample down the 
grass, and need space around them in order to feel 
comfortable. Bayard Taylor takes them to typify the 

* ignorant, brutal, revolutionary masses. * 

4387. mafttg = * coarse and overfed * ; mSjlett = * to fatten.' 

4388. (Elepljantenf diber = * young elephants.* 

4390. Why Gothe should call purf 'plump,* or ;berb' {ue, 
< coarse,* ' fat *) is strange. Bayard Taylor in a note 
recalls the words of the Fairy to Puck in the Mid- 
summer Night"* s Dream — 

' Farewell, thou lob of spirits ! I'll be gone.' 

However, berb has also the meaning 'smart.* 

4394* HofenfjHgel is the name of the home of the Elves in 
Wieland's Oberon (2, 27 ; 12, 69). 

4398. yXxiXi oSks ip 3erftoben = * and all vanishes.* Here ends 
not only the Intermezzo but likewise the whole 
Walpurgisnacht, Gothe did not originally intend 
(as we learn from the Paralipomena to Faust) the 

* Walpurgisnacht* to have thus ended. There was to 



have been a Scene in which the Devils and Witches 
were to do homage to the Prince of Darkness upon 
the summit of the Brocken : — at midnight the phan- 
toms were to vanish, and the whole was to end in 
disorder, confusion, and storm. 


This Scene Gothe dictated to Riemer one morning between 
the years 1803- 1806. It must, however, have been in exist- 
ence long before, since in Wieland's life we read, that when 
he (in 1796) read the Faust Fragment, he expressed surprise that 
it did not contain the passage wherein Faust becomes so furious 
that even Mephistopheles is terrified at his violence. The 
Scene is in prose. Faust has just learned that Gretchen, home- 
less and in despair, had fled from justice, had been captured, 
and had been cast into prison. 


5. 3^ (Elcnb = * In misery ' ; the original meaning of 

,<2Icnb' is ;21uslanb,' /.<?. * exile,' * homelessness * ; cf. 

,5tretfen nicbt f^crrltc^e manner t)on t^o(|cr (Seburt 

nun tm €Ienb' {i.e, 2luslanb). — G6the, as cited in 

GrimnCs Wbrterbuch. 

7. ctngefperrt, Mocked up,' *shut up.' 

8. 23t5 bal^tn, ue, * To this it has come.' 

II. ingrimmenb, i.e, 3ti$nmm i|abenb. The word is not 
found anywhere else. 3^9^^^^ ~ * violent anger.' 

22. bu unenbltc^er (Seift; the appeal to God here is won- 

derfully impressive. 

n)anble \itx^, IPurm iPteber ; obs. the alliteration here. 

23. ^unbsgejialt. Mephistopheles had appeared to Faust 

first of all as a dog. We learn from this line that 
Mephistopheles used occasionally afterwards to assume 
a dog's form, — a detail which is taken from the Faust 

ndd^tltd^er IDctfe, gen. case; translate 'darkly'; but 
Diintzer here suggests what, I think, would be a 
better reading — ndd^tltc^er ZPetIe=*in the night- 



25, f odern = * to crawl.* 

26. ' And fasten on his shoulders, as he falls.' 

33 . in fetner tPinbenben Cobesnotlj = * in her agonising pain. ' 
Cf. in M. H. D. ,mtt tpinbenbcr Ijant' (^'.<f. ,tnit 
frampftjaft gerungener fjanb')» Gudrun, 906, 919, 

42. Drangettsbrdngien. Cf. above notes to 11. 495, 2722. 

45. * Don't grind thy greedy teeth at me.* 

57. * I cannot loosen the avenger's fetters,* i.e. *the avenger 
of blood ' ; ,So fc^nett als bie Had^c hts HSc^crs ' is 
a phrase used by Lessing. 

79. Cljttmer {i,e. * gaoler ') is the old form of Cl^iirtner ; the 
M. H. G. form is Orner; cf. Eng. */«r«-key.* 


4399. tPebett; as above, 1. 15, means here * to be busied about.' 

Habenftetn = *a walled-in place where the gallows stood,' 
so called because ravens used to swarm there. The 
raven is called a gallows bird. Cf. 
,T>\t Haben 5iet}en frad^jenb sumal 

ChamissOt i. 202. 

Byron probably remembered the phrase * ravenstone,' 
from Shelley's oral translation, when he wrote, in a 
rejected chorus of his play, The Deformed Tratts- 
formed — 

* The raven sits 
On the raven stone.' 

4401. Cf. in Burger's JLenore — 

,S\t\\ ha, flel} ha am Qoc^^eric^t 
^anii um bes Habes Spinbel 
^alb flf^tbarlic^ bei monbenlic^t 
€in luftiges ©epnbel/ 

4402. €ine fjejen3unft=*a company of witches.* gunft is 

related to 3temen (M. H. G. 3emen), as Pernunft to 
©ertteljmen, — it means a company who are bound 
together by a certain law or rule, — ipos ftc^ Uttter 
ilincn 3iemt. 



4403. 'They scatter, devote, and doom.' — Bayard Taylor. 

4404. As to this Scene, it is doubtful whether it ought to be 

printed as prose or verse, as the lines are quite irregular. 
It is a kind of transition stage between the different 
keys of the scenes which precede and follow. 


A prison : Faust with a bunch of keys and a lamp stands 

before a little iron door. 

Schroer is of opinion that this Scene was written as early as 


4408. etn gutcr n?afjn. Faust means her love for him. 

4410, 441 1. * Thy delaying keeps death a lingerer here.' 

4412-4420. The song is founded on the well-known fairy tale 
of the * Machandelbaum ' (see Grimm's Kinder und 
Haus Mdrchen^ Ed. 1837, Vol. I. No. 47 — 

,inan tnober, be mi flac^t't 

nr&n Oaber^ be mi <M, 

man Stpejler^ be Itlorleenifen Gi^tle Marlen), 

5dd}t oOe miine Beenifen (litde bones), 

\Xxs. WxCOi fe in een fitben Doof (silken doth), 

Cegts nnner ben tTladjanbelboom ; 

KiiDitt, Kiwitt, <}A{ xooM en fd?dn Dagel bin id.' 

The story is as follows : — ^The wicked stepmother 
killed her little stepson, cooked him, and set him 
before her husband for dinner, — when the father ate 
him up. The little sister collected the bones and 
buried them under the juniper -tree. The bones 
became a little bird, and it sang this song from the 

4413. Die is used for {te^ and in 1. 4415 '^zt is used for er. 

4415. geffen=gegeffen. See notes to 11. 2837, 2838. 

4423. Margaret knows that on the next morning she is to be 
put to death, — she thinks the executioners have come 
to fetch her. 

4431. gcnung for gcnug, as above, 1. 3572. 

328 FAUST. .PART I. 


4440. metn (Ea9e=metn £eben, or metn Cebetage, as above, 
I 2791. 

4443. Margaret thinks in her madness that she still holds her 
child in her arms. 

4448-4450. Margaret is thinking of old tales about the murder 
of children, and adds, * Who told them I was meant 
in these ?' 

4453. Faust kneels to her, and Margaret thinks he is praying. 

4459. <5ei3fe = * mad din. ' 

4460. Faust has heretofore spoken in whispers, — he now calls 

her name aloud, and she recognises him. 

4467. ^eulen txnb KIappen= * wailing and gnashing of teeth.' 

4480. ' Oh, stay a little while, I love to stay with thee !* 

4499. • I'll love thee with unutterable love.' — Anster. 

4504. * Dost thou not shudder before me ?' 

4514. She dimly remembers that it is his hand has slain her 

4519. * You are killing me.* 

4520. * You must remain alive.* 

4523. (5Ietc^ morgett; — she means after her execution. 

4535- f<> dttt, fo fromm= *so good and kind.* 

4540 is without a rhyme, so too 4550, 4554> 4556> 4557» 45^0, 

4562, 4563. 4576, 4579> 4582. 
4545' ff^ lauern boc^ mtr auf = * they are lying in wait.* 
4567. * She lays her dead hand on my brow.' 
4576. She speaks passionately, violently, 
4581. She imagines it was to have been her wedding-day. 

4585-4591. * We shall meet again,* — she means at the place of 
execution. She goes on to describe the scene — the 
crowded streets, the tolling of the bell, the breaking 
of the staflf. During the reading of the death-sentence 
the *Poorman*s and Sinner's' bell used to be tolled, 
and after the sentence, in token that life was spent 
and over, the judge used to break a white staflf and 
throw the pieces at the feet of the condemned. 

4591- pa(fen= * to lay hold of.' 

4592. 23Iutftul|I=* scaffold.' 



entriirfen = * to push away.* 

4593. 3ucf en =* to twitch * (O. H. G. 3uc^6n). 

4594. 3UCfen=*to draw forth from the sheath' (M. H. G. 


4595. She imagines the stilhiess of the crowd after her death. 
4601-4604. Cf. Margaret's words, 3493-3500. 

4606. tm Sttc^ Iaffcn = * to leave in the lurch.' 

4608, 4609. Cf. Hamlet's words — 

' Save me, and hover o'er me with your wings, 
You heavenly guards. ' 

Act III. Scene iv. 


Books which I have used in preparing this Edition, 
and which will be found useful by students of Gothe's 

Editions with Notes. — Faust^ Parts I. and II., the 
editions of H. Duntzer, K. Schroer, G. v. Loper ; also, E. J. 
Turner and E. D. Morshead's, and A. Selss* editions of Faust, 
Part I. ; and Faust, ein Fragment, ed. W. L. Holland (the last 
not annotated). 

Translations. — Parts I. and II. — Bayard Taylor's {Trans- 
lation and Notes), Anna Swanwick's, Sir Theodore Martin's, 
J. Anster's, J. Hayward's. 

Language, etc., of * Faust, "^ — Gothe's Sprache und ihr Geist, 
J. A. Lehmann. 

Commentaries. — Vorlesungen iiber Gothe's Faust ^ F. Kreyssig ; 
Hermann Grimm, H. Schreyer, A. v. Oettingen ; Gothe's Faust 
erster u, zter Theil erkldrt, G. O. Marbach ; Neue Bdtrdge zur 
Kriiik des Gedichts, F. Vischer ; Erlduterungen zu Faust, H. 
Duntzer ; The Spirit of Gdthe*s Faust, W. Coupland ; various 
articles in the Gothe Jahrbuch (1880-86); parts of Hettner's 
Literatur-geschichte des \%ien Jahrhunderts. 

Sources. — Uber die Entstehung und Composition des 
Gedichts, K. Fischer ; Versuch einer Geschichte des Volksschau- 
spiels, Wm. Creizenach. 

Gothe's Life. — Gathers Leben, H. Diintzer (excellently 
translated into English by T. Lyster) ; Leben und Schriften, 
K. Godeke ; Aus Gothe's Friihzeit, W. Scherer ; Life of Gothe, 
G. H. Lewes; Gothe (Foreign Classics for English Readers), 
A. Hay ward. 



Two tasks in especial were the care and delight of 
Gothe's old age — ^the working out of Wilhelm Meisters 
Wanderjahre, and the conclusion of the Famt tragedy. 

From August 1824 onwards the idea of the Faust 
poem had again taken possession of Gothe's mind. 
Many incidents, such as the parts relating to Helen, and 
the parts, which now form the beginning of Act II. and 
the concluding Scenes of Act V., had been planned and 
sketched as early as the beginning of the century, — had, 
indeed, been conceived earlier still ;^ but all the rest 
falls into the time immediately after the conclusion of 
the Wandetjahre, — that is, from 1827 onwards. In 
August 1 83 1 the whole was completed, although a few 
touches were afterwards added; and in the following 
March Gothe died. Faust, Part II., was his last work, 
— contains his last thoughts on life and men. 

The Second Part of Faust has been much less read, 
and is much less known than the First Part. Part II. 

1 The plan of Faust, Part 11., was conceived as early as the 
summer of 1775 (see Buch xviii. of Dichtung und Wahrheit, in 
Loeper's edition, Bd. IV., S. 54). In the year 1800 there were in 
existence, besides this plan, three fragments : the beginning of Act 
II., the beginning of Act III., and the conclusion (it may be after- 
wards modiified) of Act V. The conception of the Helena, i.e. Act 
III., Gothe told Knebel (in a letter written November 27, 1827), 
was older than the trees he had planted in his garden on Novem- 
ber I, 1776. 


has not, indeed, the same interest for us that Part I. has : 
it is a history of humanity rather than the history of 
a human being; it is the work of an old man, and 
although the poet's hand has not lost its cunning, yet 
the freshness and strength which breathe from every 
page of Part I. are wanting to it. But, nevertheless, 
Parts I. and II. are bound and joined together indis- 
solubly, — they belong to one another, and make up one 
whole : we have only read one-half of the Faust poem 
if we close the book at the death of Gretchen. 

If it be asked what is the hidden meaning of Part II., 
some such answer as this may be given : after the strong 
power of love, and the awful consciousness that he has 
brought misery and sin and death to a pure and trusting 
girl, have stamped out in Faust every common and 
sensual impulse, his aspirations and efforts turn once 
more distinctly and mournfully towards what is lofty 
and what is great, and continue in intensity of action to 
the end of an unusually long life. Gradually the desire 
to work for the good of others takes possession of him, 
and he dies contemplating a happiness created by him 
for others, and in the sure hope that all the knowledge 
and blessedness which he had dared to aspire to here 
shall be his portion hereafter. 

But this answer is not all-sufficing. As the Wander- 
jahre Wilhelm Metsters is not alone the continuation, but 
essentially the enlargement and the deepening of the 
Lehrjahre^ so, too, Faust ^ Part II., is not alone the 
continuation, but also essentially the enlargement and 
deepening of the conception, the foundation of which 
had been laid in the First Part. Here, as there, we 
have the stepping out from dreamy meditativeness into 
the daylight of active life ; here, as there, we have the 
longing and aspiration after the realisation of a fuller, 
freer, happier existence, — but all this according to a 
vaster, less definite plan. 

In the words with which Gothe, in 1827, accompanied 


the earliest publication of the Helena incident, he speaks 
out clearly as to the motives which guided him in work- 
ing out both parts of the Faust poem. * I wonder,' he 
writes, *that those persons, who have undertaken an 
enlargement and continuation of the Faust Fragment, 
have not come upon the thought that Part II. must 
necessarily raise itself wholly above the earlier troubled 
region, and must, through worthier circumstances, lead 
such a man into higher spheres.' 

And yet only in a limited sense was it Gothe's inten- 
tion to place the hero of the First Part in higher and 
broader spheres. The truth is that in the first four Acts 
of Part II. Faust subsides into the subordinate position 
of a spectator, and that, so to speak, unawares another 
hero, a very ideal a;nd impersonal hero, is set before us. 
If it is the wonderful achievement and charm of the 
First Part that Faust is a distinct and conceivable 
personality, and yet at the same time the typical bearer 
of all the aspirations of the human mind, — in Part II. 
the hero is far rather the idea of humanity or humanity 
itself. In place of the history of Faust we have the 
history of the chief tendencies of human development, 
in place of a tragic drama we have a poetically-treated 
Philosophy of History. 

There is not any doubt that through this enlarged con- 
ception the Faust poem gained in width, gained in depth ; 
but it was a conception that went beyond the limit of 
possible dramatic representation. If the Second Part of 
Faust stands far behind Part I. in poetic strength and 
reality, if it never presses closely and kindly to our hearts, 
if the meaning is obscured through the formlessness and 
superabundance of material, this must not be attributed 
exclusively to the failing hand and failing power of old 
age, but just as much to the nature and the capabilities 
of the subject. Instead of a logical continuous action 
there is only a series of separate pictures and fancies 
loosely strung together, which, as Eckermann once 


expressed it, with Gothe's approval and assent, influence 
one another indeed, but yet concern one another little. 
And instead of the form and fashion, clear and plastic 
and warm with life, which makes Part I., even as a poem, 
one of the grandest of human creations, there is here 
the luxurious growth of an evil habit which had for a 
long time taken root in Gothe's mind, the habit of cloth- 
ing distinct definite ideas and opinions with the symbolic 
dress of mythological traditions, and thus of refining 
away these opinions in weak and shadowy allegories. 

Act I. 

The first Scene of Part II. is like a Prologue to the 
2tnmuti|ige Second Part. We must suppose an indefinite 
^egenb. interval of time to have elapsed between the 
5aufi auf parting of Faust and Gretchen and this open- 
blumigen ing Scene. Neither in his own life nor in the 
Hafen Uyes of his poetical creations did Gothe ever 
gcbcttet. ^j^g space to remorse for irrevocable deeds 
done. When Faust disappears with Mephistopheles, his 
anguish has been suggested to the reader, but we shall 
hear no more of it from Gothe. Faust lets his dead 
past bury its dead. Gothe firmly believed in healthy 
and final recovery fi-om moral as f^om physical sickness : 
the remedial agents were time and nature. He recovered 
from his own sorrows by withdrawing for a while from 
society and giving himself up to the influences of art and 
nature. And this we are to suppose Faust does.- — Up 
to a certain point one goes with Gothe and confesses his 
wisdom. Remorse alone is a poor thing, is weakening, 
is useless : Devils may feel remorse : — while Repent- 
ance, the beginning anew, fresh effort, is a great and 
noble thing. Yet, that grief such as Faust had suffered 
could ever be wholly overcome or forgotten is harder to 
understand ; sin may be pardoned, but it can never be 


The region described at the beginning of the Second 
Part is the country surronnding Lake Lucerne, the natural 
loveliness of which can scarcely be surpassed by any 
scene on earth.^ Faust seeks rest and peace in solitude 
and with nature, and finds both after a time by the 
help of Ariel and the Elves, — beings without any higher 
emotions or moral perceptions, — typical of the healing 
influences of time and of nature. Faust sleeps and 
awakens invigorated for renewed activity and fresh 
effort. At this season Mephistopheles does not venture 
to approach him: Faust has. overcome for a time all 
sensual and earthly desires, and Mephistopheles has now 
no power over him. 

In the next Scene, however, Mephistopheles again 
appears, and leads Faust into the great world 
and to the palace of the German Emperor. ^<»*f«^^*^« 
Here Gothe follows the old legend : because ? A* 
Faust desires to know all that is in the whole tojrones 
world — the whole of life — Mephistopheles 
proposes to him to visit the Imperial Court. Faust 
has been taught what is in man (the Microcosmus), he 
is now to learn to know the universe (the Macrocosmus). 
Faust's spirit shall be overcome through ambition and 
greed of power. In the Scenes in the Imperial Palace 
we have described for us the wretched political condition 
of Germany in Gothe's time. The State declines, and 
grows weaker; the Emperor and his counsellors and 
flatterers are only busied about pleasure and enjoyment : 
— the Revolution is the striving after salvation of the 
oppressed people, and is at the same time only unreason 
and destruction. 

The Emperor appears surrounded by his ministers 
and lords. At first Mephistopheles plays the chief part. 
The Emperor can as little dispense with the daily com- 
panionship of his Fool as of his Astrologer, so Mephisto- 
pheles quite willingly comes forward and offers his services 
* Gothe had visited Lake Lucerne in the year 1797. 


as Court Fool. The ministers bring up reports from their 
various departments, each one more discouraging than 
the other. The great need is money, and Mephistopheles 
suggests ways of supplying this need — first, by digging 
up all the lost treasures which men have hidden below 
the earth's surface ; and secondly, by the introduction of 
paper money. 

The Emperor is a prince who has every faculty which 
can qualify him for losing his realm ; he thinks only of 
himself, and how he may amuse himself from day to day ; 
the Fool and the Astrologer standing on either side of 
his throne are the two officials to whose counsel he is 
most inclined to listen. The land is without law and 
order, the judges themselves accomplices with the 
criminals, and all sorts of crimes are committed un- 
punished ; the treasury is empty, the high steward is in 
the power of usurious Jews, and is more undecided from 
day to day how to supply bread for the Emperor's table. 

The part of the crowd in this Act is evidently imitated 
from the Greek Chorus. The titles of the ministers are 
taken from the mediaeval organisation of the German 
Imperial Court, where titles were hereditary in certain 
princely houses. The financial proposals of Mephisto- 
pheles meet with much favour, but for some reason the 
matter is postponed till after the Carnival, which is now 
fast approaching. 


Not long before this time the Emperor had returned 

from Rome, where he had been crowned by 
Weitlduf. tijg pQpg . jjj j^-^y ijg jj^^ g^gjj jjjg Carnival, 

^^nh ^^^ ^® wishes now to see similar pageants and 

gemaAem spectacles represented at his own Court. Faust 

peraiertu.' arranges the Carnival Masquerade and intro- 

aufgepufet duces the characters. The entire Scene is an 


allegory, and its chief motive is the representa- jur mvmi> 
tion of every conceivable phase — political and mcnfdjanj. 
social — of human life. This is the first con- 
fusing episode in the Second Part of Faust^ and Gothe 
has added not a little to the confusion by introducing 
now and then a double, possibly even a triple symbolism. 
The design of the Carnival Masquerade is similar to 
that of Scene II. in the First Part — the Scene before the 
city gate. The latter gives us a picture of life in a small 
German town — 2l picture of a narrow circle of individual 
characters. The broader sphere into which Faust has 
now entered demands an equally broad and compre- 
hensive picture of human life as it is moulded by society 
and government. We are at first introduced to types of 
various classes of persons to be found in the world, 
or to successive stages in the growth of society symbol- 
ised — garden-girls, gardeners, mothers and daughters, 
wood- cutters, pulcinellas, drunkards, parasites, satirical 
poets : then to the moral elements to be found in 
the world — represented by the Graces, the Fates, the 
Furies : then come the symbols of a wise government 
— Hope, Fear, and Prudence ; next comes Pessimism, 
called here Zoilo-Thersites i^ then Poetry {i,e, the Boy- 
Charioteer, later on in the poem called Euphorion)^ 
appears as the companion of Wealth (Plutus), and 

^ Zoilus, in the third century before Christ, became renowned 
for his venomous abuse of Plato, Isocrates, and Homer. Thersites, 
whom Homer calls atax^rros dv^p, makes himself conspicuous in 
the Second Book of the litad by his ill-temper and violent abuse 
of the Heroes. The two characters combined represent Pessimism 
in its most offensive sense. The Herald touches Zoilo-Thersites 
with his wand, when he changes into two beasts, an adder and a bat. 

^ The Boy -Charioteer is Euphorion ; but Euphorion is not bom 
until Act III. • Euphorion,' said Gothe, • is not a human, but an 
allegorical being. In him is personified Poetry, which is bound 
neither to time, place, nor person. The same spirit, who chooses 
afterwards to be Euphorion, appears here as the Boy-Charioteer, 
and in so far resembles a spectre that he can be present everywhere, 
and at all times.' 



Avarice (der Abgetnagerte) follows on behind. — The 
part of Plutus is taken by Faust, while Mephistopheles 
wears the mask of Avarice : the Emperor appears 
as Pan. The debasing influence of greed and gain, 
and the madness of speculation, are described ; the 
Gemurmel are the Chorus at one time, — at another 
time the Chorus is composed of women : the fauns, 
satyrs, gnomes, and giants are brought in as types 
of the ruder forces of nature, or as types of the masses 
of unthinking, ignorant, rude people, — i,e, the fauns are 
sensualists ; the satyrs, demagogues ; the gnomes, bar- 
barians (rich people greedy of wealth) ; the giants, stupid, 
stubborn ministers and rulers. 

At the end a fire breaks out, and the Carnival closes 
with this catastrophe, in which most critics see Revolu- 
tion symbolised. Because das wilde Heer lacks that 
foresight which comes of intelligence and wider experi- 
ence, it drifts into Revolution without knowing whither it 
is tending. 

After the Carnival Masquerade the Emperor gives an 

audience to Faust and Mephistopheles in the 

upgar en. p^j^^^g garden, in the sunshine. Mephistopheles 

still plays the part of Court Fool, while he represents 
Faust to the Emperor as a great conjuror, whose guide 
and companion he himself is. Mephistopheles, although 
he had postponed until after the Carnival the explanation of 
his financial schemes, had yet, during the Carnival, made 
them fully known to the Emperor and secured his assent 
The deceptiveness of the paper money which the Emperor, 
while in a state of intense excitement and enjoyment, 
had sanctioned, is now humorously, but somewhat cyni- 
cally, set forth. The Emperor, rich in bank-notes, and 
looking forward to the hidden treasures which are soon 
to be his, amuses himself by showering benefits and gifts 
on all around him. Presently, however, he complains of 
the dulness of life, and calls upon Faust to show his 
power as a magician by summoning before him and his 


Court, that same evening, the shades of Paris and 
Helen ; he wishes to see the perfect types of male and 
female beauty. 

In the next Scene Faust consults with Mephistopheles 
in a gloomy gallery as to how he can summon 
back to earth the shades of Paris and Helen ; ^^^ 
but Mephistopheles tells him he has no power 
in the matter ; he has no power in the heathen world ; 
he has nothing to do with art and beauty. Helen is in 
Hades ; he cannot approach to where she is. If this thing 
is to be done, Faust must do it himself; he must go and 
ask die Mutter^ and from them obtain the means of 
summoning up these phantoms. Faust shudders, awe- 
struck at the mysterious word : — 

Faust ,inntterl 
Mephistopheles. ,5c^aubert*S bic^ ? 

Faust. ,nTatter I IHutter I 's Htngt fo tpunbcrltc^ ! 
Mephistopheles. ,T)as tfl es auc^, (SStttncn ungefannt 

€tic^ Sterbltc^en, r)on uns ntc^t gem gcnannt. 
Xia&i tt^rerlPofjnung mag jl ins Cief jie f c^iirf en ; 
Du felbfi biji Sc^ulb, ^a% tl^rer iPtr bebiirfen.' 

LI. 1 604- 1 609. 

Mephistopheles places in Faust^s hand a magic key, 
which will aid him in the discovery of the Mothers, and 
bids him bring back a burning tripod, which will put it 
in Faust's power to summon up the phantoms of Paris 
and Helen. Faust ascends or descends to the Mothers^ 
while Mephistopheles mutters ; 

,tTeugtertg bin tc^ ob er mteber fommt.' 

Who were the Mothers ? We read of certain unknown 
goddesses who were worshipped in Sicily under the name 
of Mothers."^ Like the Furies, when spoken of, they were 

^ In Plutarch's Life of Marcellus he writes : — ' In Sicily there 
is a town called Engyium, not indeed great, but very ancient, and 
ennobled by the presence of the goddesses called the Mothers, The 
temple, they say, was built by the Cretans, and they show some 


styled Eumenides, or well-disposed ; but the mention of 
them was avoided, and their name inspired men with a 
peculiar horror. Gothe had these in his thoughts ; but 
if we go beyond this and look for the hidden meaning of 
the visit to the Mothers^ it would seem intended to ex- 
press the effort by some process of abstraction to find 
ideal Beauty. The Mothers are the unknown, unreach- 
able {unbetretene\ imbeseechable (unerbetene) sources 
of all immortal embodiments of Beauty. All creations of 
beauty, whether lost to the world or still possessed, sur- 
round them. These are immortal. So, too, all noble 
conceptions, once conceived of, even if unrealised, en- 
compass them, — the unuttered thoughts of Plato ; the 
unwritten poems of Homer, Dante, Shakspere ; the 
unchiselled gods of Phidias ; the unfinished Dawn of 
Michael Angelo. 

Like so much of Faust ^ Part II., all that relates to 
the Mothers is pure allegory : with pain and effort Faust 
attains to them and finds, by their aid and counsel, 
ideal Beauty, — so the salvation and renewal of fallen 
humanity is only to be gained out of what is most 
earnest, most deep, most ideal, and is to be won, as is 
declared still more distinctly in the last Scenes of Part 
II., not through hasty, hurried superficialness, but through 
earnest moral exertion and labour. 

In brightly-illuminated halls — ^marshals, chamberlains, 
pages, courtiers, and Court ladies await Faust^s 
^te sale ' J^eturn with impatience. Apparently Gothe had 
meant to introduce a little drama here, as 
Shakspere does in Hamlet^ but he changed his pur- 
pose, and all that the Emperor and his Court are shown 
are living pictures of Paris and Helen. Faust returns 
from visiting the Mothers^ in a priest's dress, and 

spears and brazen helmets transcribed with the name of Meriones 
and of Ulysses, who consecrated them to the goddesses. ' In later 
times the Mothers have been identified with Demeter and Persephone, 
but whether Gothe was aware of this is, I think, doubtful. 


crowned, bearing a tripod. The mysterious Htttersaal: 
music, the ringing of the shafts and triglyphs, ^^"«n«r"^e 
the singing of the whole bright temple, prepare ^^^^^9- 
us for the coming of the highest ideal of Beauty. The 
shades of Paris and Helen pass over the stage : together 
they are typical of the highest and purest physical em- 
bodiment of the idea of Beauty — the human form ; 
Helen alone becomes afterwards the symbol both of 
Beauty and of the classic element in Art and Literature. 
Some of the courtiers and Court ladies pronounce them 
beautiful, some cannot discover wherein their much- 
praised beauty consists, — just as happens amongst our- 
selves when we sometimes catch glimpses of perfect 
beauty, or wisdom, or goodness, and pass by unheeding. 
New feelings are aroused in Faust by the sight of 
Helen's beauty : 

,Dte IDoIiIgejIalt, btc mtc^ poretnfl en^iicfte, 
3n gaubcrfptegclung bcgliicfte, 
VOat nut eitt Sc^aumbtlb fofc^er Sc^onc I — 
Du btft's, ber tc^ btc Hegung aller Kraft, 
Den 3«I>^3i^tff ber £etbcnfc^aft, 
Dir Heigung, £tcb', ^nbetung, IPaljnftnn soUc.'^ 
Fausf, Part IL Act I. U. 1883-1888. 

^ This passage contains one of the few references to the First 
Part which we find in Faust, Part II. — ^The reader will remember 
Marlowe's description of Faust's rapture when he first is shown 
Helen : 

• Was this the face that launched a thousand ships, 
And burnt the topless towers of Ilium ! 
Sweet Helen, make me immortal with a kiss. 
Her lips suck forth my soul ! see where it flies ; 
Come, Helen, come, give me my soul again. 
Here will I dwell, for heaven is in these lips, 
And all is dross that is not Helena. 

• . • • 

Oh ! thou art fairer than the evening air 
Clad in the beauty of a thousand stars ; 
Brighter art thou than flaming Jupiter, 


Faust has seen his Ideal. His joy, his yearning, rises 
to a burning desire, to a resolution so powerful that 
nothing can intimidate it. Again the old, passionate 
blood seethes, although now warmed by a nobler fire. 
He endeavours to seize Helen, and to retain her by 
violence. The impetuous rash attempt to win at one 
blow as a permanent possession that which has only 
been revealed in a fleeting glimpse, fails, like his former 
attempt, through that eternal law, which only gives the 
most precious gifts in return for labour and patience. 
The apparition of Helen vanishes, and in the abrupt 
reaction we see him, who would fain be superhuman, 
lying senseless on the earth. The first assault of his 
ambitious claim has been resisted, but his resolution 
remains irrevocable. He is humbled when he remem- 
bers how he is lowering his human faculties by employ- 
ing them in furthering Mephistopheles' schemes : hence- 
forth he will abandon all that is unworthy, and continue 
his pursuit of perfect Art and perfect Beauty. 

Act II. 

In the second Act of Part II. we read of the Becom- 
ing {das Werden) and the Growth of Nature 
w6lbtes ^^^ °^ ^^^ Human Intellect. Two subjects in 
enacs ' especial are put prominently forward : the 
gotifcl?cs creation of the Homunculus, or undeveloped 
gimmer, Man, and the classical Walpurgis Night. The 
ctjemals Homunculus represents the desire of the still 
^auflens, unformed for form, the sighing of what is as 
unoeranbert. y^^ ^j^jy thought for existence and reality. The 
Homunculus, therefore, vanishes after the first great 
revolutions of earth and of history come to a firm, duly- 

When he appeared to hapless Semele ; 
More lovely than the monarch of the sky 
In wanton Arethusa's azure arms.' 

The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus, Act V. Sc. iii. 


proportioned settlement. The classical Walpurgis Night 
is the symbolical representation of primitive history, of 
the universe, and of divine things, according to Gothe's 
conception of them. 

Mephistopheles comes back to Faust's old study, — ^the 
high-vaulted gloomy room where we first came to know 
Faust. Wagner is now a celebrated and honoured 
teacher and lives in Faust's house ; but Faust's room he 
holds sacred and keeps unchanged, awaiting his master's 
return. Mephistopheles takes down Faust's moth-eaten 
old cloak from the hook, wraps himself in it, seats him- 
self in Faust's chair, and rings a bell. Wagner's 
famulus opens the door and looks in just as Wagner him- 
self would have done in past days. Mephistopheles 
sends him to bring Wagner, though the famulus hesi- 
tates about disturbing him (so engrossed is he in some 
great work), and while he is away the Student whom we 
have known in Part I., now called Baccalaureus, enters. 
He has proved an apt scholar of Mephistopheles, and 
has developed into a cynical, irreverent, dogmatic man.^ 
Next enters Wagner, bringing a phial containing chemi- 
cal substances, out of which he hopes to produce a man. 
Presently Homunculus is produced, or evolved within 
the phial, and proceeds to describe the visions which 
he sees of the beauty of art, of women, and of nature. 
A curtain is drawn aside, and Faust is discovered asleep, 
and Homunculus offers to guide Faust and Mephisto- 
pheles to Greece into the midst of the classic Walpurgis 
Night, into the midst of Greek culture, and art, and 
beauty. Mephistopheles at first demurs, but presently 
consents to go when he hears that he shall also meet 
witches on the classic Walpurgis Night. Faust goes 
because he hopes to find Helen. 

The general object of the visit to Greece on the Wal- 

^ Gothe, when questioned by Eckermann, said he did not direct 
his satire against Fichte, or any class of ideal philosophers, but 
personified in Baccalaureus the arrogance peculiar to youth. 


purgis Night is that Faust shall see objects which he 
has before known only in description and imagination, 
in which, nevertheless, all his feelings and emotions are 
absorbed. If Helen is the impersonation of beauty, if 
beauty is the embodiment of all that is perfect, then 
every desire and emotion should have been satisfied by 
its attainment. All that is most refining and refined and 
elevating in ancient art and ancient poetry is here in 
symbol oflfered and given to Faust, and fails to satisfy 
him, just as in Faust ^ Part I., all the revelry and sensu- 
ality and wild boisterous pleasures of the Gothic Wal- 
purgis Night had failed 

The Scene is at first the Pharsalian Fields on the 
banks of the Lower Peneios, Three different 
Klafj^fdjc groups represent three different stages of de- 
u?aipurgis« yelopment : the first group represents the 
? n* chaotic confusion of wild and violent natural 
5clber forces, here symbolised by griffins, ants, pigmies, 
and sphinxes ; the second group announces 
the entrance of Man, symbolised by nymphs and heroes ; 
the third group declares on the one hand the birth of 
Knowledge, symbolised by Thales and Anaxagoras — one 
of whom seeks to explain the existence of the earth as 
the work of Neptune, the other as the work of Vulcan, 
— and on the other hand the birth of Art, symbolised 
by the Telchines,i the Dorids, and the marvellous form 
of Galatea. 

There is often a double allegory in these strange 
scenes. As the whole is a symbolical representation of 
primitive history — so in the Griffins, with the legs and 
claws of a lion, their breasts covered with black down, 
their eagles' wings, their fiery eyes, their horses' ears, 
their fish-like fins, their harsh, gruff voices — we are to 
see Persia and the Persians ; the Sphinxes represent 
Egypt ; the Sirens, Greece ; the Colossal Ants, the huge, 

1 The Telchines were supposed to be the first workers in metal. 


gold-burying Ants of India ; while the Arimaspians, who 
plunder the hoarded gold of the Ants, represent a one- 
eyed Scythian race. 

But the Scenes are, beyond all else, descriptive of 
Greek heroic history and poetry, — here are the Lamiae, 
named after Lamia, daughter of Belus and Libya, loved 
by ZeuSji who, after her son had been killed by Here in 
her jealousy, had become the robber and devourer of 
children ; here is Cheiron the Centaur, the master of 
Hercules, Achilles, Jason, and Theseus ; here is Manto, 
typical of poetic Inspiration, the daughter of Aesculapius. 2 
Manto it is who speeds Faust on his way down the dark 
pathway that leads to Persephone, who alone can bring 
him to Helen. How Faust fares with Persephone, what 
words he spoke to her, is not told us. * Faust's speech 
to Persephone,' writes Gothe, 'spoken to awaken her 
pity, so that she may give back Helen to life — what a 
speech this must be, since even Persephone herself is 
moved to tears by it.* — Then other strange beings are 
met with : Seismos, the personification of an earthquake 
(<r€«r/Aos yrjs) ; the Cranes, who saw Ibykus slain ; a 
monster, named Empusa, the one-footed (l/xTrovo-a),^ be- 
cause her other foot was an ass's foot ; a Vampyre, and 
so on. 

Next follows a curious discussion between Homunculus, 
Anaxagoras, and Thales, as to whether the universe had 
been produced through the action of Fire or of Water ; 
and later on is described a meeting between Mephisto- 
pheles and the Phorkyads. The Phorkyads are the three 
daughters of the sea-god Phorkys, and sisters of the 

^ I prefer to use the Greek forms of classical names, — but in 
cases where Gothe has put the Latin forms I have thought it better 
to do so likewise. Gothe is not, however, always consistent, — e.g. 
in one page he writes Aesculapius, and a few pages later Perse- 

2 Gothe has wilfully taken Manto from blind Tiresias, ' prophet 
old,' whose daughter she was, and given her Aesculapius as a father. 

^ See Aristophanes, Frogs, 1. 293. 


Gorgons — beings on whom neither sun nor moon has 
ever shone, possessed of only one tooth and one eye 
between them. Mephistopheles, even, is terrified by 
their horrible appearance. The outward semblance of 
one of these he borrows, she becoming for the time 
absorbed into her two sisters, while he goes to Sparta, 
to the palace of Menelaus, to await Helen's return. 

The Scene changes to the shores of the Aegean 
Stlshndiim Sea. Homunculus, still imprisoned in Wagner's 
bes Utq&u glass phial, longs for free existence, and comes 
fdfcn to Nereus, the Prophet, son of Pontus, for 

meers. counsel. Nereus reviles the ambitions and 
aspirations of men : — 

, Stub's incnf(^en*pttnmcn, bte metn 0t|r Derntmmt? 
Wk es mtr gletc^ tm ttefftcn JJer3en grimmt I 
(Sebtlbe, jlrebfam, (55tter 3U errcid^en, 
Vinb bod^ oerbammt jlc^ immer felbft 3U gletc^en I' 

Act II. 11. 3482-3485. 

He refuses his help, because he is hastening to the 
festival of the Nereids, his daughters ; so he sends 
Homunculus to the restless, ever-changing Proteus, who, 
if any one can, will be able to tell him where to seek, 
and how to find, a new form and shape. 

Then pass by the Sirens (who are the Chorus of the 
Classische Wcdpurgisnachi)^ the Nereids, the Tritons, 
the Kabiri (divinities worshipped on the north-western 
coast of Asia Minor), the Telchines, water-gods, and the 
teachers of Poseidon, and the Pselli and Marsi, names of 
Italian Snake-charmers, whom Gothe here represents as 
Water-spirits. Presently we come upon Thales, Homun- 
culus (still inside the glass phial), and Proteus in the dis- 
tance. Proteus persuades, and bears Homunculus away 
on his back to the wide sea. Here he sees Galatea pass 
by in her car of shell drawn by Dolphins.^ Gothe did not 

^ The description here is of a beautiful picture of Galatea driving 
over the sea, by Raphael, in the Villa Famesina in Rome. 


wish to introduce any of the Olympians in the Classical 
Walpurgis Night, so he makes use of Galatea, Nereus' 
daughter, instead of Aphrodite, as representing Beauty. 
Homunculus, in a rapture of love for Galatea, dashes 
himself against her shining car ; the glass phial is broken, 
and his light and life scattered and extinguished. 

It is, however, possible that Gothe does not mean 
Homunculus to have been utterly lost, and possible that, 
without his liberation, the subsequent progress of Faust, 
through beauty and art to action, would not have been 
realised. It is conceivable that Homunculus becomes 
Euphorion ; but I do not venture to assert this. 

Act III. 

The parts relating to Helen, though dating from the 
early years of the century, were completed and 
rewritten between the years 1824-26. G6the ^«'^«^ 
sent the beginning to his friend Sulpiz Bois- ^^^^^ ^^ 
serde ^ to read : * The cast from the model I ^^^^^ 
have so long studied,' he wrote, *is suc- 
cessful, yet there is no end to the chiselling and per- 
fecting. May the entrance into the porch give you 
pleasure ! it gives, at least, a foretaste of what is to 
follow, even if much that is mysterious is contained in 
it,' Boisser^e read the beginning with delight ; to 
make the legend of Faust's desire to possess Helen of 
Troy represent the yearning of modem culture, and, 
above all, the yearning of the poets of modern times for 
classical art and beauty, he esteemed a thought as bold 
as it was beautiful. And, indeed, the Helena Scenes of 
Faust ^ Part II., belong to the highest regions of Poetry. 

Helen and the Trojan Maidens, one of whom is 

^ Boisserde (bom in 1783) was the son of a wealthy merchant in 
Koln, and a distinguished student and collector of works of art 
Gothe first came to know him in 1810-11. 


named Panthalis, stand before the palace of. Menelaus 
in Sparta — ^the palace which had been built by Helen's 
father, Tyndareus, near to the temple of Pallas Athene. 
About to enter her home again, Helen wishes to leave 
the past behind her, with all its failings and all its sins. 
She is represented as innocent, as the victim of fate, as 
robbed by violence, as one who has suffered unspeakable 
woes. The Chorus of Trojan Maidens seek, by praising 
her all-conquering beauty, to cheer her and chase away 
her sad thoughts. But Helen sinks into gloomy melan- 
choly when she recalls Menelaus' parting words to her ; 
she dreads lest Menelaus may avenge on her all that the 
Greeks have suffered at Troy ; she remembers how he 
has bidden her prepare everything for a sacrifice, and 
has not named the victim : 

Helena, ,So 'bdwxi erf olgte bes ^errn f ernercs ^errfc^ennort : 
XPcnn bn xmx^, Mes nac^ ber (Drbnung burc^gefct^en; 
Dann ntmm fo manc^en Dreifufs, als "^m notljtg glaubfl, 
Unb mand^erlei (ScfSffe, bte ber 0pfrer ft<^ 
^ur ^anb perlangi, non5tei{enb t^eifgen jejlgebrauc^. 
Pie Kejfel, anc^ bte Sc^alen, iPie bas fac^e Hunb ; 
Das reinfte IDaffer aus ber t^etl'gen Quelle fei 
3n I^otjen Kriigen ; ferner (xyxi\ bos trocfne JJ0I3, 
Der ^Jlamme fc^nell etnpfdnglic^, \oXiz \i<x. bereit ; 
(Ein tpolgefc^ltffnes UTeffer fettle nt(^t 3ule^t ; 
Doc^ attes 2Inbre geb' t^ betner Sorge ^(m^ 
5o fprac^ er.' 

Act III. 11. 3956-3966. 

Helen next enters the palace, and there, cowering by 
the hearth, she sees Phorkyas, ugliness personified, whose 
form Mephistopheles has assumed. She comes back in 
terror and tells the Chorus and their leader, Panthalis, 
what she has seen ; and presently Phorkyas herself 
appears on the threshold. Then follows an angry dia- 
logue between the Chorus and Phorkyas ; they shrinking 


from her unsightlincss, declare her to be a daughter of 
Phorkys, near akin to the Gorgons, and finally assert 
that the spirit of evil is hidden within her ; she reproaches 
them with their uselessness, their shamelessness, and 
their want of virtue. Helen steps between and puts a 
stop to their quarrelling, and then Phorkyas tells how 
she, when Menelaus warred in Greece, had been left as 
stewardess of the palace and guardian of the home which 
Helen had deserted ; and with a kind of devilish delight 
summons up all the past before Helen's mind, and tells 
over the names of the heroes who have loved her — The- 
seus, Patroklus, Menelaus, Paris. When the past is thus 
recalled to her Helen becomes dazed and confused^-r-is 
the present real ? or is the past real ? is she innocent, 
as she feels herself to be ? or is she guilty ? Phorkyas 
goes on to tell how Achilles, from the land of shades, 
burning with love for her, had made her his. Helen 
answers : 

,Z<^ ^fs 3boI, tl^m bcm 3boI vtxhanb id^ mxdf, 
<Es iDar tin Craum, fo fagen \a bie IDorte felbft. 
3c^ fc^minbc l^tn, unb loerbe felbfl mtr etn 3^oI.' 

Act II. 11. 4267-4269. 

and then faints away. 

The Chorus speak wrathfully to Phorkyas : instead of 
speaking kindly words of comfort, instead of bringing 
Lethe's sweet dews of forgetfulness, she has raked up 
evil only from the hoarded records of gone -by times. 
Let her be silent, that the soul of Helen, ready to fly 
away and escape once more to the land of shades, may 
yet remain. Helen recovers, and again takes her stand 
among the Trojan Maidens. Up to this, through his 
unchanging desire of making others miserable, Mephisto- 
pheles has bewildered and terrified Helen ; but now, 
mindful of his purpose of wedding her to Faust, he speaks 
to her in another strain — speaks of her all-surpassing 
beauty, says how he himself is conquered by it — asks 


her to say what her will is, and she shall at once be 
obeyed. Helen, speaking with queenly dignity, says 
her will is to complete the sacrifice which Menelaus, her 
lord, has commanded. Phorkyas says, all is ready — 
tripod, axe, water, incense. But where, Helen asks, is 
the Victim. She herself, Phorkyas says, is to be offered. 
Her maidens too shall die ; they shall be hung aloft 
like snared birds fluttering along a line. Helen has 
foreseen this fate, but the Trojan Maidens stand turned 
as it were to stone by her words : 

,<5Ieic^ erjiarten Btlbern flel^t tt^r ba, 

(Sefc^retft pom Cag 3tt fc^ciben.' 

LI. 4318, 4319. 

Phorkyas says there is one way of escaping death : in a 
castle near at hand, in a mountain valley, dwell a bold, 
heroic race ; their leader is Faust ; if Helen will put 
herself and her maidens under his protection, they will 
escape the wrath of Menelaus. Helen hesitates, but in 
the end consents, and she and her maidens are conveyed ^ 
concealed by mist and vapour, to Faust's castle. 

Faust appears on the castle steps to receive them, — 
with a long train of pages and squires, in the 
Bttrgbof dress of a mediaeval knight, he descends slowly 
umgeben ^^^ with dignity. The leader of the Chorus 
von reid^en describes the grace and nobleness of his appear- 
pljantap* ance, his 

Mubmbis /♦ . ' IPnnbernstPiirbige (Seflalt, 

mittciai* €rl^abnen 2Infianb, Itebettstperti]e (Segentoart.' 

tcrs. LI. 4570-4572. 

Faust and Helen speak together ; he kneels to her, does 
homage to her, and speaks words of love : 

Helena, ,3^ \v^^t mtc^ fo fern unb boc^ fo nQk{, 

iXv^ fage nur 5U gem : T>(x bin ic^ 1 Da I 
Faust, ,3d^ atfjme faum, mir 3tttert, jiocft \>(xs XPort, 
<Es tfl ein (Eraum, perfc^tpunben Cag unb <Drt. 


Helena, ,3^ fc^ettte mir ocrlcbt ViX(b bod^ fo neu, 
3n bid^ ocripebt, betn Unbefannten treu, 
/«i/j/. ,Durd^grubIe nic^t bas ctn3tgjie (Scfc^tc! I 

Pasein ift pf[id?t, unb tpSr's ein ilugenblicf ♦' 

LI. 4799-4806. 

Presently Phorkyas hurries in to tell that Menelaus and 
a great army are approaching to put an end to their 
bliss — rejoicing as ever in the misery the news will 
cause : 

,Hiiflet cnc^ 3U f^erbem Streit I 

Pon ber Siegcrfc^aar umiPtmmelt, 

lX)te Dciptjobus pcrjiiimmelt 

Biigcp \^\x bas (Jraungeleit. 

Bammcit crft bie letc^te tDaare, 

Diefer gletc^ tft am 2IItare 

tleugefc^Itffnes Beil bcreit.' 

LI. 4816-4822. 

Sounds of war are heard, and the army of Menelaus 
marches across the scene. Faust conquers ; he distri- 
butes lands and rewards to his followers, and settles 
down in happy married life, in Arcadia, with Helen. 
Here a child is bom to them, Euphorion,^ who 
is meant to typify the union of classic and ^in elner 
modem Art and Poetry. In his naked beauty, ^^^ ^^"^ 
his pranks, and his sportive, wilful ways, ^^|^^^^^* 
Euphorion suggests the classic myths of Cupid ^l ^JlTJ' „ 
and the child Mercury, as well as the greater ^^ caubcn. 
freedom of the Romantic School. It has been sd^attigcr 
suggested more than once, and with great prob- ^aln bis 
ability, that in the Boy-Charioteer, in Homun- an bie 

^ In the Faust Legend Faust has a son by Helena, to whom he 
gives the name of Justus Faustus. In an ancient Gredc myth Helen 
bears a son to Achilles (recalled from Hades) on the island of 
Leuke. This son, bom with wings, was called Euphorion (the 
swift or lightly wafted), and was slain by Zeus. Gothe imites the 
two stories. 


rings um» culus, and in Euphorion, Gothe describes for 
gcbcnbe yg different periods and phases of his own life 
M^nfictle ^jjj development : first, his relations with Court 
^ "*^"' and official life ; then his first acquaintance 
with the spirit of Classic Art, and his strivings after a 
purer and higher existence ; and last, the regeneration 
of his nature in his greatest works. But Gothe himself 
said, in 1827, that in Euphorion he represents the spirit 
which he had found embodied in Byron — that restless, 
mysterious, ever creative quality which Gothe called 

The Chorus entreat Euphorion to linger with them in 
the peaceful Arcadian land of poetry. Faust and Helen 
urge him to stay : 

,lCaum ins %thtx\, etngcrufen, 

^etterm (Eag q;tq,^zn faum, 

Sef^ncp bu ron Sc^minbclftufen 

Di4 3tt fc^mer3enuonctn Haum, 

Stnb \>zxixi xo\x 

(5ar nic^ts Dtr ? 

3ji bcr tjolbe 'Syxx(b etn Craum?' 

LI. 5265-5271. 

In vain. Euphorion will not stay with them in a quiet 
peaceful home on earth ; he soars upwards and onwards, 
where destiny and death await him ; his wings are 
scorched by the sun's heat, and he falls at his parents' 
feet and dies. His voice is heard from beneath : 

,£a§ mic^ tm bufiern Hetc^, 
UTutter mtc^ nic^t alleine.' 

LI- 5293. 5294- 

The Chorus now sing four stanzas, in which all alle- 
gory is thrown aside — the dirge is a lament not for 
Euphorion, but for Byron : 

Chorus, ,Htd^t aUctn I— too bu auc^ iDeilep, 
l>zxvx xo\x glauben bic^ ju fennen. 


Tldf I wtnn bn bent (Cag enietlef^, 
VOxxb fetn ^erj von bit fic^ trennen. 
IDiigten tPtr bodj faum 5U flagen, 
tleibenb fingen iptr bexn £oos : 
Dtr in flat nnb ixnhtn ^^tn 
£teb nnb JXlnt^ wax fc^dn unb grog. 

,lldi I 3um €rbenglft(f geboren, 
^ofjer 2Hnen, groffer Kraft, 
Ceiber, f riit^ bir felbft oerloren 
3ugenbblut^e ipeggeraf i ; 
5(^arfer 3Iicf bit VOelt 5U fc^auen, 
UTitfinn jebem ^erjensbrang,. 
£tebesg(iiti{ ber beflen ^Jrauen 
Unb ein eigenfler (Sefang. 

,l)od^ bn ranntcjl unaufljaltfam 
^rci ins wtHenlofe He^ ; 
So engtDeitefi bn geoaltfam 
Dic^ mit Sitte, mit (Sefe^ ; 
Doc^ Snieftt bas f^oc^jic Stnnen 
(5ab bent reinen XTtntl^ (Semid/t, 
IDonteji ^crrlid^es geu>innen 
2lber es gelang bir nic^t. 

,Wem gelingt es ?— (Erfibe ^Jrage, 

Der bos Sc^itf fal fic^ permnmmt, 

IDenn am ungliirffeligften Cage 

BIntenb aUes t)olf perjhimmt. 

Do(^ erfrifc^et neue £ieber, 

Steljt nxdit ISnger tief gebeugt I 

Denn ber 23oben 3eugt jte wieber, 

VOk von je er jie ge3eugt.' 

LI. 5295-5326. 

Then follows the death of Helen : 

,§erriffen iji bes £ebens n?ie ber £iebe 3anb ; 
23ejammernb Beibe, fag' ic^ fc^mer3lic^ £eben?on 

2 A 


Unb iDerfe mxdi nodi etnmal in bte 2lrme bit. 
perfepljoneia ntmm ben Knabcn auf unb mic^.' 

LI- 5329-5332. 

She embraces Faust and vanishes, — only her dress and 
veil remain in his arms. The dress dissolves into clouds ; 
these encompass Faust and bear him away. 

The Chorus of Maidens shrink from following Helen, 
and vanish from sight, dissolved into the elements : 

* Rolled round in earth's diurnal course, 
With rocks and stones and trees.' 

Panthalis alone preserves her individuality and follows 
her Queen to Hades : — 

,XOtx fetnen Hamen jlc^ ertnarb, nod? (Ebles mill, 
<5el|5rt ben (Elementen an, fo f at^ret Ijin I 
irtit meincr K5nigin 3U fein ncrlangt mid? Ijeig ; 
Hic^t nur Perbienft, auc^ Creue XDafyct uns bie perfon.' 

LI. 5369-5372. 

Act IV. 

In May 1827, in his garden at Weimar, Gothe worked 
at his fourth Act, in order to fill up the gaps between 
the Helena and the conclusion, which, as he wrote to 
Zelter,! had been finished long before. Undoubtedly 
the leading thought of the fourth Act is the aesthetic 
bringing up of men and women through Beauty to 
Freedom. As the third Act was an allegorising history 
of Art, so Act IV. was to be an allegorising history of 
politics. But sad to say, the task which Gothe set him- 
self he has not accomplished. Act IV. is to be judged 
according to the intentions of the poet, not according to 
their poetic realisation. Act IV. is the last thing, and 

^ Gothe's friend, Karl Friedrich Zelter, was the Director of the 
Singing Academy of Berlin : he had set several of Gothe's songs to 


decidedly the weakest thing, that G5the wrote : only the 
beginning belongs to the spring of 1827, the remainder 
falls into the first half of the year 1831, — that is, into 
the sad time following the death of his son, and after his 
own recovery from a severe illness. It is made up of 
single unconnected pictures of the wretched condition of 
the old German Empire, — of anarchy, uproar, war, of 
strife between opposing emperors, of unstable, slippery 
misgovemment, and of covetous encroachment on the 
part of the Church. A weary repetition of Act I. 

On the jagged rocky summit of a mountain Faust 
descends out of a cloud, followed presently by 
Mephistopheles wearing the seven - leagued ^***^3**'^ 
boots, — for classic times and manners are left ^^^' 
behind, and we are now back in Germany and MitnaioM 
in the Middle Ages. The scene around leads 
them to talk of creation and geology. All happened 
through the beneficent mild power of nature, says Faust : 
not so, says Mephistopheles, fire was the source whence 
all things came ; it was Moloch^s hammer that linked 
rock to rock, and scattered huge granite fragments over 
the plains. But why, he goes on to ask, has Faust still 
an unsatisfied, impatient air ? Has nothing that he has 
seen in the wide world given him pleasure ? A mighty 
project lures him on, Faust answers ; he will struggle 
with the sea and win back from it some land, and there 
make some men and women happy ; in action, and in 
working for others, he will find his own happiness. 
Mephistopheles tells him he must return to the Court of 
the German Emperor and ask him for a grant of coast- 
land ; but, as the Emperor is at present at war with a 
pretender to the throne, Faust must first go and offer 
the Emperor his counsel and aid. Faust demurs : he 
abhors war, and he understands nothing about warlike 
arts and stratagems. However, Mephistopheles per- 
suades him, and brings him three mighty men to fight 
on his side and form a body-guard. Faust comes to 


the Emperor and fights for him and conquers, aided by 
Mephistopheles' magic. The Emperor gives Faust, in 
recompense for his services, a stretch of sea-coast land. 
The fourth Act closes with a description of the disorder 
and lawlessness of the German Empire in contrast with 
the order and quiet and law which Faust is introducing 
on his narrow tract of reclaimed land. 


And now follows Act V., which belongs, for the most 
part, to the years 1824-26. This Act, like Act IV., 
is as poetry insignificant. It is not a completing of the 
Faust poem, it is only a make-shift roofing over. The 
Faust tragedy must ever remain a fragment, because 
the aspirations of Humanity are eternal and infinite, and 
cannot be compressed into the history of a single man. 
Just because we feel in the first four Acts that the 
personality of Faust has widened and deepened into the 
idea of universal humanity, it is all the more irksome 
and disappointing to us when Faust is in the end driven 
back and narrowed within all the limitations of a declin- 
ing, solitary existence, — when he grows blind, and in 
lamentable aged weakness sinks into the grave. The 
salvation and redemption which humanity, through 
progress, improvement, and enlightenment, shall find 
for itself, if centred in one single existence, can only be 
miraculous, can only be an act of mercy. And Evil, 
instead of being subdued and overcome by the progress 
and enlightenment of humanity, is defeated in the end 
only because Mephistopheles, at the sight of the angels, 
overpowered by sinful desire, lets slip the fitting moment 
in which it was permitted him to take possession of 
Faust's soul. 

Yet we must be careful, because of the insufficient 
realisation, not to overlook the greatness of the ground- 
thought underlying Act V. That which carries this 


iBfth Act on to dramatic expression, and even dramatic 
glory, is the significant reference to the last aims of 
active and creative Idealism, — to the purposeful activity 
and brave diligence of each single man and woman : 

,Dem Cfic^ttgen tjl btefe VOtH ntc^t jhtmm I ' 

This was the first article in Gothe's creed of life. 

The Act opens on Faust's completed work. He is an 
aged man, one hundred years old, living in a 
castle which overlooks a green and fertile ^^!Lk 
land, inhabited by happy, prosperous men and 
women. An unwholesome marsh still remains to be 
drained, and he covets the possession of a sandhill near 
at hand, where is a hovel owned by an old couple, 
Philemon and Baucis, — these have charge of a chapel 
on the downs. Mephistopheles urges him to drive out 
the old people and take possession of the place. Faust 
demurs, and only reluctantly consents, but no sooner 
does he learn that the thing is done, and that Philemon 
and Baucis have been burned out of house and home, 
than he repents : the end attained is good, but he has 
done evil for the sake of good : 

;€s irrt ber HTcnfc^ fo lang cr jhebt.' 

Then four gray figures — Want, Guilt, Care, and 
Death — come to visit Faust in his castle. 
The first three soon leave him, but leave him Jnlttcmadjt 


Faus^, ,Detnc Utac^t, (D Sorge, fc^Ieic^enb gro§, 
3c^ iperbe pe ntc^t anerfennen. 

Sorge, ,(Erfat|rc fie, ipie tc^ gefc^totnb 
niic^ mtt I^eripiinfc^ung von bit wtnbe I 
Pie Iltenfc^en jtnb im gan3en !£ehen hlinb, 
Hun, ^Jaujie, loerbe bn 's am €nbe I 

Fausi (erbltnbet), ,2)te Had^t fc^eint ttefer tief Ijerein* 
2lttein im 3nnern leuc^tet IjeKes Ctc^t ; 


VOas idf ^tbad^i, xdf tiV es 5U cottbrtngen ; 

Des fjerrn Wott es giebt alletn <5etDtd^t» 

Vom £ager auf , itjr lCne(^te I UTann f iir ITlann 1 

£agt glucflid^ fc^auen tpas ic^ fiit^n erfann* 

(Ergreift bos lDer!3e»9, Sc^aufel riiljrt unb Spaten 1 

Pas 2(bgeftecfte mu§ fogletc^ gcratt|en, 

2(uf jlrenges (Dvbnen, rafcf^cn SUi% 

(Erf oigt bcr allerfd^onpc preis ; 

Das jtc^ bas gr3gte lX)er! uoflenbe 

iSeniigt €tn (Seift fiir taufenb fjanbe.' 

LI. 6880-6897. 

While the workmen are employed in the draining of 
the marsh and in the digging of a canal that will 
Porbofbcs ^^"^pl^t^ ^^^ labours, Faust at length recog- 
palafb. nises and acknowledges that through activity 
and brave endeavour and love he has created 
h^PPy> peaceful homes for happy human beings, and 
the feeling of satisfied attainment impels him to say to 
the passing moment, ,Vexwtxh boc^, bu btfl fo fd?5n/ 
and having said the words for which all his life has been 
the preparation, he sinks back and dies. 

Juiust. ,Vinb fo ocrbrtngt . . . 
^tcr Ktnbl^ett; Vfiann unb (3ms fetn tiic^ttg 3al^r, 
Solc^ ctn (SeiPtmmel m3c^t id? fel^n 
2luf frciem (Srunb mit fretcm l>oI!e flel^n. 
§um 2lugenbli(f e biirf t' ic^ fcigen : ^ 
Peripetic boc^, bu btft fo fc^Sn I 
(Hs fann btc Spur tjon metnen €rbetageii 
Htc^t in 2Ieonen untcrgef^n I — 
3m Dorgefii!^! con fold^em l^ol^en (Sliicf 
^ente§' tcf? je^t btn I^od^ften 2(ugenblicf/ 

LI. 6964-6973. * 

^ See Part I. Scene iv. 1. 1700. 


The Chorus of Lemures ^ then lay Faust's dead ,body 

"in the grave, and Mephistopheles and his 

cgung. ^^^j^^jg^j^^ spirits anticipate their hour of 

triumph : 

,Der K3rper Hegt, unb xDxti ber (5cijl entflietjen 
3d? setg' ttjm rafc^ ben blutgefd^riebnen QltteL' 

LI. 6999, 7000. 

Helps mouth opens on the left side of the stage. 
Mephistopheles bids the devils catch the escaping soul : 

,. . . bas Scelc^cn, pfyc^e mtt ben ^Jliigeltt; 

Die rupft tljr aus.'^ 

LI. 7047, 7048. 

The heavenly hosts descend, the angels strewing roses, 
— roses from the hands of women who had sinned but 
who had loved much. The evil spirits are dismayed 
and amazed by the falling roses, and fly and hide them- 

* The Lemures or Remures were with the Romans the shades 
and spectres of the dead. See Hor. Ep, II. ii. 209 ; Persius, 
Saf, V. 185. 

^ On the south wall of the Campo Santo in Pisa are two frescoes, 
which flash back upon the memory as one reads this Scene. 
Gothe had most probably seen them during the Italian Journey, 
1786-88. They belong to the middle of the fourteenth century, 
and they are commonly ascribed to the painters Andrea Orcagna 
and his brother Bernardo. They represent 'The Triumph of 
Death* and 'Hell.' In 'The Triumph of Death,' Death is 
painted as a female demon, passing by the wretched and the sick 
who call upon her, and hurrying on to those who are full of the joy 
of life, and who scorn her. In the midst are a long close line of 
dead people, from whose mouths the souls are escaping, repre- 
sented as naked children. Good and evil spirits descend from the 
clouds and seize on each one as it escapes : 

,Vas ijl ^as Swldjen, pfY<i?e mit ben ^Wdcln/ 

In the ' Hell ' Satan sits in the midst with flames issuing from 
every part of his body : on every side pain and torment, as horrible 
as Dante ever conceived or described, are represented. To the 
left crowds of men and women are awaiting judgment, and what 
struck me much in this picture was the surprise depicted on so 
many faces — among the blessed as well as among the lost. 


selves in Hell. The roses, which are emblematic of 
pure, true love, scorch and sting Mephistopheles : 

EngeL ,V^(xs euc^ ntc^t angeljSrt 
UTiiffet \\x tneiben, 
IDos e«4 ^<JS 3nnre fiort 
Diirft ifjr nic^t letben. 
Drtngt es gen>alttg etn, 
irtiiffen iPtr tiic^tig fein ; 
£tebe nur £tebenbe 
^iit|ret therein.' 

LI. 7132-7139- 

Yet, burning with desire, Mephistopheles draws nearer 
to the angels : 

,(Es ifi mtr fo bc^agltc^, fo natiirlic^, 

2(l5 i{dtt' tc^ euc^ fc^on taufenb mal gefet^n ; 

So t)etmltc^«!d^4^^^^f^ begterlic^ ; 

Ilttt jebetn 3Iicf aufs Heue fd^oncr, f(^on. 

nSIjert euc^, gonnt mtr (Etnen 3Iic!.' 

LI. 7 1 60-7 1 64. 

He is only the more tortured and scorched by the ilames 
of love — of which the roses are the outward visible sign. 
The angels completely surround him and Faust's grave, 
and then rise upward bearing away the immortal part of 

Mephistopheles, left alone, owns himself defeated : 

,iPO pnb fie Ijingesogen ? 
Unmiinbtges Pol!, \>Vi tjaft mtcf? iiberrafc^t, 
Stnb mtt ber 3eute f|tmmeIrpSrts entffogen ; 
Drum \(a\>zxi pe an btefer (Sruf t gcnafc^t I 
2TTtr tfl etn groger c{n3tger Sc^a^ cntipenbet, 
Die \\o\{t Seele, bte jid? mir t)erpfdnbet 
Die f^iiben fte mtr pftfftg tpeggepafc^t.' 

LI. 7212-7218. 

1 iauflens Un^crWic^es. 


Thus it seems as if it is by what men call accident 
that Mephistopheles is finally defeated, — it seems as if 
the angels rescue Faust's soul only because Mephis- 
topheles is engrossed and absorbed by the sensual 
desires awakened in him by their beauty. And yet we 
know that there is no such thing as chance or accident. 
Must it not be Gothe's meaning that evil in its intensity 
defeats itself.** It is the vileness and foulness of Mephis- 
topheles' own nature which cause him to fail. 

The origin of the descriptive parts of the last Scene of 
Fatist is to be found in a fresco, painted by an 
early Italian Master of the Giotto School, on ^^^j^^^ * 
the south wall of the Campo Santo at Pisa : ^els,®n6be. 
the fresco represents the life of some holy ^ciligeJlna* 
anchorites dwelling in the Thebaid, among djoreten 
mountain clefts and rocks. At the beginning gebirgauf 
of the Scene the actors are still near to earth, ^^^% 
but all through we are made to feel that they S^^s^^t 
are rising higher and higher, and gradually ^I'f^^" 
leaving earth behind them : first are seen the 
holy Anchorites dwelling among cliffs and mountain 
gorges ; then the three Fathers, the Pater Ecstaticus, the 
Pater Profundus, the Pater Seraphicus ; then the Choir 
of Blessed Boys, and the angels bearing alofl Faust's 
soul ; then Dr. Marianus, who represents no exact per- 
sonality, but rather devotion to the Virgin Mary, or per- 
fect purity. A little higher the Mater Gloriosa hovers 
over and past, and the choir of women penitents appear 
and kneel before her, among whom are Mary Magdalen, 
the Woman of Samaria, Mary of Egypt, and one for- 
merly called Margaret. Margaret prays ; 

,Hetge, netge, 

l>vi Stral^Ienreic^c, 

Detn ^ntli^ S^Sbrg meinem (Sliicf I 

Der friilj (Seliebtc, 


7Xid}i meljr (Setriibte, 
(Er fommt 3urttcf .' 

LI. 7456-7462. 

A prayer like to, yet how different from, the prayer she 
had prayed long ago : 

Du fc^mer3enrctc^e 

Dein 2(ntli§ gndbtg mctner HotF^.' 

Margaret asks that it may be permitted to her to instruct 
and guide Faust, and her prayer is granted : 

Mafer Gloriosa, ;Komm I fjebe btc^ ju Ijot|ern Spl^dren I 

IPenn er bic^ al^net folgt cr Tta(^.' 

LI. 7481, 7482. 

The words with which the Scene ends set forth once 
again the ground-thought of the whole poem, that Loye 
is the aspiring impulse in men's hearts which draws them 
upwards ; that this life is but a picture of what awaits us 
beyond death, where the aspirations and emotions which 
moved us here shall be realised, where our unresting 
longing for knowledge and for goodness shall find fulfil- 
ment. That which draws us thitherward is Love. 

,2(Hes DergSngltc^e 
3ft nur etn (5Ietd^ni§ ; 
Pas UnjuISngltc^e, 
^ter iDtrb's €retgnt§ ; 
Pas Unbef(^retbltc^e, 
?l\tt tjl es gctt^an ; 
l>as <EiDig»rOeibItd^e 
§tct|t uns Ijtnan.' 

LI. 7491-7498. 

All that he admired or condemned in himself, all that 
he admired or condemned in men, Gothe has hurled into 
the soul of one man, into the soul of Faust ; all the 


feeling of indestructible faith in himself, and the real- 
ised triumph of this faith, his imagination showed him 
now in the conclusion and end of the drama. The 
Faust poem may be accounted the gospel of the redemp- 
tion of man through action. How were it possible to 
think of the Second Part of Faust as something apart 
and isolated? The last phase of Part II. must have 
originated along with Part I. — the putting Mephisto- 
pheles to shame and rebuke, the saving of Faust from 
his grasp, from which suddenly all power to retain is 
withdrawn. Through colossal, real creations prepara- 
tion is made for this salvation. Faust wrestles with the 
sea for a new portion of earth, and makes other men 
and women happy. In the ending of Faust's life we see 
the highest glorification conceivable of human creative 


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